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PEISTED  AM)   PUBLISHED  BY  A.  ,CTON,  AT   THE   CALCUTTA   CESIEAL  PEEES, 
5,   COUNCIL  HOUSE    STEEET.' 


CONTENTS    OF    VOL.    VI. 

1878. 


sXKc 


Nos.  1 — 6. — June. 


A   Revised   List   op  the  Bibds  of  Tenassebim,  by  A.  0. 
Hume  aud  ~W.  Davison. 

Introduction       ...  ... 

Revised  List      ... 

Appendix  I.,  Addenda  et  Corrigenda     ... 

Appendix  II,,  Index  to  localities  referred  to 
Index  to  all  species  referred  to 


1 

497 

522 

i 


PREFACE. 


In  presenting  this  sixth  volume,  the  Editor  has,  as  usual,  to 
make  many  apologies  for  having  done  much  that  he  ought 
not  to  have  done,  and  for  having  left  undone  much  that  he 
ought  to  have  done. 

Clearly  it  is  not  the  correct  thing  to  bring  out  a  whole  year's 
numbers  of  a  magazine  at  once  in  one  volume. 

Still  more  clearly  it  is  extremely  improper  for  the  Editor 
to  fill  that  entire  volume  with  his  own  writings,  keeping  back 
numerous  far  more  valuable  papers  from  contributors. 

"What  is  to  be  said  of  such  reckless  disregard  of  the 
proprieties?  Meliora  videor  proboque,  deteriora  sequort  Cer- 
tainly not !  Simply  that  circumstances  were  too  strong  for  the 
unhappy  Editor. 

Nearly  the  whole  of  this  volume  has  been  in  type  since  the 
1st  of  last  December.  The  Printer  insisted  on  printing  it 
off— Collectors  in  Tenasserim  protested  that  they  must,  and 
would,  have  a  book  on  the  birds  of  the  province  to  help  them,  or 
they  would  leave  off  collecting.  It  seemed  best  to  give  the 
whole  list  in  one  volume,  better  far  than  dividing  it  into 
several.  Even  after  excising  all  about  nidification,  it  fills  an 
entire  volume. 

Nolens  volens,  therefore,  other  contributions  had  to  be  kept 
back,  but  the  publication  of  Vol.  VII  will  commence  at  onee, 
and  probably  during  the  present  and  next  year,  three  volumes 
will  be  published  instead  of  two. 


(    6    ) 

Turning  now  to  this  irregular  volume,  which  must  be  con- 
sidered an  extra  one,  the  Editor  would  earnestly  entreat  his 
readers  to  begin  by  going  carefully  through  the  1st  Appendix, 
Addenda  and  Corrigenda,  and  correcting  by  this  the  errors  in 
the  text.  He  has  taken  the  utmost  pains  with  this  list,  but  the 
indigenous  devil  has  been  too  strong  for  him,  and  the  number 
of  errors  that  have,  despite  the  greatest  care,  escaped  notice 
(some  of  them  entirely  vitiating  the  sense  of  the  passages  in 
which  they  occur)  is  very  grievous. 

,  It  will  be  observed  that  the  form  of  index  has  been  changed. 
Hitherto  two  separate  indexes,  both  of  specific  names  only,  have 
been  given — the  one  of  all  species  mentioned  in  the  volume, 
the  other  of  those  species  only  that  have  been  therein  described, 
or  discriminate  d 

Many  subscribers  have  objected,  first  to  the  double  indexes, 
second  to  these  being  arranged  only  by  specific  names. 

In  deference  to  these  remonstrances,  the  Editor  has  deter- 
mined henceforth  to  have  only  a  single  index,  in  which  every 
species  noticed  will  be  indexed  both  by  specific  and  generic 
names  ;  in  fact  an  index  similar  to  that  appended  to  Count 
Salvador's  Uccelli  di  Borneo,  which  is  the  best  form  of  index 
that  he  has  seen.  He  sincerely  hopes  now  that  no  one  will 
write  to  him  further  on  this  subject,  which  is  a  very  sore  one 
with  him,  as,  unlike  European  Editors,  he  has  to  prepare  every 
index  with  his  own  hands — a  by-no-means  pleasing  relaxation 
for  a  busy  man. 

A.  0.  H.       ? 


STRAY  FEATHERS. 


Vol.  VI.3  JUNE  1878.  [Nos.  1-6. 

%  ftfeeb  fist*  of  tie  §irtis  of  tasserim. 


By  A.  0.  Hume  &  W.  DAVisoN.t 


No  one  can  be  more  alive  than  myself  to  the  painfully  imper- 
fect character  of  this  paper.  It  is  in  fact  merely  a  series  of 
fragments,  intended,  when  pieced  together  with  others  unfortu- 
nately not  yet  available,  to  have  formed  the  groundwork  of  an 
account  of  the  birds  of  Tenasserim. 

Nevertheless,  the  progress  of  our  work  necessitates  its  publica- 
tion in  its  at-present  unavoidably  inchoate  condition. 

More  than  four  years  ago  I  deputed  my  friend  Mr.  Davison 
with  a  small  staff  which,  under  his  able  management,  has  yearly 
increased  in  numbers  and  efficiency  to  explore  Tenasserim  orni- 
thologically,  at  that  time  certainly  the  least  known  of  the 
provinces  of  the  empire  so  far  as  its  avifauna  was  concerned. 

*  For  previous  lists,  see  S.  F.,  II.,  467;  III.,  317  ;  IV.,  223. 

+  Although  I  have  written  the  whole  of  this  tedious  paper,  and  am  solely  responsible 
for  all  its  shortcomings,  I  consider  that  my  friend  Mr.  Davison  is  really  the  author 
of  its  most  valuable  portions.  In  the  first  place  he  and  his  staff  collected  nearly 
19-20ths  of  the  specimens  on  which  it  is  based.  In  the  second  place  it  was  lie  who 
recorded  most  industriously  the  great  mass  of  the  measurements  in  the  flesh,  and  the 
colours  of  the  soft  parts  which  are  so  often  referred  to.  I  find  that  he  himself  did 
this  in  the  case  of  more  than  1,300  specimens.  Those  and  those  only  who  have 
collected  personally  on  a  large  scale  in  a  warm  climate,  and  in  wild,  out-of-the-way 
localities,  where  none  of  the  commonest  necessaries  of  European  life  are  available,  can 
appreciate  the  perseverance  and  endurance  that  the  prompt  and  punctual  record  of 
such  particulars  involves  in  the  case  of  a  man  who  has  been  already  fagging  through 
the  jungle  for  8  or  10  hours,  and  may  have  to  sit  up  half  the  night  to  get  the  bodies 
out  of  his  specimens  before  they  become  putrid.  In  the  third  place  the  entire  sub- 
stance of  what  I  consider  the  most  valuable  portions  of  the  paper,  those  that  relate  to 
the  habits  of  the  several  species,  and  that!  have  placed  in  brackets  with  his  initials 
appended,  is  solely  and  entirely  his,  the  result  of  four  years  of  intelligent  and  un- 
wearied observation. 

It  is  a  real  misfortune  that  he  so  much  prefers  his  gun  to  his  pen,  and  that  we  have 
been  unable  to  be  longer  together.  I  do  not  pretend  to  have  extracted  half  the  in- 
formation he  possesses.  I  scarcely  ever  mention  a  bird  to  him  without  hearing  some- 
thing new  about  it,  but  at  any  rate  I  have  succeeded  in  getting  placed  on  record  a 
great  deal  that  is  entirely  new  in  regard  to  numbers  of  species,  which  scarcely  a  single 
other  competent  observer  has  ever  watched  alive  and  in  a  wild  state,  and  whatever  he 
may  say  he  is  clearly  entitled  to  be  considered,  at  least  joint-author  of  the  paper  in 
which  his  experiences  are  recorded. 


ii  A   REVISED    LIST    OF   THE   BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

Ever  since  then  the  party  has  been  working  there ;  Davison 
himself  at  times  visiting  and  collecting  in  the  Malay  Peninsula 
■with  one  or  two  assistants,  during  the  height  of  monsoon,  or 
joining  me  for  a  brief  period  at  Simla,  to  go  through  the  season's 
work. 

During  this  period  some  8,000*  specimens  have  been  collected, 
and  I  have  received  about  500  more  collected  within  the 
province  by  Dr.  Armstrong,  Captain  Bingham,  Mr.  A.  L. 
Hough,  and  others. 

But  Tenasserim,  even  as  it  stood  when  we  commenced  work, 
bounded  on  the  north  by  the  Pah-choung  or  frog  creek,  and  on  the 
south  by  the  Pakchan,  was  625  miles  in  length,  and  over  70  miles 
in  width  in  many  parts — a  province  of  the  most  varied  physical 
configuration,  embracing  every  conceivable  variety  of  tropical 
and  sub-tropical  vegetation  from  the  dismal  mangrove  swamps 
of  the  coast  to  the  gloomy  pine  forests  of  the  loftiest  mountains — 
a  province,  broken  up  by  innumerable  rivers  and  interminable 
creeks,  traversed  in  all  directions  by  complex  ranges  of  lower 
and  higher  hills — a  province  in  which  an  hour's  walk  may 
take  you  from  the  shimmeriug  velvet  of  the  rice  plains  to  the 
inaccessible  precipices  of  the  limestone  hills,  from  the  feathery 
sea  of  the  bamboo  jungle  to  the  still  recesses  of  the  primeval 
evergreen  forests — a  province,  vast  portions  of  which  were  not 
only  as  yet  unvisited  by  any  European,  but  which  pathless  and 
uninhabited  it  seemed  impossible  to  visit — a  province  teeming 
almost  without  parallel  with  wild  fruit  and  flowers  and  insect 
life,  and  with  an  avifauna  worthy  of  this  glorious  profusion, 
and  this  marvellous  diversity  of  physical  surroundings. 

But  since  we  commenced  work,  administrative  exigencies 
have  led  to  the  still  further  extension  northwards  of  this  large 
province  by  the  incorporation  of  the  district  of  Tonghoo  and 
the  Karendoo  and  Karennee,  the  homes  of  the  red  and  white 
Karens  respectively. 

Clearly,  no  one  man,  however  gifted,  could,  within  any  reason- 
able period  of  time,  achieve  anything  like  an  exhaustive  ex- 
ploration, even  ornithologically,  of  this  enormous  and  difficult 
tract.  From  the  Pah-choung  to  the  Pakchan,  Davison  has 
completed  a  sort  of  preliminary  reconnaissance  (impaired  alas 
by  some  sad  breaks),  sufficient  to  give  us  some  general  idea  of 
the  avifauna  of  these  portions  of  the  province  and  its  distribu- 
tion, while  Lieutenant  Wardlaw  Ramsay  and  Major  Lloyd's 
collections  in  Tonghoo  and  the  Karen  country,  little  as  we  have 


*  Since  this  was  in  typo  Davison  has  brought  up  about  600  more  specimens  chiefly 
collected  in  the  Tavoy  district.  These  will  be  found  referred  to  in  Appendix  I, 
Addenda  et  Corrigenda, 


A   REVISED    LIST    OF   THE   BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM.  Ill 

heard  of  them,*  have  answered  to  some  extent  the  same  purpose 
in  the  portions  not  visited  by  Davison. 

But  general  ideas  are  quite  insufficient  ;  accurate  and 
detailed  knowledge  of  distribution  is  essential,  and  the  time 
has  clearly  come  when,  if  the  work  is  really  to  be  pushed  to  any 
thing  like  a  satisfactory  result,  more  labourers  are  required 
in  Nature's  vineyard. 

Mr.  Davison  has  been  fortunate  enough  in  the  course  of 
his  explorations  to  enlist  the  sympathies  of  many  in  our  work ; 
untried  hands  for  the  most  part,  but  willing  to  become  tried 
ones  if  only  they  can  be  put  to  a  certain  extent  in  the  way  of 
knowing  what  is  wanted,  and  enabled  to  identify  the  birds 
they  meet  with  and  distinguish  those  in  regard  to  which  inform- 
ation is  more  particularly  required  from  those  with  which  we 
are  comparatively  well  acquainted. 

This  is  my  sole,  and  I  submit  not  insufficient,  excuse  for  pub- 
lishing the  fragmentary  list,  which  is  all  that  I  can  yet  offer  of 
the  birds  of  Tenasserim. 

At  present,  something  like  150  of  those  species,  in  regard 
to  which  further  information  is  most  to  be  desired,  are  as  it 
were  beyond  the  possible  ken  of  our  wTould-be  co-operators. 

They  are  not  included  in  Jerdon,  neither  have  they  been  de- 
scribed in  Stray  Feathers.  The  only  descriptions  of  them,  too 
often  meagre  and  unsatisfactory  ones,  are  scattered  through 
old  volumes  of  the  J.  A.  S.  B.  (long  since  out  of  print),  the 
huge  series  of  the  P.  Z.  S.,  the  Revue.  Zool.  and  Rev.  et  Mag. 
de  Zool.,  and  innumerable  other  works,  all  equally  and  utterly 
inaccessible  to  the  sportsman  with  ornithological  predelictions 
posted  in  the  backwoods  of  British  Burmah. 

The  first  object,  therefore,  of  this  present  paper  is,  while 
furnishing  as  complete  a  list  as  possible  of  all  the  birds  known 
or  asserted  to  have  occurred  in  the  province,  to  provide  in  the 
case  of  each  species  not  described  in  Jerdon's  "  Birds  of  India," 
either  a  full  description  or  a  reference  to  some  previous  passage 
in  Stray  Feathers  where  this  already  occurs. 

But  having  placed  our  friends  in  a  position  to  identify  their 
specimens,  it  yet  remains  to  show  them  the  kind  of  locality, 
so  far  as  we  know,  in  which  the  several  species  are  to  be  looked 
for;  which  are  rare,  which  common,  what  we  know  (little  though 
it  be),  about  their  distribution,  and  to  give  some  idea  of  what 
we  believe  to  be  their  habits. 

The  second  object  of  the  paper  is  to  meet  these  require- 
ments. 


*  Since  this  was  written  I  have  had  to  thank  Lieutenant  Ramsay  for  a  copy  of  a  valu- 
able paper  which  he  has  lately  published,  which  I  have  repeatedly  quoted  further  on. 


iv  A  REVISED    LIST   OF  THE  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

I  have  entered  each  species  under  the  name,  which,  so  far 
as  my  present  information  goes,  is  that  which,  according  to 
the  British  Association  Code,  it  should  hear.  I  have  not  yet 
half  worked  out  the  synonymy  of  this  large  body  of  species, 
and  I  do  not  doubt  that  a  great  number  of  errors  will  be 
found  to  exist  in  the  nomenclature. 

I  have  added  some  few  synonyms  and  references  which  may 
be  useful  to  my  Indian  readers,  if  they  chance  to  meet  with 
other  books  dealing  with  the  same  species. 

Immediately,  after  the  name  of  each  species,  I  have  added 
in  brackets  the  number*  of  specimens  (excluding  some  few 
given  away)  which  we  have  procured  of  this  species  within  the 
province.  This  will,  to  a  certain  extent,  serve  as  a  guide  as  to  the 
comparative  rarity  or  otherwise  of  the  species  in  those  portions 
of  the  province  as  yet  explored  by  us,  and  will  also  indicate 
those  species  of  which  we  most  require  additional  specimens. 

Then  I  have  given,  in  small  type,  a  complete  list  of  all  the 
localities  arranged  in  order  from  north  to  south,  at  which  the 
specimens  obtained  by  us  were  procured.  I  have  been  unable 
to  prepare  a  map  showing  all  these  localities,  for  the  simple 
reason  that  not  half  of  them  occur  on  any  existing  map  (the 
province  is  as  yet  unsurveyed),  and  of  those  that  doubtless  must 
be  in  the  maps,  not  one-half  can  be  recognized  in  the  peculiar 
spelling  adopted  by  geographers  for  Burmese  names. 

But  though  I  have  been  foiled  in  furnishing  a  map,  I  have  added 
(see  Appendix  II)  an  alphabetical  list  of  all  places  from  which 
Davison  has  procured  any  specimens,  with  an  explanation  of 
position  and  distance  of  each  in  regard  to  and  from  some  really 
well-known  place  that  is  to  be  found  in  every  map,  as  also,  so 
far  as  it  is  known,  the  elevation  above  the  sea-level  of  all  places 
in  the  hills. 

Further,  1  have  added  in  italics  and  in  brackets  other  local- 
ities from  which  we  know  that'  others  (whose  names  are  also 
given)  have  of  recent  years  obtained  the  species,  and  I  have 
been  particularly  careful  to  do  this  in  the  case  of  specimens 
collected  by  Major  Lloyd  and  Lieutenant  W.  Ramsay  in 
Tonghoo,  Karendoo  (or  the  Karen  hills)  and  Karennee,  as  we 
have  as  yet  no  specimens  thence. 

To  this  follows  as  concise  a  resume  as  possible  of  all  I  have 
been  able  to  learn  of  the  general  distribution  of  the  species 
within  the  province. 

This  will  doubtless  prove  in  many  cases  sadly  incorrect,  but 
it  will  show  every  one  where  they  can  put  us  right,  and  with 
the  list  of  localities  will  enable  them   at  once  to  see   whether 

*  Excludes  the  600  odd  specimens  collected  in  Tavoy  subsequent  to  the  "  revised 
list"  being  printed  off. 


A  REVISED   LIST   OF   THE   BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  V 

any  observation  they  make  as  to  the  occurrence  in  any  locality 
of  any  species  will  be  of  use  in  working-  out  the  distribution. 

A  few  words  of  explanation  as  to  the  terms  I  have  used  in 
defining  so  far  as  it  is  known  to  me,  the  area  of  distribution  of 
each  species  may  here  be  useful. 

By  Tenasserim  proper  I,  intend  to  signify  that  portion  of 
the  province  which  was  included  within  its  limits  when  we 
commenced  work,  and  to  exclude  Tonghoo,  Karendoo  and  Karen- 
nee. 

When  I  talk  of  the  northern,  and  southern  halves  of  the 
province,  I  understand  the  latitude  of  Moulmein  to  be  about 
the  line  of  division. 

When  I  allude  to  northern,  central  and  southern  portions  of 
Tenasserim,  I  consider  the  central  portion  to  commence  about 
or  a  little  north  of  the  17°  N.  L.  and  to  extend  southwards 
to  or  nearly  to  the  13°  N.  L.  I  cannot  here  attempt  any 
generalizations,  the  prime  object  of  this  paper  being  to  elicit 
information  on  which  such  can  be  securely  based,  but  I 
may  remark  that  this  latter  boundary  seems  to  be  a  true 
zoological  one,  and  that  a  vast  number  of  Malayan  species,  both 
birds  and  mammals,  seem  to  extend  northwards  to  about  the 
13°  N.  L.,  i.e.,  the  latitude  of  the  head  of  the  Gulf  of  Siam, 
and  no  further. 

Moolyit,  the  only  mountain  of  6,000  feet  and  upwards  that 
we  have  yet  examined,  will  often  be  mentioned,  and  it  may 
seem   at  first  sight   almost   to   have  an   avifauna  of  its  own. 

But  in  the  first  place  we  have  not  yet  explored,  in  fact  nobody 
has,  the  (it  is  said)  equally  high  or  higher  hills  belonging  to  the 
same  range  further  south  in  the  latitude  of  Tenasserim  town. 

In  the  second  place  Moolyit,  it  will  be  borne  in  mind,  be- 
longs to  a  range  that  almost  immediately  north  of  this  peak, 
runs  outside  our  territory,  and  this  will  explain  the  apparent 
anomaly  of  many  species  occurring  in  Tonghoo  or  Karennee, 
and  nowhere  in  the  intervening  200  to  250  miles  of  country 
till  Moolyit  is  reached.  There  is  probably  no  real  break,  but 
the  range  by  which  all  these  species  travel  southwards  to  Mooly- 
it lies  outside  our  territory  between  this  latter  and  Karennee, 
though  some  of  its  spurs  come  down  near  to  Kyouk-nyat,  which 
again  accounts  for  isolated  specimens  of  some  of  these  species 
turning  up  in  that  neighbourhood. 

Many  of  these  species  very  probably  also  occur  further  south 
on  the  highest  (and  as  yet  entirely  unknown)  portions  of  this 
same  range,  and  possibly  in  some  of  the  higher  hills  in  the  in- 
termediate ranges. 

What  is  at  present  specially  perplexing  in  Tenasserim  is,  that 
besides  its  main  range,  the  back-bone  of  the  Malay  Peninsula, 
it  includes  one,  two,  or  three,  more  or  less  parallel  ones,  between 


VI 


A   REVISED    LIST    OF    THE    BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 


this  and  the  sea,  not  yet  surveyed,  and  barely  indicated  on 
even  the  best  maps,  to  each  of  which  some  species  seem  more 
or  less  confined,  and  that  along  these  valleys  and  ridges, 
species  seem  to  run  further,  sometimes  a  hundred  miles  further, 
south  or  north,  in  the  valleys  than  they  do  in  the  hills,  or  in  the 
hills,  than  they  do  in  the  valleys,  in  a  perfectly  (at  present) 
inexplicable  fashion.  Doubtless,  further  researches  and  the 
co-operation  of  numerous  local  observers,  which  this  paper  is 
mainly  designed  to  render  possible,  will  clear  up  much,  but 
the  distribution  of  species  in  Tenasserim  must  long,  I  fear, 
remain,  owing  to  the  peculiar  physical  configuration  of  the 
province  and  its  vast  uninhabited  and  inaccessible  tracts,  a 
very  perplexed    question. 

I  attempt  no  comparative  analysis  of  the  birds  of  the 
province.  This  would  be  at  present  wholly  premature ;  at 
least  200  species  will,  I  apprehend,  have  to  be  added  to 
our  list  before  it  is  completed,  and  it  so  happens  that 
certain  huge  blanks  in  our  explorations  cover  tracts  that  we 
have  reason  to  believe  will  yield  a  set  of  species,  belonging  to 
a  foreign  avifauna,  hardly  as  yet  represented  in  our  list,  and 
altogether  vitiate  any  conclusions  that  could  now  be  drawn  as 
to  the  proportions  in  which  the  Indian,  Indo-Burmese,  Siamese 
and  Malayan  faunas  are  combined  in  those  of  Tenasserim. 

The  sum  and  substance  of  Davison's  experiences,  so  far  as  I 
have  had  time  •  to  get  them  recorded  (and  intensely  as  he 
dislikes  the  bother  nothing  could  exceed  the  willingness  and 
zeal  with  which  he  has  aided  me  in  this  matter),  will  convey 
a  clear,  if  not  very  detailed,  idea  of  the  nature  of  the  localities 
affected  by,  and  the  general  habits  of  all  those  species,  and 
they  are  very  numerous,  which  he  has  been  able  to  observe,  and 
will  show  which  those  are  of  which  we  know  least. 

Besides  the  descriptions  of  species  as  yet  undescribed  in  Jer- 
don  and  Stray  Feathers,  I  have  added  dimensions  and  colours 
of  the  soft  parts  of  many  species  in  regard  to  which  too  little  in 
these  respects  seemed  to  me  to  be  on  record. 

I  have  not  touched  on  nidification  :  a  great  deal  has  been  done 
and  learnt  on  this  subject,  but  I  hope  soon  to  issue  a  revised  and 
greatly  enlarged  draft  of  Nests  and  Eggs. 

I  had  wished  to  give  a  general  sketch  of  the  distribution  else- 
where within  the  British  Indian  Empire,  of  each  species  enumer- 
ated. I  did  this  last  year  in  preparing  that  part  of  the  paper 
which  refers  to  the  Sunbirds,  so  as  to  send  it  to  Captain  Shelley 
for  his  woi'k.  I  have  let  this  stand  as  it  was  ready,  but  I  have 
been  unable  to  find  time  to  do  it  for  any  other  group. 

As  for  the  arrangement  of  the  species,  it  is  illogical  and  defect- 
ive, but  it  follows  my  old  catalogue  which  is  based  on  Jerdon's 
work,  and  from  this  I  could  not 'well  deviate,  until  my  revised 


A   REVISED    LIST   OF   THE   BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM.  "Vli 

catalogue,  now  long  in  hand,  appears,  but  I  have  added  (the  more 
so  as  no  two  ornithologists  now-a-days  adopt  precisely  the  same 
arrangement,  and  nobody  ever  knows  where  to  look  for  any  species 
in  any  other  person's  book)  an  alphabetical  index  of  all  the  spe- 
cies included  in  the  list. 

This  list  includes  altogether  721*  species.  Of  these  580*  have 
been  obtained  by  Davison  or, one  or  other  of  our  friends,  and  are 
represented  by  specimens  in  our  museum.  The  names  of  these 
are  printed  in  antique  type.  Of  89  species,  although  we  have 
failed  to  procure  specimens,  (they  having  for  the  most  part  only 
occurred  in  Tonghoo,  Karennee,  and  other  similar  northern 
localities  not  visited  by  Davison)  I  accept  the  occurrence  as 
more  or  less  well  established.  The  names  of  these  are  printed  id 
ordinary  type  :  52  species  I  consider  doubtful ;  either  I  doubt 
the  validity  of  the  species,  or  I  doubt  its  occurrence.  In  each 
case  I  have  given  my  reasons  for  so  doubting.  The  names  of 
these  species  are  printed  in  italics. 

It  will  be  observed  that  I  thus  at  present  only  admit  the  oc- 
currence of  669  species  in  the  province  as  fairly  established. 

There  occur,  so  far  as  my  present  information  goes,  45  species 
in  Pegu  (including  some  that  I  reject  as  doubtful  where  Tenas- 
serim  is  concerned),  not  accepted  by  me  as  occurring  in  Tenas- 
serim,  and  again  57  species  occur  in  Arakan,  which  do  not,  so  far 
as  I  yet  know,  occur  either  in  Pegu  or  Tenasserim.  This  makes 
the  present  Burmese  total  up  to  77 If  species,  but  as  I  remarked 

*  Including  four  additional  species  included  in  "  Addenda  et  Corrigenda." 
+  Blyth's  list  (as  edited  by  Lord  Walden,  and  enlarged  by  the  incorporation  of 
over  40  species,  first  recorded  from  Burmah  by  myself  in  previous  papers  and  lists)  con- 
tained 620  species,  out  of  which  41  must  be  rejected  as  bad  species,  or  as  not  occurring, 
so  far  as  we  yet  know,  within  the  limits  of  British  Burmah:  Of  these  41,  four  (marked 
with  a  star)  were  entered  on  my  authority.  These  41  are  as  follow  (I  use  the  numbers 
in  Blyth's  Catalogue)  : — 

5.  Paloeornis  vibrisca. 

30.  Teraspizias  rhodogastra. 

59.  Athene  whitleyi. 

130.  Sasia  abnormis.* 

133.  Hierococcyx  varius. 

149.  Centvopus  rufipennis. 

150.  Centropus  eurycercus.* 
156.  Caprimulgus  indicus. 
165.  Cypselus  palmarum. 
172.  Pica  media. 
184.  Acridotheres  ginginianus. 
188.  Sturnopastor  nigricollis. 
193.  Sturnia  sinensis. 
195.  Calornis  affinis. 
202.  Padda  oryzivora. 
204.  Muniapunctularia. 
206.  Munia  leuconota. 
210.  Passer  assimilis. 
247.  Monticola  saxatilis. 
276.  Cyornis  tickelli. 
294.  Phylloscopus  brunneus. 

This  leaves  579  species  in  the  Blyth  and  Walden  list,  which  there  are  in  almost  every 


315. 

Garrulax  albigularis. 

342. 

Machlolophus  subviridis. 

354. 

Pomatorhinus  marise. 

358. 

Pellorneum  ruficeps. 

364. 

Drymocataphus  fulvus. 

388. 

Muscetrea  cinerea  (separately  enter- 

ed as  No.  406,  vide  S.  F.  V.,  101.) 

392. 

Horeites  sericea. 

396. 

Orthotomus  edela. 

407. 

Hemipus  obscurus. 

411. 

Volvocivora  sykesi. 

429. 

Hirundo  horreorum. 

431. 

Cecropis  erythropygia. 

441. 

Bucbanga  intermedia. 

445. 

Tchitrea  paradisi.* 

458. 

Hemixus  flavala. 

502. 

Dica?um  virescens.* 

515. 

Columba  livia. 

520. 

Macropygia  ruficeps. 

528. 

Bambusicola  fytchei. 

553. 

iEgialites  placida. 

Viii  A   REVISED    LIST   OF   THE   BIRDS   OP   TENASSERIM. 

long  ago  (S.  F.,  III.,  10),  the  real  total  will  not,  I  apprehend,  be 
ultimately  found  to  fall  short  of  1,000  species. 

In  conclusion,  I  would  urge  that,  imperfect  as  this  account  is, 
I  have  really  (as  I  have  above  endeavoured  to  show)  tried  my 
best  to  make  it  as  useful  and  complete  as  was  possible  with  the 
defective  materials'*  and  the  scanty  leisure  at  my  command. 

case  (a  few  are  doubtful)  good  reasons  for  believing  to  cccur  in  Burmah,  or  which  are 
represented  there  by  nearly  allied  species,  not  discriminated  when  Blyth  wrote  and 
not  included  in  the  list.  Our  present  total  of  71  shows  ail  advance  of  nearly  200 
species. 

*  Subsequent  to  the  entire  revised  list  (which  has  been  some  seven  months  in  type) 
being  printed  off,  and  to  the  whole  of  this  introduction  being  in  type,  some  600  odd 
specimens,  collected  chiefly  about  the  base  of  Nwalabo  in  the  Tavoy  district,  have 
been  received.  These  show  how  impossible  it  is  at  present  to  generalize  safely  as  to 
distribution;  many  species  have  turned  up  at  Nwalabo  that  have  not  hitherto 
been  observed  so  far  north  or  south,  as  the  case  may  be,  by,  in  some  instances,  a 
hundred  miles  or  so ;  some  of  the  more  important  points  suggested  by  this  collection 
are  noticed  in  Appendix  I,  Addenda  et  Corrigenda. 


BIRDS   OP   TENASSERIM. 


REVISED  LIST. 


2. — Otogyps  calvus,  Scop. 

Observed  near  Moulmein  by  Captain  Bingham,  and  by  Mr. 
Davison  about  Malewoon ;  a  specimen  was  also  examined  by 
Davison,  but  unfortunately  not  preserved,  which  had  been  shot 
by  Mr.  L.  Hough,  near  the  head  waters  of  the  Pakchan. 

4. — Gyps  indicus,  Scop. 

The  late  Captain  Beavan  (P.  Z.  S.,  1866,  p.  3)  recorded  speci- 
mens of  this  Vulture  as  observed  at  Zwagaben,  commonly 
known  as  the  Duke  of  York's  Nose,  a  limestone  rock, 
about  25  miles  north  of  Moulmein.  He  does  not  appear 
to  have  procured  specimens,  and  an  identification  of  this 
Vulture  on  the  wing  is  scarcely  sufficient.  Davison  says  he  has 
never  yet  observed  it ;  Captain  Bingham,  however,  has  seen  it 
feeding  along  with  G.  bengalensis,  and  does  not  think  the 
one  rarer  than  the  other  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Moulmein. 

5— Pseudogyps  bengalensis,  Gm.  (i). 

Pabyouk. 

Pretty  common  throughout  Tenasserim  (and  Davison  has 
seen  it  as  far  south  as  Malacca),, but  only  in  the  more  level 
and  tolerably  populated  localities.  Not  seen  in  the  Hills  or 
in  dense  forest,  in  which  latter,  calvus  is  occasionally 
met  with. 

8.— Falco  peregrinus,  Gm.  (2). 

Thafone ;  Amherst. 

Very  rare ;  not  observed  as  yet  in  the  southern  portions  of 
Tenasserim. 

9. — Falco  pereguiiiator,  Sund.     S.  F.,  V.,  p.  500. 

Davison  has  never  seen  this  species,  neither  have  I  ever 
received  a  specimen  from  any  part  of  Tenasserim. 

The  late  Colonel  Tickell  recorded,  (vide  Ibis,  1876,  p.  339) 
that  this  species  was  common  at  Amherst,  breeding  on  the  high 


2  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

Gurjon-oil  trees  along  the  coast.  There  are,  however,  none 
about  there  now.  Davison  collected  vigorously  there,  and  Dr. 
Armstrong  collected  there  for  six  months  recently,  aud  neither 
ever  saw  a  specimen.  There  are  now  no  Gurjon-oil  trees  left 
along  this  coast. 

Lord  Tweeddale,  however,  says  (J.  A.  S.  B.,  1875,  Extra 
No.,  p.  59)  that  an  undoubted  specimen  of  this  species  was  sent 
to  him  from  Tonghoo  by  Major  Lloyd. 

14. — Falco  severus,  Horsf. 

Mr.  Blyth  (B.  of  B.,*  p.  59)  gives  this  from  Tenasserim. 
He  does  not  say  whether  he  has  actually  seen  specimens  thence, 
but  it  very  probably  does  occur  there,  though  we  have  never 
obtained  or  seen  any. 

16  Us.— Poliohierax"  insignis,  Wald.  (4).  Descr. 
S.  F.,  III.,  p.  20  —  P.  feildeni,  Hume.  Pr.  A.  S.  B., 
May,  1872,  p.  70. 

{Tonghoo,  Lloyd,  Rams.)     Myawadee  ;  Lartkorjee. 

As  yet  only  observed  in  Tenasserim  proper,  in  the  dry  country 
lying  between  Myawadee  and  the  outer  spurs  of  the  Mooleyit 
Range,  and  rare,  Ramsay  says,  about  Tonghoo. 

[The  soil  in  the  localities  in  which  I  met  with  this  species 
is  very  sandy  -,  white  glistening  quartz  sand,  sparsely  covered 
with  deciduous  trees  (D'illenia)  with  a  few  stunted  teak  and 
pine  trees  (P.  longifolia)  and  kine  grass.  Here  this  species 
is  not  very  uncommon.  They  sit  habitually  on  high  bare 
dead  branches.  Captain  Feilden's  account  of  their  habits 
(S.  F.,  III.,  p.  21)  is  very  accurate.  As  far  as  my  experience 
goes  they  feed  entirely  on  locusts  and  other  insects. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  and  colors  of  the  soft  parts 
of  three  fine  males  and  a  female,  recorded  in  the  flesh  :  — 

Males. — Length,  10'2  to  104;  expanse,  18'0  to  18-4;  tail 
from  vent,  4*8  to  5*1;  wing,  5"6  to  5'7 ;  tarsus,  1*4;  bill  from 
gape,  0"61  to  068 ;  weight,  3  to  4  ozs. 

Fem,ale. — Length,  10-5  ;  expanse,  19*1 ;  tail  from  vent,  5  2  ; 
wing,  5-8;  tarsus,  1'5;  bill  from  gape,  0"7  ;  weight,  3'5  ozs. 

The  legs  and  feet,  gape,  cere,  lower  mandible,  base  of 
upper  mandible  and  facial  skin  orange  yellow ;  rest  of  upper 
mandible  and  tip,  and  a  line  along  sides  of  lower  mandible,  aud 
claws,  dull  black ;  irides  pale  to  deep  brown. 

*  By  "  B.  of  B."  I  mean  to  refer  to  the  "  Catalogue  of  Mammals  and  Birds  of 
Burma,"  by  the  late  E.  Blyth,  published  as  an  extra  number,  of  Part  II.,  of  the 
Journal  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal,  for  August  1875. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  6 

17.— Cerchneis  tinnuncula,  Lin,  (3). 

(Tonghoo,  Lloyd — Karennee,  Rains.)     Theinzeik  ;  Tkatone  ;  Amherst. 

Very  common,  Ramsay  says,  in  Karennee,  but  very  rare 
elsewhere,  and  only  seen  as  yet  in  the  northern  and  central 
plains  portions  of  Tenasserim  proper. 

17    bis. — Cerchneis    saturata,    Bly.      J.    A.    S.   B., 
XXVIII,  p.  277,  1859. 

Mr.  Blyth  originally  described  this  species  as  follows  : — 
"  Tinnunculus  saturatus,  nobis,  N.  S. — Many  years  ago 
the  Society  received  a  specimen  from  Ye  (Tenasserim),  presented 
by  the  Rev.  J.  Barbe,  R.  0.  M.,  which  is  noticed  in  my 
Catalogue  of  Birds  (No.  69,  I),  as  perhaps  the  female  of  a 
distinct  race,  remarkable  for  the  great  development  of  the 
black  markings  of  its  plumage.  Mr.  Atkinson  has  now 
brought  a  young  female  of  the  same  race,  in  which  the  cap 
is  fuscous,  with  scarcely  an  indication  of  rufous  margining 
the  feathers  ;  the  fuscous  colour  also  predominating  over  the  ru- 
fous upon  the  whole  upper  plumage,  and  on  the  tail  the  rufous 
bands  are  narrower  than  the  black  bands.  The  adult  male  is 
still  a  desideratum/' 

Later  he  remarked,  J.  A.  S.  B.,  Extra  No.,  1875,  p.  59  : — 
"  T.  saturatus,  nobis,  from  the  Tenasserim  Province  is  perhaps 
a  distinct  race,  remarkable  for  the  great    development  of  the 
black  markings  on  its  plumage,   but  it  requires    further  con- 
firmation/'' 

The  Kestril  is  apparently  very  rare  in  Tenasserim  proper,  and 
we  only  obtained  three  specimens,  neither  of  which  differ 
appreciably  from  examples  from  different  parts  of  India. 

I  think  the  validity  of  this  supposed  species  very  doubtful, 
the  more  so  that  even  in  India  specimens  occur  answering 
fairly  well  to  Mr.  Blyth's  description.  (See  also  S.  F.,  V., 
p.  129.) 

20  —  Microhierax  caerulescens,  Lin.   (21).    S.   F., 
III.,  p.  23;  V.,  p.  127. 

Pahpoon  ;  Sinzaway  ;  Tkatone  ;  Winipong ;  Myawadee  ;  Tkoungsheyen  Sakan  j 
Meetan. 

Confined  to  the  northern  and  upper  central  portion  of  the 
province;  not  observed  south  of  the  16°  N.  Lat. 

[I  found  this  species  equally  in  the  plains  and  in  the  lower 
hills.  They  are  not  met  with  in  very  dense  forest,  but  are  most 
numerous  in  clearings,  where  there  are  a  lot  of  dead  trees  about. 
They  are  usually  seen  in  small  parties  of  £  to  5,  but 
occasionally  singly.  - 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 


I  found  that  they  affected  the  top  of  some  large  tree 
(usually  a  dead  one)  rising  higher  than  its  neighbours,  and 
from  this  view-commanding  perch  they  took  longer  or  shorter 
flights,  after  insects  apparently,  returning  agaiu  aud  again  to  the 
same  perch,  even  after  one  or  more  of  their  number  (when 
several  were  together)  had  been  shot.  Their  flight  is  very 
rapid,  partly  sailing  and  partly  flapping.  The  stomachs  of  those 
I  killed  Contained,  as  a  rule,  insects,  dragon  flies,  beetles,  grass- 
hoppers and  the  like,  but  in  the  stomach  of  one  bird  I  found 
feathers,  (primaries  and  body  feathers)  evidently  those  of  a 
Prinia.  During  my  residence  in  the  southern  portion  of  the 
Provinces,  Col.  E.  B.  Sladen,  the  present  Commissioner  of 
Arracan,  shot  a  specimen  of  this  species  at  Nga  Beemah  on  the 
Attaran  River  south-east  of  Moulmeiu. — W.  D.] 

Although  I  do  not  say  that  it  is  necessary  to  separate  them 
specifically,  yet,  certainly,  the  Hill  Tenasserim  race  of  this 
little  Falconet  is  clearly  distinguishable  from  the  Himalayan 
one. 

Any  one  could  separate  them,  as  a  rule,  at  a  glance.  Both 
frontal  band  and  collar  are  wider,  generally  conspicuously 
so  ;  the  black  ear  patch  is  narrower  and  longer ;  the  white  mark- 
ings on  the  inner  webs  of  the  primaries  are  larger  and  more  con- 
fluent, and  there  is  one  constant  difference,  viz.,  that  the  white 
spot,  which  forms  the  representative  of  the  fifth  bar  on  the 
inner  web  of  the  outer  tail  feather,  approaches  much  nearer  the 
point  of  the  feather  than  in  the  Himalayan  species. 

This  latter  distinction  holds  good  in  every  one  of  over  60 
Himalayan  and  30  Pegu  and  Tenasserim  specimens,  but  to  take 
only  42  specimens,  the  sexes  of  which  have  been  ascertained 
by  dissection,  the  following  is  the  distance  by  which  the 
last  white  spot  falls  short  of  the  tip  of  the  external  tail 
feather, 


in  Himalayan  ;         and  in 
$s  0-89;    0-89;    0'93;  075; 

1-07;     0-82;    0-8;      0'8; 

0-68;  08;  1-1. 
$s  077;    0-87;    0'6;    072; 

068;    062;    0*55,    0-85, 

0-8. 


Pegu  fy  Tenasserim  specimens. 
$s  0-43;    0-42;  0-42;   0'42 ; 

0-4,  0-43;  0-35/ 0-4;  043; 

0-4;  0-37. 
?«  0-4;    0-41  ;    0'46 ;    0'43  ; 

043;   0-37;    041;    0'45 ; 

0-43;  0-46;  0'5. 


Generally,  too,  the  white  barring  on  the  inner  webs  of  all  the 
lateral  tail  feathers  is  bolder  and  better  marked  in  the  Tenas- 
serim birds. 

Lastly,  in  not  one  single  one  of  these  latter  have  we  any 
indication  of  the  old  adult  plumage  of  the  Himalayan  bird, 
{vide  ante,  S.  ¥.,  V.,  p.  127.)  In  every  single  specimen,  male 
or  female,  the  entire  breast  is  pure  white. 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSER.IM.  0 

There  is  no  appreciable  difference  in  size,  I  think,  between 
the  two  forms ;  the  following  are  the  dimensions  of  dry 
wings  of 

Himalayan    and  Fegu  fy  Tenasserim  examples. 

Ss  3-9;  3-9  ;  377  juv;  39;  Js  3-8  ;    395  ;     373;     37; 

3-8;  3-9;  394 ;  3-95  ;  395  ;  373  ;  3*8  ;  38  ;  3'95  ;  375  ; 

395;  3-92.  397  ;  3-87. 

?s  4-13;  4-3;  4  47;  4-1;  4-4;  ?«4'17;    4-25  ;    4-2  ;    4-1; 

4-3;  4-18;  4-32,  425  4-15;    4-15;    4*12;   4'25  ; 

4-25;  4-2;  4-32. 

Thus  it  would  appear  that  the  males  have  the  wings  always 
under,  the  females  always  over,  four  inches  ;  those  of  the  males 
range  from  37  to  397,  and  those  of  the  females  from  4'1  to 
4*47.  In  the  general  run,  however,  of  adult  males  the  wings 
only  vary  from  3*8  to  395,  and  similarly  in  adult  females  the 
usual  variation  is  only  between  4-2  and  4*35. 

I  note  that  in  this  species  the  dry  wing  averages  nearly  one- 
tenth  of  an  inch  less  than  the  fresh  one,  but  that  this  is  by  no 
means  a  constant  quantity. 

20  ter. — Microhierax  fringillarius,  Drop.  (21), 

Meeta  Myo  ;  near  Laynah  ;  Pakchan  ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Common  in  the  southern  portions  of  the  province,  at  least 
as  high  up  as  3,500  feet  elevation,  but  not  further  north  than 
about  the  14th  degree  N.  Lat. 

[These  birds  appear  much  bolder  than  their  more  northern 
congener.  I  saw  one  of  these  little  Falcons  {fringillarius) 
swoop  at  a  Rock  Thrush  (Cyanocincla  solitaria)  that  I  had 
disturbed.  On  another  occasion,  about  30  miles  inland  from 
Malacca,  I  shot  a  male  with  a  living  Hirundo  gutturalis  (which  it 
had  seized  on  the  wing)  in  its  talons,  and  from  which  it  had 
plucked  all  the  back  feathers  as  well  as  the  secondaries  and 
terti  aries.fr  om  both  wings,  and  nearly  all  the  primaries  from  one. 
In  the  stomachs  of  the  numerous  specimens!  shot,  I  continually 
found  the  bones  and  feathers  of  sundry  birds,  chiefly  of  small 
ones,  such  as  Munias,  &c,  but  on  more  than  one  occasion  have 
I  found  the  remains  of  birds  larger  than  the  Falcon,  which  had 
killed  and  eaten  then.  I  have  kept  a  tarsus  and  foot  entire, 
which  1  took  from  the  crop  of  a  female  that  I  shot,  and  which, 
as  far  as  I  can  make  out,  is  that  of  Calornis  chali/bceus.  At 
Johore  I  shot  a  male  H.  fringillarius  in  a  thick  clump  of  kine 
grass,  into  which  it  had  dashed  after  a  flock  of  Munia  leuco- 
gastra,  but    without  succeeding  in  striking  any. 

Though  feeding  on  birds,  as  a  rule,  smaller,  but  undoubtedly 
occasionally  larger  than  itself,  the  chief  food  probably  of  this 
little  Falcon  is   insects  of  various  sorts,    dragon  flies,  beetles, 


6  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

and  butterflies.  I  say  butterflies,  for,  although  I  have  never  found 
the  distinguishable  remains  of  butterflies  in  those  I  examin- 
ed, I  have  no  doubt  that  they  do  capture  butterflies  largely,  and 
of  all  sizes,  for  the  nest  of  a  pair  that  I  found  at  Bankasoon 
consisted  of  a  pad  composed  entirely  of  insect-wings  and  the 
mass  of  these  were  those  of  butterflies. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  and  colors  of  the  soft  parts, 
&c,  of  the  Black-legged  Falconet. 

Male. — Length,  5*75  to  6'45  ;  expanse,  11*75  to  12'12;  tail, 
2  to  2-75  ;  wing,  3-62  to  3*82 ;  tarsus,  0*62  to  0'75  ;  bill 
from  gape,  045  to  055;  weight,  1"  to  l"5oz. 

Female. — Length,  6'4  to  67  ;  expanse,  12-4  to  13'12;  tail, 
2-25  to  2-62 ;  wing,  382  to  4-15  ;  tarsus,  075  ;  bill  from  gape, 
055  to  0-6;  weight,  2-  to  2"5oz. 

The  bill,  legs  and  feet  black ;  the  irides  wood  brown ; 
the  orbital    skin  plumbeous  ;  the  eyelids   black. 

Adults  have  a  narrow  frontal  band,  a  streak  from  a  little 
above  the  posterior  angle  of  the  eye,  backwards  over  the  ear- 
coverts,  chin,  throat,  sides  of  the  neck  behind  the  ear-coverts, 
cheeks  immediately  under  the  eye,  breast,  wing-lining,  and 
numerous  bars  on  the  inner  webs  of  all  the  wing  and  lateral 
tail  feathers,  white. 

The  upper  portion  of  the  forehead,  crown,  occiput,  nape, 
and  a  portion  of  the  sides  of  the  neck  behind  the  white 
streak,  ear-coverts,  and  posterior  portion  of  cheeks,  the  entire 
mantle,  upper  tail-coverts,  central  tail  feathers  and  outer  webs 
of  lateral  tail  feathers,  glossy  black,  with  greenish  reflections  ; 
secondaries,  primaries  and  their  greater  coverts  and  winglet, 
blackish  hair  brown  ;  sides  of  the  body,  flanks,  and  hinder 
tibial  plumes,  and  tips  of  longest  lower  tail-coverts,  also  more 
or  less  glossy  black  ;  abdomen,  vent,  front  of  tibial  plumes, 
shorter  lower  tail-coverts,  buffy  white,  or  pale  ferruginous,  or 
even  in  the  oldest  birds  rather  deep  ferruginous. 

When  these  parts  become  this  latter  color,  the  chin  and  the 
greater  part  of  the  throat  are  generally  suffused  with  pale 
ferruginous. 

In  the  quite  young  bird  the  bill  is  yellow,  the  frontal  band 
and  the  streak  behind  the  eye  are  pale  ferruginous ;  the 
patch  below  the  eye  and  a  margin  round  the  black  ear-patch 
rather  paler  ferruginous  buff;  margin  of  the  wing  tinged  with 
the  same  color  ;  no  black  tip  to  the  lower  tail-coverts  ;  abdomen 
very  pale  fawn  ;  feathers  of  the  mantle  very  narrowly  fringed 
with  sordid  white  ;  upper  tail-coverts  more  broadly  fringed 
with   buff. 

This  is  a  bird  just  out  of  the  nest,  the  tail  feathers  still 
showing  at  the  extreme  tips,  buffy  nestling  down  ;  killed  in 
April  in  the  latter  half  of  the  month. 


BIRDS  OF  TENASSEKIM.  7 

22  bis. — Lophospiza  rufitinctus,  McClell.  (2).  Descr., 

S.  F.,  V.,  pp.  8,  124,  502. 

North  of  Pahpoon,   Salween  district  5  Bankasoon. 

Extremely  rare,  only  seen  twice  and  then  in  the  hills,  once 
at  the  extreme  south  and  once  near  the  northern  limits  of 
Tenasserim  proper. 

'1  he  following  are  the  dimensions  and  colors  of  the  soft  parts 
of  a  fine  female  recorded  in    the    flesh  : — 

Length,  18 ;  expanse,  335  ;  tail  from  vent,  8*75  ;  wing,  99  ; 
tarsus,  2'9  ;  weight,  life. 

The  legs  and  feet  dull  chrome  yellow  ;  claws  horny  black ; 
bill  horny  brown  ;  lower  mandible  tinged  bluish  at  base  and 
sides  ;  cere  dull  greenish  yellow ;  irides  bright  yellow. 

23. — Astur  badius,  Gm. 

This  species  may  occur  in  Arracan.  It  has  been  recorded 
from  Tenasserim,  but  doubtless  the  next  species,  which  had 
not  then  been  discriminated,  was  what  was  really  obtained. 

23  Ms. — Astur  poliopsis,  Hume.  (22.)  Descr.,  S.  P., 

II.,   325. 

(Tonghoo  ;  Karen  Hills,  4,000/2.,  Earns.)  Pahpoon  ;  Sinzaway  ;  near  Khy- 
keto  ;  Thatone  ;  Wimpong  ;  Thoungya  Sakan  ;  Kanee  ;  Megaloon  ;  Khayin  ; 
Mouloiein  ;  Pabyouk  ;  Amherst ;  Pakchan. 

Common  throughout  the  province,  but  not  ascending  the 
hills  above  4,500  feet. 

[The  Grey-faced  Shikra  occurs  throughout  Tenasserim,  but 
is  nowhere  very  common.  In  the  north  it  was  perhaps  rarer 
than  in  the  south,  and  during  January  and  February  it  was 
not  uncommon  along  the  banks  of  the  higher  portion  of  the 
Pakchan.  On  all  occasions,  both  in  the  north  and  south,  I 
found  these  birds  excessively  shy,  seldom  allowing  of  even  a 
moderately  near  approach,  which  accounts  for  my  procuring 
only  twenty-two  specimens  in  all  out  of  the  great  numbers 
I  have  seen. 

Although,  as  above  observed,  I  found  them  not  uncommon 
in  January  and  February  along  the  Pakchan,  yet  in  May, 
when  the  rains  had  set  in,  I  failed  to  notice  a  single  specimen 
in  passing  along  the  same  route ;  they  had  all  probably  migrated 
to  some  drier  region. 

The  food  of  this  species,  as  far  as  my  observations  extend, 
consists  entirely  of  insects  and  small  reptiles.  I  have  observed 
them  dash  at  insects  on  the  wing,  and  I  have  frequently  seen 
them  descend  to  the  ground  to  pick  up  something.  As  a 
rule,  they  seem  averse  to  long  flights  :  I  have  never   seen  them 


8  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

hunting  over  a  field  or  clearing ;  they  remain  seated  on  some 
old  stump  or  fence,  from  whence  they  keep  a  look  out,  securing 
their  prey  by  a  short,  sharp  dash,  and  whether  secured  or 
missed,  they  continue  their  flight  only  a  short  distance  and 
perch  again,  never,  that  I  am  aware,  returning  to  the  same 
perch  they  started  from. 

As  a  rule,  they  seem  to  prefer  clearing's,  studded  over  with 
dead  trees  and  old  stumps,  and  the  bamboos  overhanging 
the  Pakchan  were  also  favorite  perches  for  these  birds  (as  in- 
deed they  seemed  to  be  for  numerous  other  birds  that  take 
their  prey  on  the  wing,  such  as  Dendrochelidon  longipennis,  D. 
cornatus,  Merops  viridis,  and  M.  leschenaulti,  fye.),  but  I  have 
occasionally  seen  them  in  dense  forest,  and  on  one  occasion 
shot  one  about  30  miles  from  Malacca  in  such  a  situation. 

They  have  a  sharp  note,  to  which  they  often  give  utterance 
when  seated. 

Perhaps  they  prefer  the  well -wooded  banks  of  rivers  and 
creeks  to  any  other  locality. — "W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males.— Length,  120  to  1275  ;  expanse,  240  to  26-0;  tail 
from  vent,  5*9  to  6*62 ;  wing,  73  to  8*12  ;  tarsus,  1-9  to  2'0  >  bill 
from  gape,  08  to  0-85;  weight,  5-0  to  65  ozs. 

Females.— Length,  13*9  to  14-62  ;  expanse,  26*75  to  28*37;  tail 
from  vent,  6*7  to  7*37  ;  wing,  83  to  9*0  ;  tarsus,  1-8  to  2'05  • 
bill  from  gape,  09  to  TO-  weight,  8*0  to  9*0  ozs. 

Legs  and  feet  are  gamboge  yellow ;  claws  black ;  base  of 
upper  mandible  and  lower  mandible,  except  tips,  plumbeous ; 
rest  of  bill  black ;  cere  and  gape  greenish  yellow,  or  pale  green ; 
the  irides  varied  considerably,  bright  golden  yellow,  orange 
yellow,  orange  red,  blood  red,  and  lake;  the  eyelids  pale 
green. 

23  ter, — Astur  soloensis,  Eorsf.  (1). 

Malewoon,  Mergui  district. 

A  rare  straggler  to  the  southernmost  portions  of  the 
province. 

Our  only  specimen  was  killed  by  Mr.  A.  L.  Hough.  This  is 
a  male,  not  adult,  but  distinguished  at  once  by  its  pure 
unmarked  pale  buff  wing-lining  and  buffy  white  axillaries. 
Our  specimen  measured  in  the  flesh : — 

Length,  11  ;  expanse,  2375  ;  tail  from  vent,  5"0  ;  wing,  7'5  ; 
tarsus,  1*62  ;  bill  from  gape,  075. 

The  legs  and  feet  bright  orange;  claws  black;  cere  and  nos- 
trils orauge  ;  gonys  and  base  of  upper  mandible  plumbeous  ; 
rest  of  bill  black ;  irides  bright  yellow. 

The  upper  part  of  the  head  is  deep  slaty  brown ;  the  whole 
mantle  brown ;  the  feathers  narrowly  tipped  with  reddish  buff; 


BIRDS   OF  TBNASSBBIM.  9 

the  lores  and  cheeks  greyish  white  ;  ear-coverts  like  upper  part 
of  head,  but  paler  ;  sides  of  the  neck  behind  these,  the  visible 
portion  of  feathers,  brown,  margined  with  rufous  ;  lower  parts 
white,  with  more  or  less  of  a  creamy  tinge ;  each  feather  of  the 
throat  with  a  narrow  dark  shaft  stripe  ;  breast  feathers  with 
broad  central  brownish  rufous  stripes,  generally  more  or  less 
pear-shaped  or  drop  like ;  shafts  darker  ;  flanks  and  sides  of 
the  abdomen  with  broad  irregular  transverse  bars,  much  the 
same  color  ;  middle  of  abdomen,  vent,  lower  tail-coverts  un- 
barred creamy  white  ;  tibial  plumes  creamy  white,  barred  exter- 
nally with  brownish  rufous  ;  quills  brown,  blackish  on  the 
primaries,  paling  posteriorly,  all  very  narrowly  margined, 
whitish  or  rufescent  white,  at  the  tips ;  most  narrowly  on  the 
earlier  primaries ;  the  tipping  more  and  more  conspicuous  as  the 
feathers  recede  from  the  edge  of  the  wing  ;  inner  webs  white 
towards  the  bases  of  the  earlier  primaries  ;  the  white  extending 
further  up  as  the  feathers  recede ;  the  white  portion  with  nar- 
row transverse  widely  separated  dusky  black  bars  not  quite 
reaching  to  the  margin.  All  the  lesser  and  median  coverts,  and 
secondary  greater  coverts,  dark  brown,  tipped  with  dull  pale 
ferruginous  ;  upper  tail-coverts  similar,  but  paler,  and  with  a 
slaty  tinge ;  central  tail  feathers  brownish  slaty  grey,  banded 
dark  towards  the  point,  and  with  three  other  transverse  ill- 
defined  dusky  bands  ;  rest  of  the  tail  feathers  ash  brown,  white 
towards  the  bases  on  the  inner  webs,  all  but  the  outermost  with 
four  broad  blackish  brown  transverse  bands  on  both  webs ;  the 
outermost  feather,  which  is  a  paler  brown  than  any,  has  six  nar- 
row transverse  bands,  on  the  basal  three-fifths  of  the  inner  web ; 
no  barring  on  the  outer  web,  and  only  one  small  spot  indicative 
of  where  a  bar  may  have  been  on  the  terminal  two-fifths  of 
the  inner  web  ;  all  lateral  tail  feathers  narrowly  tipped  with 
creamy  white. 

The  legs  and  feet  are  extremely  delicate  and  slender ;  the  mid 
toe  measures  0-92  ;  the  hind  toe  0'51 ;  bill  along  culmen 
from  margin  of  cere  0'46. 

The  third  quill  is  the  longest,  the  second  is  0'65,  and  the 
first  2-5  shorter  than  the  third.  The  first  two  quills  are  con- 
spicuously notched  on  their  inner  web,  the  third  has  a  slight 
sinuation,  the  third  and  fourth  quills  are  emarginate  on  their 
outer  webs. 

There  is  a  very  narrow  ill-defined  whitish  eyebrow,  and 
as  usual  in  all  these  birds  some  white  mottling  on  the  nape 
owing  to  the  bases  of  the  feathers  showing  through. 

Compared  with  a  quite  young  male  virgatus  this  latter  has 
a  distinct  central  throat  stripe  ;  has  the  under  wing-coverts 
spotted  with  black  ;  has  the  tarsus  T73  ;  the  mid  toe  1*15  ;  and 
the  culmen  from  margin  of  cere  to  tip  0 "5. 

2 


10  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM, 

Mr.  Sharpe,  it  will  be  remembered,  separates  his  genus  Astur 
from  his  genus  Aecipiter  with  reference  to  the  relation  between 
the  length  of  the  mid  toe  and  the  culmen  from  the  margin  of 
the  cere ;  where  twice  the  culmen  from  the  margin  of  the  cere 
exceeds  the  mid  toe  there  we  have  an  Astur,  where  it  falls  short 
of  the  mid  toe  there  we  have  an   Aecipiter. 

Tested  by  this  criterion,  our  Aecipiter  virgatus  is  a  true  Aeci- 
piter, bat  the  present  bird  is  neither  an  Astur  nor  an  Aecipiter, 
as  twice  the  culmen  exactly  equals  mid  toe  without  claw.  1  have 
made  the  measurements  several  times  over  with  great  care,  and 
there  is  no  doubt  that  this  result  accurately  represents  the  fact. 

Mr.  Sharpe  thus  describes  the  adult.  Cat.  I.,  115  : — 

"  Adult. — The  adult  plumage  appears  to  be  gained  by  a  gradual 
mersion  (?)  of  the  rufous  stripes  on  the  breast.  Above  light 
bluish  grey,  some  of  the  feathers  margined  with  darker  grey ; 
sides  of  face  and  neck  grey,  like  the  head,  but  a  little  more 
dingy  ;  under  surface  of  the  body  pale  buffy  vinous  ;  the  throat, 
flanks  and  thighs,  as  well  as  the  under  wing  and  tail-coverts, 
white,  with  a  slight  greyish  shade  on  the  sides  of  the  breast  % 
quills  black  externally,  shaded  with  ashy  grey ;  under  surface 
white  at  base  of  inner  web,  but  having  no  distinct  bars  above  or 
below;  tail  dull  bluish,  grey  above,  ashy-white  beneath,  with 
four  or  five  indistinct  cross  bands  of  dark  brown,  a  little  plain- 
er underneath,  but  these  not  strictly  continuous  ;  cere  yellow  ; 
gape  and  orbits  yellowish;  bill  black,  lead-colour  at  base;  feet 
yellow;  iris  yellow.  Total  length,  1 1  "8  inches  ;  culmen,  075; 
wing,  7-9  ;  tail,  5"4;  tarsus,  1'9. 

"  Observations. — A  specimen  from  the  Philippines,  nearly 
adult  in  every  respect,  is  much  deeper  slate-colour  above,  and 
far  more  ruddy  and  vinous  below  than  the  one  described, " 

24. — Aecipiter  nisus,  Lin.  (l). 

(Tonghoo,  Earns.)  Mooleyit. 

An  extremely  rare  straggler. 

[The  only  specimen  of  this  species  that  I  have  ever  seen  in 
Tenasserim  I  killed  at  an  elevation  of  over  6,000  feet. — W.  D.] 

25. — Aecipiter  virgatus,  Eeinw.  in  Tern.   (1). 

Thatone. 

Mr.  Blyth  (B.  of  B.,  p.  62)  notes  this  species  as  common  in 
Arrakan  and  Tenasserim.  It  does  occur,  but  it  is  certainly 
extremely  rare  in  Tenasserim,  where  Davison  never  once 
saw  it. 

A  single  specimen,  however,  sexed  a  male,  was  procured  for  us 
by  Mr.  Davis  at  Thatone   on  the  15th   August.     In  the   dried 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  11 

skin  the  wing   measures  7'4 ;    tarsus,  1*95 ;  bill  at   front  from 
forehead,  06. 

The  specimen  is  a  young  one,  with  buffy  edgings  to  the  fea- 
thers of  the  back  and  wings.  The  throat  is  pure  white,  except 
for  a  narrow  central  stripe  extending  from  the  chin  to  the  base 
of  the  throat. 

27. — Aquila  mogiluik,  S.  G.  Gm. 

Davison  saw  a  large  Brown  Eagle  at  Tavoy,  much  larger 
than  hastata,  which  probably  belonged  to  this  species. 

Also  at  the  limestone  rocks  at  Momenzeik,  some  miles 
north-east  of  Moulmein,  he  picked  up  a  dilapidated  carcase, 
of  which  he  sent  me  the  head  and  feet,  the  former  still  bearing 
the  feathers  and  showing  the  buffy  orange  nuchal  patch  cha- 
racteristic of  the  old  birds  of  this  species. 

28.— Aquila     clanga,     Pall    {Fide     S.      F.,     IV., 
pp.  268,  271.) 

Colonel  Tickell  recorded  the  occurrence  of  this  species  at 
Dau-lan,  Tenasserim.  (Vide  Ibis,  1876,  332).  Davison  has 
never  yet  seen  it. 

31. — Hieraetus  pennatus,  Gm.  (l). 

Thatone. 

Probably  occurring  in  Tenasserim  only  in  the  tracts  between 
the  Salweeu  aud  Sittaug,  aud  west  of  this  latter  river. 

[I  never  saw  this  species  anywhere  in  Tenasserim  except  in 
the  dry  plains  portion  bordering  on  Pegu,  where  I  saw  and 
shot  a  single  specimen. — W.  D.] 

32. — *Neopus  malaiensis,  Beinw.  in  Tern. 

Mr.  Ely th  says  (B.  of  B.,  p.  63)  that  this  species  occurs  in 
Tenasserim. 

Davison  saw,  but  failed  to  secure,  a  specimen  just  below  the 
Peak  of  Mooleyit. 

34.— tSpizaetus  limnaetus,  Horsf.  (4) 

(Tonghoo,  Rams.)  Teaboo  ;  Bankasoon. 

Sparingly  distributed  throughout  the  province. 

*  Hodgson's  original  name  Heteropus  (1843),  was  preoccupied  in  1834  by  Dum. 
and  Bibr.  It  seems  even  doubtful  whether  bis  name  Neopus,  which  was  only  men- 
tioned (Gr.  Miscl.  81,  1844),  can  stand ;  if  not  Kaup's  name,  Onychaetus.  of  the  same 
year,  must  be  adopted. 

+  I  am  not  sure  that  the  Asiatic  Spizaeti  are  truly  congeneric  with  the  American 
ones.  If  not  our  birds,  which  are  all  of  the  niveus  type,  should  stand  as  Limnaetus 
(Vig.)  ealigatus,  (Eaffl.)  ;  and  if  as  Bernstein  (wrongly  I  think)  maintains  the 
uniform  brown  bird  {limnaetus,  Horsf.)  is  distinct,  it  should  pe;haps  take  the  name 
of  L,  horsfieldii,  Vig. 


12  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

[Rare  in  Tenasserim,  and  not  yet  observed  there  by  me., 
much  north  of  16°  15'  N.  Lat. ;  south  of  this  I  may  have 
observed  it  in  all  about  a  dozen  times.  I  shot  one  at  Yeaboo 
on  the  Attaran,  as  it  was  carrying  off  a  specimen  of  Parra 
indica  that  I  had  winged.  Three  others  I  shot  at  Bankasoon. 
I  have  no  doubt  that  the  specimen  I  shot  at  Yeaboo,  and  another 
I  saw  there,  procured  their  subsistence  from  among  the  nume- 
rous Bronzed  Jacanas  and  Cormorants  that  were  to  be  found 
about  the  large  jheel,  whose  shores  these  marauders  frequented. 
At  Bankasoon,  to  my  knowledge,  the  two  pairs  that  affected 
the  vicinity  of  the  village  fed  chiefly  on  Turtur  tigrina  which 
were  numerous  about  the  paddy  flats.  Like  Captain  Feilden 
fS.  F.,  III.,  p.  26)  I  have  found  this  a  wild  and  wary  bird,  but 
unlike  him,  I  have  found  it  a  singularly  silent  one ;  never  to 
my  knowledge  have  I  ever  heard  it  utter  any  sort  of  cry ; 
probably  it  is  only  during  the  breeding  season  that  it  is  noisy. 
Seated  on  some  huge  dead  tree  in  a  clearing  it  watches  you  ap- 
proach apparently  quite  unconcerned  till  you  are  within  a  hun- 
dred yards  or  so,  when  it  quietly  flies  off  a  couple  of  hundred  yards 
and  perches,  and  if  you  persistently  follow  it  up,  on  reaching  the 
end  of  the  clearing  it  sometimes  flies  into  the  forest  and  reseats 
itself,  but  more  often  it  fiies  away  well  out  of  shot  over  the  top 
of  the  forest,  and  circling  widely  rapidly  rises  higher  and  higher 
until  it  is  well  out  of  range  of  even  rifle    shot. 

Besides  Doves,  &c,  on  which  it  feeds,  it  also  strikes  domestic 
poultry,  and  this  so  frequently  as  to  have  earned  for  it,  at  any 
rate  among  the  Malays  of  Bankasoon  and  its  neighbourhood,  a 
name  which  signifies  a  slayer  of  fowls,  u  ayambuns." — W.  D.] 

34  ter.— Spizaetus  alboniger,  Blyth.  (2.) 

Bankasoon. 

Davison  never  saw  this  bird  alive ;  both  specimens  received  by 
me  were  shot  in  dense  forest  near  the  foot  of  the  hills,  at  the 
extreme  south  of  the  province,  to  which  I  fancy  the  bird  is  con- 
fined. 

This  species  is  exactly  a  minature  of  Spizaetus  nipalensis, 
agreeing  with  it  in  having  the  feathering  of  the  foot  descending 
on  the  mid  toe  nearly  to  the  first  joint,  and  differing  in  its 
much  smaller  size ;  wings  of  males  in  this  species  run  from 
12  to  13  against  17  to  18  in  nipalensis,  and  other  dimensions 
in  proportion. 

Our  two  specimens  are — one  a  young  bird,  recently  from  the 
nest,  sexed  by  dissection  a  male  ;  the  other  an  old  adult,  not 
sexed,  probably  also  a  male.  Neither  specimens  were,  unfortu- 
nately, measured  iu  the  flesh.  The  following  are  dimensions 
taken  from  the  skins  : — 

Male,juv.—  Length,  20-42]  tail, 9-5;  wing,12;  tarsus,  2-85; 
bill  from  gape,  1-4 ;  along  curve  of  culmen  from  edge  of  cere,  1-08. 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSEMM.  13 

Adult  (?)  maU. — Length,  21*5  ;  tail,  10-0;  wing,  12*6;  tarsus, 
295  ;  bill  from  gape,  1*49  ;  along  culmen  from  edge  of  cere,  1*12. 

The  young  bird  has  the  entire  under  surface  white,  tinged 
■with  dull  fawn  color,  most  strongly  on  the  middle  of  the  abdo- 
men ;  a  patch  of  brownish  feathers  on  the  side  ;  a  trace  of  a 
dusky  throat  stripe  (the  throat  being  nearly  pure  whitej  and  no 
other  markings  on  the  lower  surface ;  ear-coverts  and  sides  of 
neck  pale  brown. 

Top  of  the  head,  the  feathers  dingy  white,  brownish  towards 
their  tips  ;  a  few  of  the  feathers  blackish  dusky  towards  their 
tips;  on  the  occiput,  a  crest  of  four  black  feathers,  narrowly 
tipped  with  sordid  white,  the  longest  18  in  length. 

Primaries  blackish  brown,  white  on  their  bases  on  the  inner 
webs  above  the  emarginations  ;  inner  webs  with  numerous  broad 
widely  separated  blackish  transverse  bars,  the  bars  imperfect 
towards  their  bases ;  entire  mantle,  back,  scapulars,  tertiaries, 
wing  and  upper  tail-coverts  lightish  brown  of  varying  shades  ; 
all  the  feathers  margined  whitish  at  their  tips. 

Some  the  feathers  of  the  interscapulary  region  and 
the  lesser  coverts  along  the  ulna  much  darker  brown ;  tail 
feathers  lightish  brown,  narrowly  margined  at  tips,,  with  sordid 
white,  with  broad  blackish  brown  ill-defined  subterminal  bars, 
and  three  other  similar  much  narrower  bars  on  their  basal 
halves,  the  upper  one  hidden  by  the  coverts,  scarcely  traceable 
on  the  outer  webs  of  the  lateral  feathers ;  under  surface  of 
the  tail  greyish  white    showing    these  bars  more  strongly. 

The  first  five  primaries  notched  on  the  inner  webs,  the  sixth 
with  a  trace  of  the  same,  second  to  seventh  emarginate  on  the 
outer  webs,  and  pale  brown  just   at  the  emarginations. 

The  old  bird  has  the  crown  and  occiput  nearly  black,  a 
little  mingled  with  reddish  brown  ;  the  lores  sparsely  covered 
with  minute  white  feathers  ;  the  feathers  of  the  sides  of  the 
crown,  occiput  and  neck  ferruginous  brown,  black  centered ; 
ear-coverts  paler  ferruginous  brown,  dark  shafted ;  feathers 
of  the  chin,  throat  and  base  of  the  lower  mandible  white ; 
an  irregular  central  black  throat  stripe  ;  feathers  of  the 
chin,  and  sides  of  the  throat  and  about  base  of  lower 
mandible  with  black  shaft  stripes ;  breast  white,  mottled 
and  tinged  with  ferruginous  fawn,  each  feather  with  a  very 
broad  black  central  stripe ;  abdomen,  sides,  flanks,  tibial  and 
tarsal  plumes  and  lower  tail-coverts  white,  the  former  a  good  deal 
tinged  with  rusty  fawn,  all  these  parts  with  regular  transverse 
blackish  brown  bars,  closest  and  narrowest  on  flanks,  tibial  and 
tarsal  plumes ;  interscapulary  region,  lesser  coverts,  and  lesser  sca- 
pulars almost  black,  as  are  the  outer  webs  of  the  earlier  primaries. 

Tail  clear  ash  brown,  tipped  paler,  a  1'5  subterminal  and  three 
other  TO    inch  blackish  brown  transverse  bands,  the   third 


14  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

nearly  hidden  by  the  upper  tail- coverts  ;  rest  of  wings, 
scapulars,  back,  and  upper  tail-coverts  rich  brown,  varying  iu 
shade,  and  many  of  the  feathers  narrowly  margined  at  the 
tips,  the  secondaries  most  conspicuously  so,  with  sordid  white. 

The  crest  black,  very  narrowly  tipped  with  dull  white,  about 
2-25  in  length. 

37. — Lophotriorchis*  kienerii,  Gery.  S.  I\,  I.,  p.  310 ; 
V.,  p.  10. 

It  is  probable  that  this  species  may  occur  in  Tenasserim, 
but  I  cannot  discover  that  its  occurrence  there  rests  on  any 
good  authority. 

39. — Spilornis  cheela,  Lath. 

This  species,  and  not  the  smaller  rutherfordi,  common 
throughout  Tenasserim  Proper,  is  said  (B.  of  B.,  p.  60)  to 
have  been  obtained  by  Ramsay  at  Tonghoo. 

39  ter. — Spilornis  rutherfordi,  Swinh.  (17.) 

Phaya,  Upper  Win  jo  ;  Beeling  ;  Thatone  ;  Megaloon ;  Amherst  ;  Taroy  ; 
Pakchan  ;  Bankasoon. 

Generally  distributed  throughout  the  province. 

[Taking  into  consideration  the  extreme  rarity  of  diurnal 
birds  of  prey,  excluding  Milvus  and  Haliastur  throughout 
Tenasserim,  the  present  species  may  be  said  to  be  compara- 
tively common  in  the  southern  and  central  portions.  There 
is  hardly  a  good  big  clearing,  or  fair  extent  of  paddy  land 
adjoining  forest  in  these,  where  one  or  more  may  not  be  either 
seen  or  heard  ;  but  it  is  very  wary,  and  consequently  difficult 
to  obtain. 

Frequenting  by  preference  cleared  land,  where  it  preys 
chiefly  on  lizards,  locusts,  &c,  it  is  still  occasionally  found 
in  dense  forest,  and  three  out  of  the  numerous  specimens 
I  shot  were  there  obtained.  Indeed  I  have  wondered  that  it  was 
not  more  often  found  in  thick  forest  than  it  is,  for  especially  in 
the  dense  moist  evergreen  forests  of  the  southernmost  por- 
tion of  the  province  not  only  does  the  ground  abound  with 
lizards,  brown  and  grey,  which  one  disturbs  at  almost  every 
step,  but  green  lizards,  both  large  and  small,  throng  the  trees, 
running  up  and  down  the  trunk,  chasing  each  other  about  the 
branches,  or  lying  motionless,  with  head  slightly  elevated  and 
every  sense  alert  to  danger,  sunning  themselves  on  some  log 
that  has  fallen  across  the  path  or  over  some  stream,  the  only 
places  where  the  sun  manages  to  penetrate.  Such  places,  one 
would   imagine,    would    be  the  chosen  hunting  grounds  of  an 

*  I  follow  Sharpe  in  considering  this  species  generically  distinct  from  the  preceding. 
It  is  a  much  more  robust,  compact,  Falcon-like  form. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSEKIM.  15 

exclusively  reptile-loving  species,  rather  than  the  open,  where 
reptiles  are  comparatively  scarce,  and  which  are  continually 
being  hunted  over  by  other  birds  of  prey  ;  but  naturally  wary, 
I  imagine  it  is  unwilling-  to  venture,  even  with  the  prospect 
of  a  more  abundant  supply  of  food,  iuto  places  where  it  would 
be  less  able  to  keep  a  successful  watch  against  danger,  or  if 
surprised  less  able  to  escape  quickly,  than  in  the  open.  I  got 
quite  close  to  all  the  three  specimens,  that  I  obtained  actually 
in  the  forest,  before  they  were  aware  of  my  approach,  and  to 
one  did  I  approach  so  closely  while  it  was  discussing  the  re- 
mains of  a  lizard  that  I  had  to  let  it  fly  some  little  distance 
before  I  fired    for  fear  of  injuring  it  as  a  specimen. 

Although,  however,  they  rarely  enter  the  forest  depths,  they 
frequent  their  neighbourhood.  Very  often  in  the  dense  forests  of 
the  south  there  are  hollows  or  little  valleys,  that  in  the  rains  are 
shallow  jheels,  or  rather  marshes,  overgrown  with  rank  grass 
and  weeds,  but  which  entirely  dry  up  in  the  cold  weather.  The 
forest,  of  course,  entirely  surrounds  these  openings  growing 
down  to  their  very  edges,  leaving  a  space  sometimes  only  forty 
or  fifty  yards  long  by  perhaps  half  that  width,  at  others  a  quar- 
ter of  a  mile  long  by  a  couple  of  hundred  yards  wide.  These 
places  are  very  favorite  resorts  of  the  Harrier  Eagle,  and  I  have 
hardly  ever  seen  one  of  these  places  where  one  or  more  of 
these  eagles  were  not  to  be  seen,  either  seated  on  some  neigh- 
bouring tree,  or  on  a  branch  of  some  dead  tree  that  had  fallen 
from  the  forest  partially  across  the  marsh,  or  circling  over 
head. 

I  have  occasionally  also  seen  them  along  the  banks  of 
streams,  and  I  find  I  have  a  note  of  having  shot  one  while 
seated  on  a  mud  bank  in  the  Pakchan  river. 

Their  cry,  wild  and  querulous,  is  continually  uttered  both 
when  seated  and  flying,  but  especially  so  as  the  bird  circles 
high  up  overhead.  It  is  quite  characteristic  of  the  genus 
and  that  of  the  present  bird  does  not  differ,  at  any  rate,  ap- 
preciably from  that  of  Elgini,  Davisoni,  and  the  Malay,  bird 
(f  pallidas)  the  only  other  species  with  whose  habits  and  cry 
I  am  acquainted. — "W.  D.] 

The  Harrier  Eagle  that  I  retain  for  the  present  under  this 
name  differs  from  S.  cheela,  chiefly  in  its  duller  coloration  and 
smaller  size  ;  whether  it  merits  specific  separation,  may  be 
doubted.  I  shall  deal  hereafter  separately  with  all  the  Indian, 
Burmese,  Malayan,  Ceylonese,  Andamanese  and  Nicobarese 
races  of  this  genus,  and  I  shall  not  enter  further  into  the  ques- 
tion at  present. 

It  is  sufficient  for  my  Indian  readers  to  say  that  both  old 
and  young  so  closely  resemble  cheela  that  they  cannot  mis- 
take the  bird  and  to  give  the  dimensions  recorded  from  a  large 


16  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

series  of  both  sexes,  which,   I   may  remark,  differ  very   little 
in  size  : — 

Males. — Length,  23  to  25  ;  expanse,  50-5  to  54  ;  tail  from 
vent,  10  to  11-5  ;  wing,  15'8to  17  ;  tarsus,  3*5  to  3*62  ;  billfrom 
gape,  1-75  to  2'0  ;  weight,  2*0  to  2 -4  lbs. 

Females. — Length,  24'5  to  28  ;  expanse,  52  to  56-37  ;  tail,  10-5 
to  12  ;  wing,  15*25  to  18  ;  tarsus,  3'5  to  362  ;  bill  from  gape, 
1*75  to  2-0  ;  weight,  17  to  2'5  lbs.  (only  2  weighed), 
i  In  the  adult  the  bill  is  plumbeous  blue,  shaded  with  brown 
at  the  tip  of  the  upper  mandible  ;  the  facial  skin  and  cere 
bright  yellow  ;  the  irides  bright  yellow  ;  the  legs  and  feet  pale 
dirty  yellow  ;  claws  black. 

In  younger  birds  the  bill  is  bluish  horny  ;  the  irides  pale 
yellow  ;  the  cere,  gape,  &c,  dingy  lemon  yellow. 

40.— Pandion  haliaetus,  Lin.  (l). 

Pakchan. 

Very  rare,  only  observed  as  yet  in  the  extreme  south  of  the 
province. 

[I  only  met  with  the  Osprey  on  a  few  occasions.  One  fre- 
quented the  Malewoon  stream  just  above  the  village  of  that 
name,  and  was  generally  to  be  seen  perched  on  a  huge  dead 
tree  growing  close  to  the  waters'  edge ;  but  it  was  so  exces- 
sively wary  that  I  could  never  even  obtain  a  shot  at  it  ;  once 
while  canoeing  up  the  Pakchan  very  early  in  the  morning 
I  disturbed  one  that  was  seated  on  a  dead  branch  that  over- 
hung the  stream,  and  within  a  foot  of  the  water,  intently 
eyeing  the  stream  beneath.  I  obtained  one  specimen,  a  female, 
further  up  the  same  stream.  Besides  these  three  I  noticed  the 
bird  perhaps  a  dozen  times,  and  as  far  as  my  recollection  serves 
me,  only  in  the  Pakchan.  I  can  never  remember  seeing  it  any- 
where on  the  coast,  nor  in  any  of  the  many  rivers  whose 
course  I  have  ascended,  so  that  except  in  the  extreme  south, 
it  must,  I  think,  be  very  rare  in  Tenasserim. — W.  D.] 

41.— Polioaetus  ichthyaetus,  Horsf.  (3).  S.  F.,  III., 
pp.  29,  363. 

(Tonghoo,  Rams.)  Thatone  ;  Pabyout ;  Pakchan. 

Sparingly  distributed  throughout  the  less  elevated  portions 
of  the  province. 

[Though,  owing  to  the  extreme  wariness  of  the  bird,  I  only 
procured  a  leash  of  specimens,  it  is  not  very  uncommon  in 
the  plains  portions  of  the  province,  but  I  never  met  with  it  any 
where  in  the  hills. 

At  inland  pieces  of  water,  in  the  Thatone  plains,  it  was  not 
rare ;  on  the  coast,  too,  I  have  often  seen  it,  and  two  or  three 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM-.  17 

pairs  are  always  to  be  heard  about  the  Pakchan.  I  say  heard, 
because  this  species  has  a  very  widely  resounding  weird  un- 
earthly cry,  which  often  attracts  attention  when  the  bird  is 
high  up  oat  of  sight  or  effectually  concealed. 

They  sit  on  trees  overhanging  the  water,  or  very  often  on 
fishing  stakes  in  the  middle  of  the  water,  watching  for  fish, 
which  seems  their  chief  food.  I  have  never  seen  them  strike 
at  fowl  as  leucoryphus,  I  am  told,  does. — W.  D.] 

41  ter. — Haliaetus   huniilis,    Mull.   &    SchL    Descr. 
S.  E.,  V.,  129. 

This  species,  I  have  good  reason  to  believe,  occurs  on  the 
coast  of  Tenasserim,  though  we  have  hitherto  always  failed  to 
secure  a  specimen. 

42.--Haliaetus  leucoryphus,  Fall.  (2). 

Thatone. 

A  magnificent  adult  male  and  a  young  female  were  shot  at 
Thatone.     They  were  both  shot  inland  near  a  large  jheel. 

Though  only  two  specimens  were  preserved  this  species  is  not 
uncommon  in  the  western  plains  portion  of  Northern  Tenas- 
serim. Davison  found  it  on  the  Thatone  Creek  and  up  the 
Sittang  from  the  Wau  Choung  to  the  town  of  Sittang. 

43.— Haliaetus  leucogaster,  Gm.  (3). 

Eight  miles  south  of  Mergui;  Malewoon. 

Sparingly  distributed  along  the  entire  coast. 

[  This  bird,  though  not  rare,  is  yet  not  common.  It  is 
found  everywhere  along  and  near  the  coast  in  Tenasserim, 
but  never  except  singly  or  in  pairs,  more  frequently  I  think 
in  pairs.  I  have  seen  it  going  up  the  Rangoon  River  as  well  as 
off  Moulmein,  and  in  many  places  along  the  coast.  A  pair  used 
to  frequent  the  harbour  at  Mergui,  and  many  a  weary  hour 
have   I  spent  in  futile   attempts  to   circumvent  them. 

Early  in  the  morning  as  the  fishing  boats  came  in,  accom- 
panied by  sundry  Sterna  bergii,  Gelochelidon  anglica  and  some- 
times a  specimen  or  two  of  Xema  bruneicephala,  these  two  eagles 
would  swoop  down  from  the  neighbouring  island  of  Patoe, 
where  they  were  accustomed  to  spend  the  night,  and  commence 
slowly  sailing  round  the  canoes,  keeping  a  sharp  look-out  for 
any  refuse  fish  that  might  happen  to  be  thrown  overboard 
chasing  one  another,  or  some  fortunate  Tern  that  had  secured 
a  fish,  and  compelling  it  to  relinquish  its  booty,  keeping  up 
the  whole  time  their  harsh  duck-like  quack.  Then  when  the 
fish  had  all  been  carried  off  to  market,  and  the  fishermen  had 
betaken  themselves   home,   when  the  last  piece  of  offal  had 

3 


18  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

been  disposed  of,  and  no  possible  prospect  remaining  of  any 
further  supplies  until  the  next  morning,  the  Terns  had  all 
flown  away  out  to  sea,  the  pair,  if  it  happened  to  be  low  water, 
would  usually  work  along  the  exposed  mud  bank?,  picking  up 
anything  eatable  left  by  the  receding  tide.  Then  after  a  time, 
or,  if  it  happened  to  be  high  water,  at  once,  they  would  betake 
themselves  to  one  of  the  fishing  stakes  or  some  neighbouring 
tree  where  they  would  sit  and  perform  their  morning  toilet, 
and  this  completed  commence  sailing  in  circles  over  the  har- 
bour or  town. 

I  have  often  tried,  when  I  thought  them  fully  occupied  with 
the  fishing  canoes,  to  steal  up  in  a  canoe  and  secure  a  specimen, 
but  always  without  success ;  they  were  always  too  wary ;  I  tried 
giving  the  gun  to  a  Burman.  and  sending  him  down  to  where 
the  fish  were  landed,  and  this  would  have  succeeded  could  the 
man  have  managed  to  shoot  straight ;  for  on  the  first  two 
mornings  he  did  succeed  in  getting  a  couple  of  very  fair  shots, 
but  without  doing  any  more  harm  than  frightening  the  Terns, 
and  a  couple  of  score  of  crows  that  always  took,  or  at  any  rate 
appeared  to  take,  great  interest  in  the  unloading  of  the  fish, 
to  judge  from  the  way  in  which  they  watched  and  followed  every 
basket  full. 

In  my  trip  down  to  Malewoon  from  Mergui  in  a  native  boat, 
all  or  nearly  all  the  islands  that  I  passed,  or  touched  at,  in- 
cluded a  pair  at  least  of  these  eagles  in  their  fauna,  but  these 
were  quite  as  wary  as  those  of  the  Mergui  harbour,  and  the 
consequence  was  that  I  only  succeeded  in  procuring  a  couple. 

Their  food  appears  to  consist  of  fish,  water-snakes,  and  other 
marine  edible  objects,  andtpf  these  only,  for  although  I  have 
often  seen  these  eagles  soaring  about  over  the  town  of  Mergui, 
I  have  never  seen  them  even  attempt  to  strike  any  of  the  num- 
berless chickens  that  ran  about  the  streets  and  outskirts  of  the 
place,  and  while  any  rubbish  carted  and  thrown  on  the  shore 
below  highwater  mark,  was  sure  to  attract  all  the  crows  of  the 
neighbourhood  and  many  Brahminy  Kites  (Haliastur  indus)  ; 
these  eagles  seldom  even  took  the  trouble  to  approach  the 
spot,  or  if  they  did,  (attracted  by  seeing  all  the  kites  and 
crows  in  the  vicinity  hurrying  there)  they  merely  circled  once 
or  twice  over  the  spot  and  then  hurried  away  seaward. — W.  D.] 

See  further  in  regard  to  this  species,  S.  ¥.,  IV.,  pp. 
422-4,  461. 

45.— Buteo  plumipes,  Eodgs.  (1). 

Thatone. 

A  rare  straggler  to  the  northern  portions  of  the  province* 
See  also  S.  F.;  HI.,  p.  30 ;  IV.,  p.  360 ;  V.,  p.  347. 


BIRDS   OJF  TENASSEMM.  19 

A  young  bird,  said  to  be  a  female,  of  this  species  was  shot  at 
Thatone  on  the  11th  February,  by  some  of  my  people,  workino- 
under  Mr.  Davis'  charge. 

Wing,  15'5  ;  tarsus,  2'7  ;  bare  front  of  tarsus,  1'5. 

The  upper  surface  is  a  pale  wood  brown ;  the  edges  of  the 
feathers  from  being  abraded  appear  much  lighter;  the  lower 
surface  is  a  dirty  white,  mottled  with  longitudinal  brown  spots  ; 
the  sides  and  middle  of  the  abdomen  darker  brown  than  the 
back ;  the  lower  abdomen,  vent,  and  lower  tail-coverts 
pure  white* 

The  tibial  plumes  have  the  characteristic  barrings  of  the 
Buzzards. 

48.— Butastur  teesa,  Frankl.   (3). 

(TongTioo,  Earns.)  That"ne;  Amherst. 

[I  never  once  saw  this  species  in  Tenasserim.— W.  D.] 

Our   only   specimens    were    procured    at  Amherst    by    Dr. 

Armstrong  and    by    Mr.    Davis  at  Thatone,  but  it  is   not  very 

rare  in  the  country  west  of  the  Sittang. 

48  fo's.— -Butastur  indicus^  Gm.  (5.) 

Amherst ;  Mergui ;  Pakchan  ;  Bankasoon. 

Not  common  even  in  the  extreme  south  of  the  province  *  a 
rare  straggler  to  the  lower  central  portions. 

[  I  had  but  scant  opportunity  of  observing  the  habits  of  this 
bird,  but  from  the  little  I  did  observe  of  it,  it  seemed  to  be  of 
a  confiding  and  somewhat  indolent  disposition,  preferring  to 
seat  itself  on  some  dry  tree  or  other  point  of  vantage,  from 
whence  it  keeps  a  look-out  for  lizards,  locusts,  &c,  of  which  its 
food  seems  principally  to  consist,  as  I  found  from  an  examina- 
tion of  the  stomachs  of  those  I  lulled. — W.  D.] 

This  is  very  like  B.  teesa,  but  larger,  and  the  adults  always 
to  be  distinguished  by  the  grey  tint  of  the  ear-coverts  and  the 
sides  of  the  neck  and  head  behind  the  ear-coverts  and  eyes,  and 
also  by  the  comparatively  broad  barrings  on  the  tail.  The  fol- 
lowing are  the  dimensions,  &c,  of  adults  : — 

Males— Length,  17  to  17*25 ;  expanse,  40;  tail,  7*75  to  7-8  • 
wing,  1S'12  to  13-75  ;  tarsus,  2'15  to  225;  bill  from  gape,  1*3 
to  l-35  ;  weight,  1*2  ozs. 

Female. — Length,  18;  expanse,  39;  tail,  7"  75;  wing,  1325  ; 
tarsus,  2*25  •  bill  from  gape,  1'45. 

The  irides  bright  yellow ;  legs  and  feet  bright  yellow  ;  claws 
black ;  cere,  gape,  greater  portion  of  lower  mandible,  upper 
mandible  to  0*25  beyond  nostril,  and  eye-shelf,  orange  yellowy 
rest  of  bill,  black. 


20  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

A  fine  male  has  the  lores,  eyelid  feathers  and  the  bases  of  the 
frontal  feathers,  white;  rest  of  forehead,  crown,  occiput,  and  nape, 
earth  brown  ;  feathers  inconspicuously  darker  shafted ;  upper 
part  of  sides  and  back  of  the  neck  grey  brown ;  feathers  incon- 
spicuously darker  shafted  ;  cheeks,  ear-coverts  and  lower  half  of 
sides  of  the  neck  brownish  grey  ;  chin  and  middle  of  throat  and 
front  of  the  neck  white,  or  yellowish  white,  with  a  grey  brown 
central  stripe  ;  the  brown  of  the  cheeks  and  sides  of  the  throat, 
where  it  meets  the  white,  a  little  darker  j  interscapulary  region 
and  scapulars  earth  brown,  not  so  grey  as  the  back  of  the  neck  ; 
the  feathers  dark-shafted ;  the  back  and  upper  tail-coverts  pure 
brown  ;  the  latter  conspicuously  tipped  and  barred  with  pure 
white;  edge  of  the  wing  white,  a  little  mottled  with  brown; 
winglet,  primaries,  and  their  greater  coverts  pure  brown  ;  the 
primaries  with  the  greater  portion  of  their  inner  webs  white,  with 
a  ferruginous  tinge  on  the  upper  surface  on  the  white  portion 
nearest  the  shaft,  and  with  several  narrow  imperfect  widely  se- 
parated black  bars  on  the  inner  web  ;  the  whole  of  the  rest  of  the 
coverts  and  the  secondaries  visible  in  the  closed  wing  brown, 
strongly  overlaid  with  ferruginous  red;  many  of  the  feathers  dark- 
shafted,  and  the  brown  showing  through  here  and  there  as  a 
mottling;  when  the  wing  is  open,  the  secondaries  are  found  to 
have  nearly  the  entire  outer  web  ferruginous,  a  little  mottled 
with  brown  and  with  several  imperfect  narrow  brown  transverse 
bars ;  the  tips  of  the  feathers  are  darkish  brown  ;  the  extreme 
tips  again  being  paler  ;  the  inner  webs  are  white",  shaded  on 
their  inner  portions  with  dusky  rufous  and  with  several  narrow 
transverse  bars.  The  terminal  portion  of  the  tertiaries  and 
later  secondaries  are  pale  earth  brown,  paling  still  further  to- 
wards the  tips  ;  the  tail  is  rather  pale  brown,  with  three  broad 
transverse  blackish  bars  on  both  webs,  except  on  the  outer  tail 
feathers  where  the  bars  are  nearly  obsolete  on  the  inner  and 
quite  so  on  the  outer  webs.  One  bar  is  about  half  an  inch  from 
the  tip  ;  the  second  about  the  middle  of  the  tail ;  and  the  third 
a  little  beyond  the  tips  of  the  upper  tail-coverts  ;  the  inter- 
spaces between  the  1st  and  2nd  and  2nd  and  3rd  bars  are 
markedly  paler  in  the  central  tail  feathers.  The  breast  is  a 
nearly  uniform  brownish  rufous,  a  little  mottled  with  white,  and 
the  feathers  dark-shafted ;  the  abdomen,  sides,  flanks,  tibial 
plumes  are  white,  transversely  barred  with  brownish  rufous,  the 
bars  being  broadest  and  closest  on  the  upper  abdomen  ;  many  of 
the  bars,  especially  on  the  tibial  plumes,  are  cuspidate ;  the  lower 
tail-coverts  are  unmarked  sordid  white.  The  wing-lining  is  yel- 
lowish white,  with  numerous,  more  or  less,  arrowhead-shaped 
brownish  rufous  spots  or  bars ;  the  lower  surface  of  the 
tail  is  grey ;  the  bars  showing  through  very  clearly,  except  on  the 
outer  tail  feathers. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  21 

In  younger  birds  the  cheeks  and  ear-coverts  are  a  darker  grey  ; 
the  occiput,  nape,  and  sides  of  the  neck  are  dark  grey  brown, 
streaked  with  rufous  ;  the  mantle  is  a  nearly  pure  hair  brown ; 
the  throat  is  much  more  tinged  with  buff;  the  breast  is  dark- 
er and  more  mottled  ;  and  the  rusty  rufous  tinge  is  wanting  on 
the  wing. 

In  a  still  younger  bird,  the  entire  crown,  occiput, 
nape,  and  sides  of  the  neck  are  mingled  darker  and  lighter 
brown,  ferruginous  and  huffy  white,  and  the  cheeks  are  streak- 
ed with  white,  and  the  ear-coverts  are  streaked  paler.  The  fea- 
thers of  the  breast  are  buffy  white,  with  lanceolate  rufous 
brown  shaft  stripes,  the  brown  of  the  abdomen  is  darker,  and 
the  bars  on  the  tail  are  much  less  conspicuous,  while  the  bars  on 
the  tibial  plumes  are  almost  heart-shaped. 

48  ter.— Butastur  liventer,  Tern.  (2.)   Descr.  S.  F., 
V.5  Ill,  31. 

(Tonghoo,  Lloyd,  Earns.)  Kaukaryit,  Hongtliraw  R  ;   Amherst. 

Confined  to  the  northern  and  central  portions  of  the  pro- 
vince,  and  very  rare  except  in  the  northernmost  districts. 

[Extremely  rare  in  Tenasserim  Proper.  I  never  saw  it  ex- 
cept once  at  Kaukaryit,  where  I  shot  a  male.  Armstrong, 
however,  shot  one  for  us  at  Amherst.  I  do  not  believe  that  it 
occurs  in  the  southernmost  portions  of  the  province,  which  I 
have  comparatively  exhaustively  worked. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  and  colors  of  soft  parts  of 
a  male  : — 

Length,  14'1 ;  expanse,  35*0;  tail  from  vent,  5-8;  wing, 
10-7  ;  tarsus,  2-3 ;  bill  from  gape,  1*2  ;  weight,  12  ozs. 

Legs  and  feet  gamboge  yellow ;  claws  black ;  one-third  of 
upper  mandible  and  tip  of  lower  mandible  dull  black ;  rest  of 
bill,  cere  and  gape,  orange  yellow ;  irides  pale  yellow,  facial 
skin  pale  yellow  ;  eyelids  orange  yellow. 

52—Circuspygargus,  Lin. —  C.  cinerarius,  Mont. 

Blyth  (B.  of  B.,  p.  61)  gives  this  from  Tenasserim;  he 
quotes  no  authority ;  we  have  never  seen  it  or  heard  of  its 
occurrence  there,  which  seems  to  me  doubtful.  At  the  same 
time  it  is  right  to  note  that  Ramsay  says,  Ibis,  1875,  p.  351,  that 
he  thought  he  saw  this  species  once  in  Karennee. 

53.— Circus  melanoleucus,  Forst.  (6).    S.  E.,  Ill,  33 ; 
V.  11. 

(Tonghoo,  Rams.)  Two  days'  march  north  of  Paapoon ;  Kedai  Keglay; 
Thatone ;  Ngabeemah  ;  Moulmein. 

Very  sparingly  distributed  throughout  the  province  during 
the  cold  season. 


22  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

[The  Pied  Harrier  is,  as  far  as  I  have  observed,  decidedly 
rare  in  Tenasserim.  It  occurs,  however,  though  sparingly, 
throughout  the  province  both  in  hills  and  plains,  and  extends 
much  further  south,  as  I  have  observed  it  at  Tonka  in  the  Malay 
Peninsula  and  even  at  Johore,  the  southernmost  portion  of  the 
latter.  I  have  seen  and  shot  it  at  Pahpoon,  and  at  Ngabeemah 
on  the  Attaran,  and  I  have  seen  it  on  one  occasion  hawking  over 
the  extensive  grassy  hills  at  Malewoon,  and  on  another  occasion 
in  the  paddy  flats  near  Kra. — W.  D.] 

54.— Circus  aeruginosus,  Lin.  (6.) 

(TongJioo,  Rams.)     Thatone  ;  near  Khyketo  ;  Assoon  ;  Amherst ;  Pakchan. 

Generally  distributed  throughout  the  province  during  the 
cold  season. 

[I  noticed  a  good  many  of  this  species,  chiefly  young  birds, 
on  the  extensive  plains  lying  between  the  Salween  and  Sittang 
rivers.  I  have  observed  it  on  other  occasions  in  several  other 
places  in  the  north,  and  at  Mergui,  Malewoon,  and  Pakchau 
in  the  south  of  the  province.  As  a  rule,  they  seem  to  prefer 
to  hunt  over  moist  and  marshy  gi'ound,  though  as  at  Malewoon 
I  have  occasionally  seen  them  working  the  grassy  sides  of  a 
hill.  I  have  noticed  in  Burma,  and  I  may  add  in  Southern 
India  as  well,  that  immature  birds  are  much  more  frequently 
seen  than  adults.  As  stated  by  Mr„  Oates  (S.  F.,  Ill, 
p.  35),  I  have  on  more  than  one  occasion  seen  this  species 
attempt  to  strike  wounded  game,  such  as  Snipe  and  Quail. — 
W.  D.] 

55.— Haliastur  indus,  JBodd.  (13.) 

{Tonghoo,  Earns.)  Moulmeinj;  Amherst ;  Tavoy ;  Shymotee ;  Zadawoon ; 
Mergui ;  Bankasoon. 

Extremely  common  throughout  the  less  elevated  portions  of 
the  province. 

[This  is  an  excessively  common  bird  throughout  Tenasserim 
alike  in  the  hills  and  plains,  but  only  where  there  is  water. 
It  is  more  numerous  in  the  north  than  the  south,  though 
even  in  the  latter  it  is  very  numerous,  and  may  there  be  said 
to  be  the  Kite,  for  although  Milvus  affinis  does  occur,  it  is  rare. 

The  Brahminy  Kite  is  essentially  a  water-loving  species, 
and  is  always  most  plentiful  about  the  rivers,  creeks, 
jheels,  fisheries,  &c.  I  saw  numbers  about  the  shipping  in 
the  harbour  at  Moulmein  :  at  Mergui  too  I  found  them  common. 
At  high  water,  as  a  rule,  they  flew  about  over  the  town  or  be- 
took themselves  to  the  paddy  flats  and  marshes  inland,  but 
when  the  tide  ebbed  and  left  the  mud  banks  exposed,  numbers 
were  always  to  be  seen  working  backwards  and  forwards  along 
the  shore,  occasionally  swooping  down   and  seizing   something 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  23 

off  the  surface  of  the  mud.  I  noticed  it,  too,  at  many  places 
along  the  coast  south  of  Mergui,  and  on  some  of  the  islands 
of  the  Archipelago,  (but  only  on  those  on  which  a  fishing 
station  had  been  established),  at  Malewoon,  and  up  both  banks 
of  the  Pakchau  many  miles  north  of  Kra.  As  far  south 
as  Penang  in  the  Malay  Peninsular  the  bird  may  be  said  to 
be  common,  but  south  of  Penang,  though  I  looked  carefully  for 
it,  I  never  met  with  it. — "W.  D.] 

56  ter—  Milvus  affinis,  Gould  (3). 

Eyouknyat ;  Pahpoon  ;  Kedai-Keglay. 

Rare  in  the  province  as  a  whole,  but  common  enough  in 
the  western  central  portion. 

[In  October  and  November  I  noticed  that  this  Kite  was  very 
common  about  the  shipping  in  the  Moulmein  river.  I  carefully 
watched  those  I  saw,  but  they  all  seemed  to  be  of  one  and  the 
same  species.  In  February  1876,  while  marching  from 
Thatone  to  the  Sittang,  I  also  saw  numbers  of  these  Kites, 
but  it  is  only  in  these  neighbourhoods  that  these  Kites  are  at 
all  numerous.  On  proceeding  southwards  their  numbers  dimin- 
ish rapidly  ;  at  Tavoy  it  is  rare  to  see  one,  and  at  Mergui  I 
saw  but  one  solitary  individual  all  the  time  I  was  there. 
Further  south  I  never  once  observed  it  in  Tenasserim,  but  at 
Penang,  Malacca  and  Singapore  I  occasionally  noticed  a  small 
Kite,  doubtless  of  this  species. — W.  D.] 

Por  distinctions  between  the  three  species  of  Kites  at  pre- 
sent known  to  occur  within  the  limits  of  our  Indian  Empire, 
see  S.  F.,  L,  160;  III.,  229. 

57.— Pernis  ptilorhyncha,  Tern.  (2). 

(TongTioO)  Runs.)  Moulmein;  Amherst. 

Rare  and  confined  to  the  central  and  north-western 
portions  of  the  province. 

[I  only  once  saw  a  Honey  Buzzard  in  Tenasserim,  and 
that  was  in  Mr.  Pattesson's  garden  in  Moulmein  where  I 
shot  a  female.  Armstrong  procured  us  one  specimen  at 
Amherst.— W.  D.] 

A  rare  bird  in  Tenasserim  ;  we  only  procured  two  specimens, 
both  of  the  ordinary  Indian  type,  with  only  incipient  crests. 

The  following  were  the  dimensions  and  colors  of  the  soft 
parts  of  an  apparently  adult  male,  (the  lores  and  the  whole  sides 
of  the  head  grey,)  shot  at  Moulmein  : — 

Length,  23;  expanse,  48'5  ;  tail  from  vent,  10'5  ;  wing,  16; 
tarsus,  1-9,  bill  from  gape,  1*7  ;  weight,  1*75  Tr3s. 

The  legs  and  feet  were  yellow ;  claws  black  ;  irides  dark 
brown  (in  adults  in  India   they  are  usually  brilliant  yellow)  ; 


24  BIRDS  OF   TENASSEKIM. 

upper  mandible  and  tips  of  tbe  lower  mandible  black;  rest  of 
lower  mandible  plumbeous;  cere  greenisb  black. 

I  have  already  referred,  S.  F.,  Ill,  p.  36,  to  Blyth's  P.  hra- 
chypterus ;  in  his  list  of  the  birds  of  Burmah  he  unites  this 
supposed  species  with  the  present.  It  was  remarkable  for  its 
crest  25  inches  in  length.  I  have  never  seen  any  examples 
from  India  or  Burma  with  a  crest  of  this  length,  but  Mr. 
Blyth's  specimen  was  said  to  have  come  from  Mergui,  and  I 
have  a  Malaccan  specimen  in  which  the  crest  is  fully  two 
inches. 

The  plumage  of  this  Malaccan  specimen  is  somehow  dif- 
ferent from,  aud  altogether  blacker  and  intenser  than,  that  of 
any  Indian  specimen  I  possess  or  have  seen,  and  I  have  shot 
great  numbers  of  this  species.  I  am  not  at  all  sure  that,  ulti- 
mately when  more  specimens  are  available,  it  will  not  be  found 
right  to  separate  the  Indian  and  Burmese  races  from  the 
Southern  Tenasserim  (?)  and  Malayan  form. 

I  assume  here  that  Blyth's  bird  was  really  killed  near 
Mergui,  but  certainly  the  specimens  of  several  species  sent  to 
Blyth  from  Mergui  were  never  killed  there,  unless  out  of 
cages,  and  came  really  from  the  Malay  Peninsular.  In  old 
days  before  steamers  ran  regularly  along  this  coast,  numbers 
of  junks  plied  regularly  between  the  Straits  and  Mergui,  and 
constantly  brought  up  with  them  caged  birds  and  skins. 

57  ter. — Machseramphus     alcinus,      Westerm.    (l). 
Descr.,  S.  E,  III,  269. 

Malewoon. 

A  straggler  to  the  extreme  south  of  the  province. 

[I  never  saw  this  bird  alive.  A  peon  of  Mr.  Hough's  shot 
and  brought  me,  in  the  flesh,  our  only  specimen.  It  must  be 
extremely  rare  in  Tenasserim. — W.  D.] 

58.— Baza  lophotes,  Cuv.  (6.) 

Choulai  Creek  ;  Palaw-ton-ton  ;  Malewoon. 

Kare  and  confined  apparently  to  the  southern  portions  of  the 
province. 

[I  have  only  met  with  this  species  in  Tenasserim,  south  of 
Mergui.  I  first  observed  it  in  December  at  a  place  called 
Choulai  Creek,  some  three  days'  sail  south  of  Mergui.  Here 
the  forest  consisted  for  the  most  part  of  immense  wood  oil 
trees,  the  mass  of  them  unbranched  for  the  first  80  or  100 
feet,  and  with  very  little  undergrowth.  High  up  amongst 
these  trees  there  were  a  score  or  more  of  these  Kites  singly, 
in  pairs,  or  in  small  parties  ;  they  kept  to  the  topmost  branches, 
fully   50  or    60    yards  from  the  ground    whence  they  made 


BIRDS    OF   TKNASSERIM.  25 

short  sailing  flights  after  insects,  perching  immediately  after 
they  had  seized  their  prey.  At  times  they  would  cling  head 
downwards  for  a  few  seconds  to  some  of  the  smaller  branches ; 
they  had  a  sharp  kite-like  squeal,  to  which  they  occasionally, 
but  not  often,  gave  utterance.  I  find  the  following  note  in  my 
note-book  :  To-day,  in  the  forests  south  of  Bopyiu,  I  had  a  good 
opportunity  of  noticing  a  Baza  before  I  shot  it.  It  was  iu  the 
thickest  part  of  the  forest  ;  it  kept  making  sallies  after  insects, 
always  catching  them  with  its  feet,  sometimes  in  the  air, 
sometimes  picking  them  off  a  leaf  before  which  it  would  flutter 
for  a  few  seconds  ;  after  each  flight  it  would  perch  rather  low 
down,  seldom  returning  to  the  perch  from  which  it  started.  Both 
when  seated,  and  when  just  about  to  start  after  an  insect,  it 
occasionally  gave  utterance  to  a  peculiar  note,  or  rather  series 
of  notes,  between  a  squeal  and  a  whistle.  It  confined  itself  to 
insects  and  did  not  attempt  to  strike  any  of  the  small  birds 
that  were  about ;  in  fact,  the  birds  seemed  to  know  that  they 
were  safe,  as  they  did  not  apparently  attend  to  the  movements 
of  the  Baza  in  the  least. 

This  is,  I  should  say,  eminently  a  forest  bird  ;  on  only  one 
occasion  have  I  seen  it  in  the  open,  and  then  there  were  three 
birds  together  flying  at  a  good  height  ;  but  they  were  making 
straight  for  a  bit  of  forest  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  distant  ; 
they  flew  rather  swiftly  and  with  continued  flappings  of  their 
wings.  I  found  only  the  remains  of  insects,  chiefly  coleoptera, 
in  the  stomachs  of  those  I  examined. 

This  bird,  when  fresh,  has  a  most  peculiar  and  disagreeable 
odour ;  what  might  be  termed  a  regular  frog-like  or  bug-like 
smell ;  nor  does  this  wear  off  till  the  skin  has  been  exposed  to 
the  air  for  some  considerable  time. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  and  colors  of  the  soft  parts 
recorded  in  the  flesh  of  two  males  and  four  females  : — 

Males.— Length,  12-35  to  12*5;  expanse,  295  to  30-5;  tail 
from  vent,  5"3  to  5'5  ;  wing,  9-0  to  9-5  ;  tarsus,  1-0  to  1\L2  ;  bill 
from  gape,  1*0  to  1  05 ;  weight,  6  to  7  ozs. 

Females.— Length,  12-0  to  13-0  ;  expanse,  30'O  to  305  ;  tail 
from  vent,  5'8  to  6'62 ;  wing,  9  5  to  9'82  ;  tarsus,  1-0  to  1-1  ; 
bill  from  gape,  0-95  to  1-05  ;  weight,  7*0  to  8  ozs. 

Legs  and  feet  plumbeous  blue  ;  claws  horny  black ;  bill  and 
cere  plumbeous  blue  ;  tip  of  upper  mandible  black. 

58  bis.— Baza  sumatrensis,  Lafres.  (1.)  Descr.  S.  P. 
III.,  313,  B.  incognita,  Ilume,  loc.  cit . 

Between  Hankachin  and  Bahonee- 

Very  rare  and  probably  almost  confined  to  the  southernmos 
portions  of  the  province. 

4 


20  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

[I  only  succeeded  in  getting  one  specimen,  and  that  was  shot 
and  given  to  me  by  Mr.  A.  L.  Hough.  We  were  sitting  together 
in  an  old  clearing  near  Bahonee  when  the  bird  flew  from  an 
adjoining  forest  and  settled  on  an  old  dead  tree  whence  Hough 
shot  it  On  one  other  occasion  I  saw  one  in  a  small  clearing 
near  Bankasoon.  On  both  occasions  the  bird,  when  seated,  kept 
its  crest  erected  nearly  at  right  angles  to  the  top  of  its  head. 
This,  I  believe,  to  be  the  normal  position  of  the  crest  in  Baza. 
I  have  seen  a  good  number  of  Baza  lophotes,  and  they  always 
had  their  crests  well-erected.  Mr.  Sharpe  (Cat.  B.  I.)  figures 
Baza  with  the  crests  lying  flat  along  the  head.  This  I  believe 
to  be  incorrect,  at  any  rate,  as  far  as  lophotes,  and  the  birds 
identified  by  Mr.  Hume  as  sumatrensis  are  concerned. — W.  D.] 

It  is  by  no  means  certain  that  this  bird  is  really  sumatrensis. 
It  may  have  to  take  my  name,*  supra  cit. 

59  — Elanus  cseruleus,  Desf.  (1). 

Thafcone. 

Blyth  (B.  of  B.,  p.  60)  gives  this  from  Tenasserim,  and  it 
does  occur  in  the  western  plains  portion  of  Upper  Tenasserim, 
where  our  people  procured  a  single  specimen ;  but  all  the  other 
Burmese  specimens  that  I  have  received  have  been  from  Pegu 
and  Arrakan. 

60. — Strix  javanica,t  Om. 

Blyth  says  (B.  of  B.,  p.  68)  that  this  is  common  and  general- 
ly diffused  in  Burma,  thereby  implying  that  it  occurs  in  Tenas- 
serim. I  do  not  dispute  the  fact,  but  I  can  at  the  moment 
find  no  record  of  any  specimen    having  been  actually  procured 

*  It  is  by  no  means  impossible,  however,  that  this  may  be  the  Spizaetus  lathami, 
Tickl.,  J.  A.  S.  B.,  II,  569,  1833,  (S.  E.,  II,  378),  or  even  Baza  jerdoni,  Blyth, 
J.  A.  S.  B.,  XI,  464,  1842 ;  XV.,  4,  1846. 

f  Mr.  Sharpe  unites  almost  all  the  Barn  Owls  of  the  world  under  Linnaeus'  name, 
viz: — 

flammea,  of  Europe  and  N.  W.  Africa. 

insulanis,  of  Cape  Verde  Islands. 

poensis,  of  South  Africa 

indica,  of  India  and  Siam. 

javanica,  of  Java,  Lombok,  &c. 

rosenbergi,  of  Celebes,  &c 

delicatula,  of  Australia. 

lulu,  of  Oceana. 

pratincola,  of  N.  America. 

guatimalce.  of  Mexico  and  the  Northern  half  of  S.  America. 

furcata,  of  Jamaica. 

glaucops,  of  St.  Domingo. 

punctaiissima,  of  the  Galapagos 
It  is  impossible  for  me   to  attack  Mr.  Sharpe's   position  ;   still  I   must  say  that   my 
Javan  and  Indian  specimens  appear  identical;  Australian  and  European  ones  distinct. 
Therefore  I  retain  Gmelin's  name. 

Probably  tbe  generic  name  Strix  for  this  genus  cannot  be  maintained,  vide  Newton, 
Jbis,  1876,  94. 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM.  27 

within  the   limits  of  the  province ;    and   it    is    certainly   rare 
there,  if  it  does  occur. 

61.— Strix  Candida,  Tick. 

Has  been  sent  from  Tonghoo  by  Major  Lloyd.  Davison,  who 
knows  it  well  having  often  shot  it  on  the  Nilgheris,  has  never 
yet  met  with  it,  though  he  has  visited  pretty  well  all  likely  places 
from  Kolidoo  southwards.  I  expect  that  it  does  not  occur  in 
Tenasserim  proper. 

62. — Phodilus  badius,  Eorsf. 

Blyth  (B.  of  B.,  p.  67)  gives  this  from  Tenasserim  ;  Wardlaw 
Ramsay  got  it  at  Tonghoo  and  on  the  Karennee  Hills.  Davison 
has  never  yet  met  with  it. 

63. — Syrnium  indranee,  Sykes.     (B.  of  B.,  p.  67.) 

We,  ourselves,  have  never  met  with  this  species  in  Tenasserim; 
and  if  a  bird  of  the  kind  occurs,  it  is  quite  as  likely  to  be  the 
Malayan  as  the  Southern  Indian  form  of  this  Owl.  Tickell,  we 
are  told,  Ibis,  1876,  342,  figures  a  nestling,  but  nestlings  of  the 
two  forms  would  hardly  be  distinguishable  without  careful 
comparison. 

Mr.  Sharp  remarks  (Cat.  II.,  283)  that  a  Malaccan  specimen 
submitted  to  him  for  examination  was  not  to  be  separated  from 
a  skin  of  Dr.  Jerdon's  from  Southern  India.  We  have  now  a 
specimen  from  Kotagherry  on  the  Nilgheris,  which  proves  to 
be  identical  with  Ceylon  birds.  There  is  no  doubt,  therefore, 
that  Syrnium  indranee  (though  the  original  description  of  it 
omits  its  most  essential  feature,  viz.,  the  bright  ochraceous  disc) 
is  the  same  bird  that  I  described  from  Ceylon,  S.  F.,  I,,  430, 
under  the  name  of  ochrogenys. 

But  I  cannot  agree  with  Mr.  Sharpe  that  Malayan  examples 
are  not  to  be  separated.  They  are  larger,  far  deeper  colored 
above,  have  a  conspicuous  chocolate  chin  patch  and  deep  choco- 
late bands  under  the  anterior  portion  of  the  disc  barely  in- 
dicated in  indranee.  They  have  a  much  more  ferruginous  face, 
and  they  want  the  conspicuous  white  eyebrow,  which  in  in- 
dranee meets  over  the  base  of  the  bill,  and  thence  runs  on 
either  side  to  quite  over  the  centre  of  the  eye.  The  corre- 
sponding less  defined  eyebrow  in  the  Malaccan  form  is  of  the 
same  color  as  the  disc,  a  dull  ferruginous,  mingled  with  ferru- 
ginous buff. 

To  me  it  seems  that  Malaccan  specimens  can  be  separated  at 
a  glance,  and  such  being  the  case,  and  the  habitats  being 
widly  separated,  I  think  the  former  should  bear  a  distiuct 
name,   and  I   propose  for  the  Malaccan  race  the  name  of  main* 


28  BIRDS    OF    TENASSERIM. 

gayi  in  memory  of  a  gentleman  whose  long  labors  in  the 
cause  of  Botany  and  Natural  History  appear  to  have  met  with 
very    scant  recognition. 

The  Burmese  specimen,  referred  to  by  Mr.  Blyth,  loc.  cit.,  and 
mentioned  by  me,  Rough  Notes,  351,  was  sent  from  Rangoon, 
and  was  said  to  have  been  procured  in  the  Arrakan  Hills.  It 
was  undoubtedly  newarense,  but  it  was  a  purchased  skin,  and 
I  attach  no  certainty  now  to  its  alleged  origin. 

65  bis. — Syrnium  seloputo  *  Borsf.  (1). 

Bankasoon. 

Very  sparingly  distributed  in  the  better- wooded  tracts  of 
the  southern  and  central  portions  of  the  province. 

[This  Owl  appears  to  be  very  rare  in  Tenasserim.  Anxious 
as  I  was  to  secure  specimens,  I  only  succeeded  in  shooting  one. 
On  one  occasion  I  heard  it  near  the  village  of  Malewoon,  and 
Mr.  A.  L.  Hough  heard  it  at  Pakchan.  A  pair  frequented  the 
forest  at  the  back  of  the  village  of  Bankasoon.  They  used  to 
make  their  appearance  soon  after  dusk,  and  keep  about  the 
forest  (I  never  knew  them  come  into  the  open)  till  just  about 
dawn,  when  they  retired. 

As  they  never  came  into  the  open  (at  any  rate  not  to  my 
knowledge,  and  not  in  the  early  part  of  the  night)  and  were 
somewhat  shy,  it  was  some  time  before  I  managed  to  get  a 
shot,  but  I  did  manage  at  last  to  secure  one.  I  found  in  its 
stomach  only  the  remains  of  some  large  beetles  and  nothing 
else. 

The  hoot  of  this  Owl  is  very  peculiar,  once  heard  never 
either  to  be  forgotten  or  confounded  with  that  of  any  other 
Owl ;  it  commences  with  a  sort  of  rolling  hoo-hoo-hoo,  and 
ends  with  a  prolonged  and  deep  drawn  hoo. 

It  is  perfectly  distinct  from  that  of  indranee,  which  is  a  hoo, 
then  hoo-hoo,  and  then  hoo,  as  also  from  that  of  nivicola,  so 
common  here  at  Simla,  which  is  simply  hoot,  hoot,  a  double 
call  repeated  at  intervals  of  some  minutes. — W.  D.] 

A  fine  specimen,  a  male,  measured  in  the  flesh  : — ■ 

Length,  18*5 ;  expanse,  48- ;  tail  from  vent,  8* ;  wing, 
1325  ;  tarsus,  2*4  ;  bill  from  gape,  T75  ;  weight,  1'75  its. 

The  claws  and  visible  portion  of  toes  horny;  bill  and  cere 
greenish  black  ;  irides  dark  brown. 

The  whole  face  ferruginous  buffy ;  most  ferruginous  on  the 
feathers  behind  the  eye ;  cheeks  nearly  white,  as  is  also  the  chin, 
all  the  feathers  of   these   parts  with  disunited  webs,  as  usual 

*  If  Latham's  name  sinense  could  be  proved  to  apply  to  this  species,  it  would  have 
precedence  ;  but  Latham's  dimensions  and  description  suit  ocellatum,  Less,  better  than 
this  present  species.  I  myself  reject  Latham's  name  ltogether,  its  subject  not  being 
at  present,  to  my  mind,  clearly  identifiable. 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM.  29 

amongst  these  Owls ;  a  band  across  the  middle  of  the  throat, 
extending  on  either  side,  as  far  back  as  the  ears  (underneath  the 
chocolate  brown  band  that  defines  the  disc  from  the  edge  of  the 
lower  mandible  to  the  ears)  rich  buff,  a  little  mottled  with  brown. 
A  large  patch  at  the  base  of  the  throat  pure  white ;  some  of 
the  lowest  of  the  feathers  with  a  narrow  black  bar  at  or  near 
the  tip  ;  entire  breast  with  the  feathers  rich  buff,  very  soft  and 
silky,  barred  at  the  tips  where  the  texture  is  rather  firmer,  with 
two  white  and  two  blackish  brown  bars.  The  whole  of  the 
abdomen,  vent,  lower  tail-coverts,  sides,  and  flanks,  white  with 
regular  transverse  blackish  brown  bars,  narrower  than  those  in 
the  breast  feathers,  and  about  twice  as  far  apart ;  here  also  the 
bases  of  the  feathers  are  a  warm  buff,  but  little  of  this  shows 
through  in  these  parts  ;  wing-lining-  is  similar,  so  are  the  feet, 
tibiae  and  tarsi,  but  here  the  bars  are  still  narrower,  rather 
lighter  in  color  and  closer  set ;  forehead,  above  the  disc, 
crown,  occiput,  nape,  deep  blackish  brown,  a  little  of  the  buffy 
bases  of  the  feathers  showing  through  here  and  there,  and  most 
of  the  feathers  with  an  imperfect  white  bar,  or  a  pair  of  white 
spots  near  the  tip  ;  sides  of  the  neck,  barred  like  the  breast, 
but  less  of  the  buff  bases  of  the  feathers  showing  through  ;  a 
more  or  less  imperfect  buff  collar  at  the  base  of  the  back  of 
the  neck. 

Interscapular^  region  and  upper  scapulars  a  rich  chocolate 
brown,  with  imperfect  transverse  bars,  or  series  of  irregular 
spots,  white,  margined  with  blackish  brown  ;  some  of  the  under- 
scapulars,  with  the  terminal  portions  pure  white,  a  little  fringed 
with  buffy,  and  with  narrow  black  bars  on  the  outer  webs 
which  on  the  inner  webs  open  out,  and  enclose  rufous  chocolate 
brown  patches  ;  the  coverts  (except  quite  along  the  edge  of  the 
wing  where  they  are  buffy  white,  barred  more  or  less  like  the 
wing-lining)  much  like  the  back,  but  the  larger  secondary  ones 
broadly  mottled  with  white  on  the  outer  webs  towards  the  tips. 

Primary  coverts  plain  brown;  primaries  above  the  emargina- 
tions,  and  secondaries,  browner  than  the  back,  not  so  chocolate 
paler  on  the  outer  webs,  with  broad  irregular  imperfect  white 
bars,  more  or  less  mottled  with  dusky  and  defined  on  either  side 
by  a  dusky  line ;  primaries  below  the  emarginations  dark  brown, 
with  white  spots ;  inner  webs,  except  towards  the  points,  with 
great  irregular  pale  bars,  (buffy  towards  the  shafts,  nearly  white 
towards  the  margins)  which,  towards  the  bases  of  the  feathers 
coalesce  more  or  less  and  occupy  almost  the  whole  surface.  On 
the  under-surface  these  feathers  are  a  warm  pinky  buff. 

The  quills  are  tipped  greyish  white  above,  grey  below ;  the 
tail  is  brown,  tipped  white  above,  grey  below,  with  an  orange 
buff  shade  on  the  outer  webs  most  conspicuous  towards  the 
bases  of  the  feathers. 


30  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

On  the  central  tail  feathers  and  on  the  outer  wehs  of  the  rest, 
there  are  a  few  small  inconspicuous  white  spots  looking  like 
traces  of  obsolete  bars  ;  inner  webs  of  the  lateral  tail  feathers, 
with  numerous  pale  bars  which,  towards  the  bases  of  the  fea- 
thers, are  strongly  tinged  with  ferruginous  buff,  and  there  have  a 
tendency  to  coalesce  along  the  margins  of  the  feathers. 

Long  ago  I  received  this  from  Rangoon  where  later  Mr.  Oates 
procured  many  specimens.  Captain  Feilden  got  it  at  Thayet- 
myo.  Davison  not  only  shot  it  at  Bankasoon,  but  heard  it 
repeatedly  at  Malewoon  and  Mooleyit.  Its  note  is  quite  dis- 
tinct from  that  of  indranee  with  which  he  has  been  for  years 
familiar  on  the  Nilgheris. 

Mr.  Blyth  (B.  of  B.,p.  67)  quotes  my  remark  (Rough  Notes, 
357,)  that  in  Assam  this  species  apparently  replaced  S.  occela- 
tum. 

The  late  Mr.  V.  Irwin  brought  me  to  examine,  when  he  was 
on  his  way  home,  a  small  lot  of  birds  that  he  had  obtained 
from  a  friend  in  Assam.  Amongst  them  was  a  specimen  of 
seloputo.  All  the  birds  had  attached  to  them  labels  on  which 
were  noted  "  rare/'  "  common/'  "  pretty  common/'  as  the  case 
might  be.  Seloputo  was  marked  "  pretty  common,"  or  "  not 
rare,"  I  forget  which. 

Since  then  I  have  seen  no  second  specimen  from  Assam,  nor 
has  Godwin-Austen,  I  believe,  procured  it  there,  and  I,  therefore, 
now  very  much  doubt  whether  that  specimen  was  ever  pro- 
cured in,  although  it  came  from,  Assam ;  the  more  so  that  the 
collection  contained  two  other  species — Pitta  moluccensis  and 
Crypsirhina  varians,  neither  of  which,  I  now  believe,  really 
occur  in  Assam. 

68. — Asio  accipitrinus,  Pall. 

A  single  specimen  of  this  species  was  procured  by  Ramsay 
at  Tonghoo ;  it  has  not  as  yet  been  observed  elsewhere  in 
Tenasserim. 

71. — Bubo  nipalensis,  Hodgs. 

Ramsay  procured  this  species  at  Tonghoo. 

Mr.  Blythremarks  (B.  of  B.,  p.  65)  :  "  A  specimen  in  nestliug 
garb  of  Huhua  nipalensis  was  obtained  by  Colonel  Tickell  upon 
Mooleyit,  and  described  by  him  as  Ptiloshelos  amlierstii.  This 
species  has  been  confounded  with  the  Malayan  H.  orientalis, 
Horsf.,  which  is  a  much  smaller  kind,  and  otherwise  differs 
considerably.  The  young  of  both  are  in  the  British  Museum, 
which  enables  me  to  confirm  the  present  identification." 

Colonel  Tickell's  description,  J.  A.  S.  B.,  XXVIII.,  448, 
1859,  is  as  follows  : — 

u  Nestling — Sex  not  distinguishable.  Length,  15*5  ;  wing, 
10  5;  tarsus,  175;  femur,  4-25;  bill,  1*81.    Iris  sepia;  bill 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM.  31 

and  feet  pale  flesh  colour,  the  latter  with  a  yellowish  tinge ; 
claws  blackish  horny;  head,  neck  and  body,  including 
scapulars  and  wing  coverts,  dirty  white,  tinged  more  or  less 
deeply  with  orange  tawny.  Each  feather  marked  near  its  end 
with  an  arrow-headed  bar  of  sepia ;  head  and  nape  with  spots 
of  the  same ;  on  the  breast  these  marks  take  the  form  of 
wide  broken  bars,  lapping  round  the  neck;  wing-coverts 
also  irregularly  barred.  All  the  plumage  is  immature  and 
deciduous,  but  the  remiges  (which  usually  at  once  assume  the 
permanent  colouring)  are  ashy  sepia,  barred  broadly  and  softly 
with  full  sepia,  with  marbled  interspaces  ;  downy  plumes  of 
legs  white." 

With  the  greatest  deference  for  Mr.  Blyth's  opinion,  I 
must  still  point  out  that,  in  my  opinion,  the  dimensions 
given  by  Tickell  are  altogether  too  small  for  even  a  quite  young 
bird  of  Huhua  nipalensis,  and  that  they  would  much  better  fit 
a  nestling  of  H.  orientalis — a  species  which,  as  will  be  seen 
below,  we  obtained  at  the  foot  of  the  same  range  of  hills  to 
which  Mooleyit  pertains,  though  a  long  way  to  the  south  of 
this  peak. 

71  &is. — Bubo  orientalis,*  Horsf.  (1.) 

Hear  Hankachin. 

Apparently  very  rare  in  Tenasserim,  and  probably  entirely  a 
forest  and  hill  bird. 

[Only  on  one  occasion  have  I  met  with  this  species  in  Tenas- 
serim, and  that  was  in  dense  forest  on  the  road  between 
Malewoon  and  Mergui.  It  was  a  pouring  wet  day,  and  the 
poor  bird  was  so  drenched  that  I  had  no  difficulty  in  catching 
it  after  a  short  chase.  Its  stomach  was  quite  empty.  I  also 
shot  it  in  the  Malay  Peninsular,  but  never  heard  its  note,  or 
had  any  opportunity  of  observing  its  habits. — W.  D.] 

Two  males  measured  : — 

Length,  18-0,  18-25  ;  expanse,  48'25  ;  tail  from  vent,  6-75 ; 
wing,  13*75  ;  tarsus,  2#0  ;  bill  from  margin  of  nostrils  to 
point,  0"96,  1*1 ;  from  gape,  T7,  1*9. 

Feet  clear  yellow;  chrome  yellow;  claws  black;  horny  green, 
at  base  plumbeous  ;  bill,  cere,  and  eyelids  yellow,  clear  in  the 
one  specimen,  chrome  in  the  other;  irides  dark  brown. 

Upper  set  of  loral  bristles,  feathers  immediately  over  and 
round  the  upper  portion  of  the  eye,  black.  These  bristles 
white  at  their  extreme  bases ;  lower  portion  of  loral  bristles 
white,  the  longest  with  the  terminal  halves  blackish  brown  ; 
point  of  the  forehead,    and  an  obscure    band  on  each  side  of 

_  *  If  Schlegel  is  right  in  maintaining  the  distinctness  of  the  Malayan  and  Sumatran 
birds  from  the  Javan  to  which  Borsfield's  name  applies,  then  our  Tenasserim  birds, 
■which  are  identical  with  Malayan  ones,  will  stand  as  B,  sumatrensis,  Raffl. 


32  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

the  anterior  half  of  the  crown,  greyish  white  ;  middle  of  fore- 
head barred  greyish  white  and  brown  ;  crown,  occiput,  nape, 
upper  portion  of  sides  of  the  neck,  and  entire  mantle,  deep 
brown,  with  narrow  wavy  pale  rufescent  transverse  bars,  nar- 
rowest on  the  crown ;  aigrettes  of  numerous  feathers,  from 
about  2  to  2'5  long  ;  upper  feathers  barred  like  the  forehead,  the 
lower  ones  blackish  brown,  unbarred  or  only  slightly  barred 
towards  their  margins  or  tips.  Some  of  the  under-scapulars 
white,  with  black  bars ;  coverts  about  the  shoulder  of  the  wing, 
winglet,  and  primary  greater  coverts  plain,  very  dark  brown ; 
rest  of  the  coverts  and  scapulars  much  like  the  upper  back, 
but  the  rufescent  bars  wider,  and  with  mottled  brown  centres, 
(in  the  lower  feathers,  often  as  it  were  dividing  each  rufescent 
bar  into  two),  and  a  few  of  the  coverts  white-tipped.  Terti- 
aries  similar  again,  but  the  pale  bars  less  rufescent,  and  more 
distinctly  broken  up  by  an  interior  brown  Hue,  or  line  of  brown 
spots. 

Upper  tail-coverts  hair  brown,  with  narrow  trausverse  rufes- 
cent bars  like  the  upper  back;  tail  deep  brown,  conspicuously 
white-tipped,  the  white  a  good  deal  freckled  with  brown, 
and  with  five  rather  narrow  transverse  rufescent  white 
bars,  also  mottled  and  spotted  with  brown ;  inner  webs 
of  laterals  broadly  banded  paler  with  white  towards  the  bases 
where  these  bars  are  broadest,  and  grey  brown  towards  the 
tips ;  primaries  above  the  emarginations  and  secondaries 
with  broad  paler  bars,  more  or  less  defined  by  a  darker  line 
on  either  side,  and  mottled  with  brown.  These  paler  bars 
vary  in  color,  in  some  places  they  are  a  pale  fawn  color,  in 
others  pale  greyish  brown,  in  others  sordid  lutescent  white. 

Primaries  beyond  the  emarginations  darker  brown,  with 
traces  of  paler  bars  ;  inner  webs  of  quills  broadly  banded 
paler,  white  towards  the  bases  where  these  coalesce  more  or 
less,  and  occupy  the  greater  portion  of  the  surface  of  the 
feather,  and  pale  grey  brown  towards  the  tips ;  cheeks  and 
ear-coverts  mottled  grey  brown  and  dingy  white ;  chin  and 
bristles  of  the  gape,  and  base  of  lower  mandible  white ;  entire 
throat  and  breast  white,  all  the  feathers  towards  their  tips 
closely  banded  with  blackish  brown. 

A  more  or  less  rufescent  brown  tinge  on  the  feathers  of  the 
sides  of  the  breast,  extending  in  some  right  across  the  breast 
and  forming  a  pectoral  band. 

Abdomen,  sides,  flanks,  vent,  lower  tail-coverts  white,  with 
broader  and  more  widely  separated  blackish  brown  bands ; 
tibial  and  tarsal  plumes  similar,  but  the  bands  narrower  and 
closer  set. 

Lowermost  feathers  of  the  feet  and  the  inner  portion  of 
tarsi    unbarred ;    axillaries     barred    like    the   flanks ;    wing- 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  33 

lining  white,  irregularly  barred  or  spotted  with  blackish 
brown. 

In  some  specimens  the  grey  frontal  band  is  almost  obsolete  ; 
the  middle  of  the  forehead,  crown,  occiput,  nape,  sides  of  the 
neck,  and  almost  the  whole  of  the  aigrettes,  are  unbarred 
blackish  brown. 

I  presume  this  difference  is  due  to  age ;  it  is  certainly  not 
sexual ;  it  may  be  individual. 

72.— Ketupa  ceylonensis,  Gm.  (5). 

(Tonghoo,  Earns-)  Thatone  ;  Amherst ;  Pakchan. 

Sparingly  distributed  throughout  the  province,  but  not 
ascending  the  hills  to  any  great  elevation. 

[Extends,  at  any  rate,  as  far  south  as  Malewoon,  and  I  have 
seen  it  as  far  north  as  Pahpoon,  but  is  by  no  means  common  as 
a  rule.  At  Amherst  it  was  not  very  uncommon,  and  occurred 
in  about  equal  numbers  with  Ketupa  javanensis.  During  the 
day  they  generally  took  shelter  in  some  dense  clump  of  bam- 
boos or  bushy  tree,  making  their  appearance  soon  after  sunset. 
— W.  D.] 

We  have  not  yet  obtained  this  in  the  Malay  Peninsular,  but, 
as  it  is,  the  range  of  this  species  from  Hong-Kong  via  the 
Pakchan  estuary  to  Palestine  is  a  wide  one. 

73  bis. — Ketupa  javanensis,  Less.  (8)  Descr.  S.  F,, 
IV.,  p.  301. 

Amherst ;  Tenaaseiim  Town  ;  Pukchan  ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Generally  distributed  throughout  the  province,  but  rare  in 
the  northern  half. 

[Captain  Bingham  obtained  this  in  the  Sinzaway  reserve, 
but  I  myself  never  met  with  the  species  in  the  northern  half 
of  Tenasserim. 

I  first  saw  and  shot  it  at  Amherst,  further  south  it  was  more 
common,  aud  further  south  still  as  at  Malacca  it  seemed  to  be 
very  common  Both  when  seated  and  when  on  the  wing,  this 
Owl  utters  at  intervals  of  about  half  a  minute  a  soft  low 
whistling  note,  that  might  be  syllabized  to-wee,  to-wee. 
The  note  is  so  soft,  and  withal  so  musical,  that  it  seems 
strange  it  should  proceed  from  such  a  comparatively  large 
bird,  and  that  too  an  Owl,  but  that  it  does  utter  this  note,  there 
is  no  doubt,  as  I  have  shot  the  bird  in  the  act  of  uttering  it. 
Besides  this  note,  it  has  also  a  low  querulous  one,  which  is, 
however,  much  less  often  heard. 

On  several  occasions  I  have  flushed  this  Owl  from  a  thick 
bamboo  clump  or  bushy  tree  growing  on  the  banks  of  some 
large   stream.     It  appears   to   possess  all  its  faculties,  and  to 

5 


34  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

see  as  well  by  day  as  by  night.  In  the  day  it  is  very  shy,  and 
when  once  it  has  been  disturbed  will  seldom  permit  of  a  near 
approach.  The  food  consists  apparently  of  insects,  such  as 
large  beetles,  &c.;  at  any  rate  I  never  found  the  remains  of 
mammals,  birds,  fishes  or  reptiles  in  the  stomachs  I  exa- 
mined.— W.  D.] 

74.— Scops  pennatus,  Eodgs.  (4). 

Thoungsha,  Gyne  R.  ;  Amherst ;  Mergui. 

Generally  distributed  throughout  the  better-wooded  por- 
tions of  the  province. 

[May  not  be  rare  as  one  often  hears  the  note  ;  at  Pahpoon, 
and  throughout  the  pine  forests,  and  near  Mooley it  especially, 
they  went  on  calling  all  through  the  night,  but  they  are  very 
difficult  to  obtain,  and  I  know  nothing  of  their  habits. — W.  D.] 

I  first  entered  these  birds  as  Scops  stictonotus,  Sharpe,  Cat., 
II.,  54,  his  general  remarks  on  the  species  applying  extremely- 
well.  He  says  :  "  The  general  color  is  ashy  brown  above,  with- 
out any  greyish  shade ;  the  ear-coverts  dusky  grey;  the  collar 
round  the  neck  is  very  indistinct,  and  is  represented  by  cer- 
tain pale  buff-colored  bars  or  spots,  without  any  appearance  of 
■white  whatsoever;  on  the  back, however,  are  several  very  dis- 
tinct spots  and  bars  of  the  same  pale  buff  color,  giving  a  very 
marked  character  to  these  peculiarities." 

Now  this  holds  wonderfully  true  of  some  of  the  specimens, 
but  in  one  there  are  some  pale  white,  not  buff  spots  about 
the  neck,  and  Mr.  Sharpe  gives  the  wing  at  5*5  to  5-75,  and 
none  of  my  birds  have  the  wing  under  60,  and,  moreover,  I 
can  match  my  specimens  with  examples  of  pennatus  from  the 
Malabar  Coast,  Saugor,  and  Hazara  and  other  places,  in  all  of 
which  they  are  mixed  up  with  more  typical  pennatus,  and  on 
the  whole  I  think  it  best  to  keep  my  specimens  under  this  name. 
I  do  not  believe  that  they,  at  any  rate,  can  be  specifically 
separated. 

I  take  this  opportunity  of  noting  that,  while  Scops  rufipen- 
nis,  Sharpe,  Cat.,  II.,  60,  is  a  just  distinguishable  race,  and  I 
have  five  fairly  typical  examples  before  me,  all  from  the  im- 
mediate neighbourhood  of  Madras,  it  so  runs  into  what  I  con- 
sider typical  pennatus,  that  it  seems  to  me  almost  doubtful 
whether  it  is  rightly  separable  even  as  a  sub-species. 

Two  males  of  the  present  species  from  the  banks  of  the 
Gyne  river,  about  40  miles  S.  E.  of  Moulmein,  measured  as 
follows  : — 

Length,  7'27  ;  expanse,  19-25  to  195  ;  tail,  2-65"to  2'7  ;  wing, 
6-0  to  601 ;  tarsus,  0'95  to  1-02 ;  bill  from  gape,  0-8  to  07 ; 
weight,  2*5  ozs. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  35 

The  feet  were  pale  bluish  brown,  as  were  the  claws,- the 
irides  bright  yellow.  la  one  the  bill  was  pale  greenish  brown, 
the  cere  pale  bluish  brown,  with  a  green  tinge  on  cultnen  ;  in 
the  other  the  cere  was  similar,  the  upper  mandible  was  pale 
brown ;  the  lower  mandible  pale  horny  white. 

74  nov. — Scops  sagittatus,  Cass.  (1).  Descr.    S.    F. 
V.,  247. 

Meetan,  (Maleivoon,  Oates.) 

Rare  in  Tenasserim  and  onty  found  about  the  bases  of  the 
central  range  of  hills  in  the  southern  and  central  portions  of 
the  province. 

[I  got  my  single  specimen  on  the  southern  flanks  of 
Mooleyit  near  Meetan.  Oates'  people  got  a  specimen  at 
Malewoon.  The  stomach  of  my  specimen  contained  only 
insects,  chiefly  moths. — W.  D.] 

75  quint.—  Scops  lempijius,  Horsf.  (6). 

{Karen  Rills,  Rams.)  Pahpoon;  Tavoy ;  Pabyin;  Mergui  ;  Tenasserim  Town  ; 
Bankasoon. 

Generally  distributed  throughout  the  better-wooded  por- 
tions of  the  province. 

[This  is  another  species  of  which  I  know  nothing,  it  being 
a  bird  one  has  no  opportunities  of  observing.  It  may  be  pretty 
common  in  well  wooded-localities  throughout  the  province, 
but  it  is  never  seen  by  day  aud  is  very  difficult  to  procure.—- 
W.  D.] 

Our  Tenasserim  specimens  are,  when  a  series  is  compared,  not 
to  be  separated  from  Malaccan  ones;  they  are  clearly  lempiji  of 
Mr.  Sharpens  Catalogue  characterized  by  the  completely  un- 
feathered  toes,  the  feathering  never  descending  as  far  on  the 
outer  toe,  aud  the  outer  side  of  the  middle  toe,  as  it  does  in 
lettia,  which,  otherwise  in  some  of  its  phases,  very  closely 
resembles  it.  Both  are  characterized  by  the  broad  pale  buff 
or  ochraceous  half  collar. 

The  Marquis  of  Tweeddale  observes  (Birds  of  Burma, 
J.  A.  S.  B.,  1875,  65)  that  Malaccan  individuals  are  distinct  from 
true  S.  lempiji,  Horsf.,  which  is  from  Java.  I  observe,  how- 
ever, that  Horsfield,  in  his  Catalogue,  I.,  71,  united  Javan, 
Sumatran,  Malaccan,  Tenasserim,  Nepal  and  Assamese  birds. 

The  Nepal  and  Assamese  birds  are  of  course  lettia;  and 
when  a  large  series  of  both  forms  are  examined,  many  specimens 
are  so  extremely  close  that  the  two  species  can  only  be 
separated  by  a  reference  to  the  amount  of  feathering  of  the 
toes,  and  birds  occur  in  Lower  Bengal  and  Upper  Burma  which 
are  quite  intermediate  between  the  two,  so  that  I  think  it  by 


36  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

no  means  improbable  that  Horsfield's  union  of  the  races  found 
in  all  the  localities  enumerated  by  him  will  prove  scientifically 
sound,  and  I  am  not  at  all  prepared  to  admit,  without  further 
proof,  that  Horsfield's  lempiji  from  Java  is  distinct  from 
Malayan  and  Tenasserim  specimens. 

It  would  seem,  however,  that  some  continental  ornithologists 
assign  Dr.  Horsfield's  name  to  quite  a  different  bird;  thus  we 
have  from  Dr.  Meyer  a  specimen  from  Java  labelled  Scops 
lempiji,  which  is  magicus,  pur  et  simple,  and  absolutely  identical 
with  another  specimen  collected  by  Dr.  Steer  in  Celebes.  Of 
course,  any  one  who  considers  this  bird  lempiji  will  hold  it 
distinct  from  the  Malayan  form,  but  Dr.  Horsfield,  with  his  own 
type  specimens  from  Java  and  a  Malaccan  one  before  him,  was 
surely  the  best  judge  as  to  the  bird  that  he  described,  and  as  to 
the  identity  of  the  two  forms,  and  if  his  lempiji  was  anything 
of  the  magicus  type,  he  could  not  possibly  have  identified  it 
with  the  Malaccan  bird. 

Two  adult  females  measured  in  the  flesh  : — Length,  85  ;  ex- 
panse, 23'5  ;  tail  from  vent,  3*25  ;  wing,  6'62  and  6*7  ;  tarsus, 
1*25  ;  bill  from  gape,  10 ;  weight,  5  ozs. 

In  both  the  feet  were  pale  bluish  fleshy ;  the  claws  very  pale 
blue;  the  irides  dark  brown.  In  one  the  cere  and  the  greater 
portion  of  the  upper  mandible  were  pinkish  green,  the  rest  of 
the  bill  pale  horny ;  in  the  other  the  cere  was  very  pale  green  ; 
the  bill  dull  white. 

An  adult  male  measured  : — Length,  8*2  ;  expanse,  21*75  ; 
wing,  6-2;  tail,  3*12;  tarsus,  1*15;  bill  from  gape,  0"95  ;  and 
weight,  4  ozs. 

77. —  Glaucidium  radiatum,  Tick. 

This  species  is  stated  ("Ibis,"  1876,  p.  343)  to  have  been 
recorded  by  Col.  Tickell  as  "  met  with  throughout  the  forest 
portion  and  lower  hills  of  Arakan,  Burma  and  Tenasserim'3 

It  is  extremely  doubtful  to  me  whether  this  bird  really 
occurs  in  Tenasserim.  If  it  did,  I  think  it  could  hardly  have 
escaped  Davison  and  others  during  all  these  years. 

At  the  same  time  it  has  to  be  noticed  that  Dr.  Cantor  is 
said  (P.  Z.  S.,  1854,  262)  to  have  obtained  a  specimen  at 
Keddah  in  the  Malayan  Peninsula.     "  I  hae  mi  doots" 

78  ter. —  Glaucidium  cast  anopter  urn,  Horsf. 

As  noticed  in  my  Rough  Notes,  p.  413,  Dr.  Heifer  records 
this  species  from  Tenasserim. 

I  do  not  myself  in  the  least  believe  in  its  occurring  there, 
but  as  it  mig /it  turn  wp,  I  reproduce  Horsfield's  and  Temminck's 
original  descriptions,  which  will  enable  local  observers  to 
identify  the  bird  if  by  chance  it  really  should  occur. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  37 

So  far  as  I  know  the  bird  is  peculiar  to  Java ;  and  if  a  bird 
of  the  kind  occurs  in  Tenasserim,  it  is  probably  a  distinct 
species. 

Horsfield  says  (Tr.  L.  S.,  XIII,  140)  :— 

(i  Narrowly  banded  transversely,  grey  and  blackish ;  back 
and  scapulars  chestnut ;  belly  mingled  white  and  chestnut. 

"  Length,  8  inches. 

"  Quills  and  tail  feathers  brownish  chestnut,  banded  grey  ; 
the  margins  of  the  scapulars  and  a  longitudinal  band  on  the 
middle  of  the  wings  white/' 

Temminck  says  (PI.  Col,  98,  text)  :— 

"  This  little  Owl  is  well  characterized  and  easily  recognizable 
by  the  fine  purplish  chestnut  color  of  the  back,  wings  and  tail  ; 
the  entire  head,  nape,  the  sides  and  front  of  the  neck  and 
breast  are  regularly  and  narrowly  banded  transversely  with 
brown  and  dull  yellow ;  the  sides  and  flanks  are  colored  like 
the  back,  and  purplish  spots  occur  on  the  thighs ;  the  whole  of 
the  rest  of  the  lower  parts  are  pure  white ;  large  white  spots 
occupy  the  outer  webs  of  the  scapulars,  and  some  of  the 
coverts  near  the  fold  of  the  wing  ;  reddish  yellow  bands  occur 
on  the  quills,  and  there  are  five  narrow  bands  of  this  color 
on  each  of  the  tail  feathers  which  are  also  tipped  with  it. 
"  Total  length,  7-67  to  82  inches." 

79.— Glaucidium  cuculoides,  Fig.  (35). 

{Tonghoo,  Earns.)  Kollidoo ;  Pahpoon ;  Younznleen  creek;  Theinzeik  ; 
Thatone  ;  Wimpong  ;  Myawadee  ;  Tlioungsheyen  Sakan ;  Kaukarjit,  Houngthraw 
E. ;  Kohbaing  ;  Amherst;  Tavoy;  Shymotee. 

Common  alike  in  hills  and  plains  throughout  the  northern 
and  central  portions  of  the  province. 

[The  most  common  of  all  the  Owls  in  the  northern  and 
central  portions  of  Tenasserim.  The  most  southern  point  at 
which  I  have  obtained  it  was  Shymotee ;  how  far  south  of  this 
it  extends  I  am  at  present  unable  to  say,  but  it  certainly  does 
not  occur  at  Mergui,  or  any  where  south  of  that  place.  It  is 
very  common  at  Pahpoon  and  in  its  neighbourhood  extending 
well  up  into  the  pine  forests ;  it  is  also  very  abuudant  at 
Moulmein  and  in  the  adjacent  country,  but  it  becomes  marked- 
ly scarcer  as  one  goes  south,  and  at  Tavoy  though  occurring  it  is 
rather  rare. 

It  is  about  very  early  in  the  evening,  often  before  sunset,  and 
I  have  frequently  seen  it  moving  about  and  feeding  in  shady 
gardens  and  jungle  in  the  middle  of  the  day,  and  I  have  con- 
stantly heard  its  cackling  laughing  call  at  all  hours  in  the  day  ; 
it  frequents  by  preference  gardens  and  thin  tree  jungle, 
apparently  avoiding  dense  forest;   it  is  also  very  partial  to 


38  BIRDS   OF   TENASSER1M. 

bamboo  jungle.  During-  the  day  it  generally  rests  on  a  branch 
or  in  a  clump  of  bamboos. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions,  &c,  of  one  male  and  five 
females  : — 

Male. — Length,  8*75  ;  expanse,  200  ;  tail  from  vent,  35  ; 
wing,  b'6;  tarsus  ,  0"95  ;  bill  from  gape,  09 ;  weight,  5  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  9  to  9'5  ;  expanse,  20'25  to  21 '25  ;  tail 
from  vent,  3*25  to  3-82  ;  wing,  5 '75  to  6'0;  tarsus,  0'8  to  TO; 
bill  from  gape,  0"82  to  09. 

Legs  and  feet  pale  green  ;  claws  whitish  at  base,  horny 
brown  towards  tip  ;  bill  pale  green  ;  cere  darker  green;  irides 
bright  yellow. 

79  bis. — Glaucidium  ivhitleyi,  Bly. 

This  species  is  given  by  Blyth  (B.  of  B.,  p.  66)  as  common  in 
Tenasserim,  but  merely  as  a  conjecture  based  on  a  difference  in 
the  habits  of  the     Burmese    and   Himalayan     Barred    Owlets. 

Mr.  Blyth  originally  described  this  species  from  a  Japanese 
specimen.     He  said  : — 

"  The  tail  has  only  six  narrow  white  bars,  one  terminal, 
and  another  of  them  at  the  extreme  bases  of  the  feathers,  so 
that  four  only  remain  to  constitute  the  conspicuous  barring 
of  the  rectrices ;  the  markings  of  the  wing  primaries  and 
secondaries  are  also  fewer  and  further  apart  than  in  the  com- 
mon Himalayan  bird.''' 

In  the  first  place  I  confess  that,  unless  other  distinctions 
besides  those  pointed  out  exist,  I  do  not  in  the  least  believe 
in  the  distinctness  of  this  supposed  species,  it  not  being  a  fact 
(as  I  have  already  pointed  out  S.  F.,  III.,  40,)  that  Himalay- 
an specimens  always  have  seven  bars  on  the  tail. 

In  the  second  place  if  other  distinctions  do  exist  (and  Mr. 
Sharpe,  Cat.  II,  222,  seems  to  consider  the  species  distinct, 
though  he  too  I  think  rests  mainly  on  the  number  of  bars  on 
the  tail),  and  whitleyiis  really  a  good  species,  then  certainly  not 
one  of  the  very  fair  series  preserved  by  us  from  all  the  north- 
ern parts  of  Tenasserim  (it  only  extends  a  little  further 
south  than  Tavoy)  belong  to  this  species ;  all  are  inseparable 
from  the  Himalayan  cuculoides. 

The  following  are  the  number  of  bars  on  the  centre  tail 
feathers  of  Tenasserim  and  Himalayan,  &c,  specimens,  count- 
ing the  white  tip  as  one  bar,  and  also  reckoning  the  bar,  or 
sometimes  bars,  hidden  more  or  less  completely  by  the  upper 
tail  coverts: — 

Tenasserim  — 

Kollidoo,  male,  6 ;  Wimpong,  male,  6 ;  Ivollidoo,  male,  6; 
Houngthraw  River,  female,  8  ;  Thatone,  female,  7  ;  Myawadee, 
male,  6 ;  and  no  white  tip  to  tail. 


BIRDS    OF  TENASSERIM.  39 

Thatone,  female,  6  ;  Pahpoon,  female,  7  ;  Shymootee,  female, 
7 ;  Tavoy,  male,  7 ;  Pahpoon,  female,  7  ;  Wimpong,  male,  8; 
Kollidoo,  female,  7  ;  Tavoy,  male,  6 ;  Pahpoon,  female,  8 ; 
Kohbaing-,  mate,  7 ;  Thatone,  w?a/<?,  6 ;  no  white  tip.  Myawadee, 
female,  6  ;  Kaukaryit,  female,  7  ;  Myawadee,  female,  6;  Wim- 
pong,  male,  7  ;  Amherst,  male,  5  ;  Tavoy,  male,  7  ;  Pahpoon, 
female,  6  ;  Pahpoon,  female,  7  ;  Amherst,  male,  5  ;  Theinzeik, 
female,  7  ; Kollidoo,  female,  7  ;  Younzaleen  creek,  female,  7; 
Tavoy,  female,  7 ;  Kollidoo,  female,  7. 

Himalayas — 

TLoleguvh,  female,  7  ;  ~Dhurmsa\a,,  female,  6 ;  Mnssoorie,  female, 
8  ;  Simla,  male,  7  ;  Petoragurh,  Almorah,  male,  7  ;  Sikim,  male, 
7 ;  Kotegurh,  male,  6  ;  no  white  tip  to  tail.  Sikim,  female,  8  ; 
Hills  north  of  Mussoorie,  male,  8  ;  Narkundah,  male,  7 ;  Kote.« 
gurh,  female,  7  ;  Sikim,  male,  7  ;  Simla,  male,  7  ;  Darjeeling, 
female,  7;  Sikim,  female,  7;  Darjeeling,  female,  6;  Darjeeling, 
male,  9 ;  Kotegurh,  male,  8 ;  Kotegurh,  male,  7  ;  Kotegurh,  male, 
8  ;  Mongphoo,  male,  7  ;  Mongphoo,  female,  6  ;  Kotegurh,  male, 
7  ;  Kotegurh,  female,  7 ;  near  Darjeeling,  female,  7  ;  Hills  north 
of  Mussoorie,  male,  7 ;  near  Darjeeling,  female,  7 ;  Kalsi 
Dhoon,  male,  7 ;  Gurhwal,  male,  7  ;  Sikim  ?  7. 

Mirzapore,  male,  7. 

Cachar,  ?  7.—?  7. 

Tipperah,/gma/<?,  6. 

Pegu  and  Arrakan — 

Arracan  Hills,  male,  7  ;  Thayetmyo,  female,  6  ;  Thayetmyo, 
male,  6;  no  white  tips  to  tail.     Rangoon,  male,  7 . 

These  have  been  carefully  recorded  by  Davison  and  myself, 
and  in  all  abnormal  cases  the  bars  counted  by  both,  in  fact, 
in  the  case  of  the  bird  with  9  bars  (!),  these  have  been  counted 
over  and  over  again. 

After  arriving  at  results  like  these,  I  myself  am  unable  to 
accept  any  species  differing  merely  from  cuculoides  by  the 
points  indicated  by  Mr.  Blyth. 

80. — Glaucidium  brodiei,  Burton  (6). 

Kyouk-nyat ;  Mooleyit ;  Amherst  ;  Meetamyo  ;  Tavoy. 

Confined  to  the  better  wooded  tracts  of  the  northern  and 
central  portions  of  the  province  ;  apparently  rare,  except  about 
Mooleyit. 

[I  have  seen  this  little  Owlet  on  but  few  occasions.  It  occurs, 
so  far  as  I  have  observed,  only  in  the  northern  and  central  por- 
tions of  the  province,  that  is  to  say,  from  Tavoy  northwards. 
At  Mooleyit  one  day  I  heard  a  Megalaima  ramsayi  making  a 
'  great  outcry  ;  going  to  see  what  the  matter  was,  I  found  one  of 
these  Owlets,  which  I  shot,  with  a   half-fledged   Barbet,  firmly 


40  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

grasped  in  its  claws.  The  Owlet  must  have  gone  into  the 
nest-hole,  which  I  found  in  the  same  tree,  and  thence  forcibly 
carried  off  the  little  nestling. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh 
of  three  males  and  a  female  : — 

Males. — Length,  62  to  6-3  ;  expanse,  13*1  to  1375;  tail  from 
vent,  2-1  to  222 ;  wing,  3-55  to 37;  bill  from  gape,  0*7  to 
0-8;  weight,  1-61  to  2  ozs. 

Female. — Length,  6'75  ;  expanse,  13*75  ;  tail  from  vent,  2'4; 
wing,  3-75 ;  tarsus,  0*8;  bill  from  gape,  0*75;  weight,  2"0  ozs. 

Legs  and  feet  pale  green  ;  claws  dark  horny  ;  bill  and  gape 
yellowish  green ;  cere  pale  green ;  irides  bright   yellow. 

81  ter.— Ninox  burmanica,  Hume  (11).  S.  F.,  IV.,  285. 

(Karen  Hills,  Lloyd  ;  Tonglioo,  Rams.)  Kollidoo  ;  Kyouknyat ;  Pahpoon  ;  near 
Meetan  ;  Amherst ;  Mergui. 

Generally  distributed  alike  in  hills  and  plains  throughout 
the  province. 

[Hawk  Owls  are  fairly  common,  but  like  all  nocturnal  birds 
are  much  more  often  heard  than  seen.  This  species,  though 
not  so  early  as  G.  cuculoides  in  making  its  appearance  of  an 
evening,  is  about  soon  after  sunset  catching  insects,  such  as 
mcths,  beetles,  &c.  During  the  day  it  roosts  in  some  thick 
shady  tree,  and  if  flushed,  seldom  flies  far,  and  is  easily  followed 
up  and  shot — W.  D.] 

After  the  examination  of  a  very  large  series  from  different 
parts  of  India,  Ceylon,  Burma  and  the  Malay  Peninsular,  I 
am  of  opinion  that  the  Tenasserim  form  is  a  clearly  distinguish- 
able race,  which  I  would  define  as  follows  : — 

Upper  surface  dull  dark,  somewhat  smoky  brown,  much  darker 
than  in  any  specimens  of  lugubris  from  the  plaius  of  Pegu,  or 
any  part  of  India,  not  so  dark  as  in  scutulata  from  Malacca, 
Singapore,  and  Sumatra,  about  as  dark  as  the  generality  of  the 
somewhat  paler  race  of  scutulata  from  Ceylon,  and  the  extreme 
south  of  the  Indian  Peninsular,  which,  if  considered  distinct, 
must  stand  as  hirsutus. 

Head  uniform  with  the  back  ;  tail  intermediate  between  scutu- 
lata and  lugubris  ;  lower  surface  more  blotched  with  reddish 
brown,  and  less  white  than  lugubris  ;  axillaries  and  wing-lining 
mingled  fulvous  buff  and  brown. 

Wing,  8  3  to  8 -8  (10  males  and  females  measured,)  from 
Mergui,  Meetan,  Amherst,  Pahpoon,  Kyouknyat,  Kollidoo, 
against  7*1  to  8*3  in  scutulata  (12  males  and  females  measured.; 

Cachar  birds  are  similar  in  size,  or  are  a  trifle  larger  but  are 
darker  still,  being  as  dark  as  the  little  scutulata.  For  the 
Cachar  birds   I   proposed  the  name   of  innominata,  S.  R,  IV., 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  41 

286 ;  V.,  16  ;  but  I  am  now  doubtful  whether  it  is  necessary  to 
separate  these. 

The  larger  race  on  the  Nicobars  is  very  close  to  our  present 
species,  but  runs  smaller. 

The  Sikkim  and  Bhotan  form  is  also  very  close  to  our  pre- 
sent species.  I  formerly  adopted  for  these  Hodgson's  name 
nipalensis ;  but,  by  reference  to  his  original  drawing,  I  found 
that  he  applied  this  name  to  lugubris,  which  occurs  in  the 
Cachar  of  Nepal  and  in  the  Terai,  and  which  is  conspicuously 
distinct  form  the  dark  hill  form  which  I  referred  to  above  as 
being  very  close  to  the  present  species. 

82  bis.— Hirundo  gutturalis,  Scop.  (43). 

(Tonghoo,  Rams.)  Khyketo ;  Thatone ;  Moulmeinj  Amherst;  Tavoyj 
Tenasseriia  Town  j  Sadjin  ;  Cbonngtbapee  ;  Malewoon. 

Excessively  common  everywhere  throughout  the  province, 
wherever  there  are  clearings  or  open  spaces. 

All  our  specimens  from  Tenasserim  belong  to  the  smaller 
race  separated  as  gutturalis.  I  can  discover  no  structural 
differences  between  this  and  rustica,  but  it  is  constantly 
smaller,  and  is  as  a  rule  more  generally  rufescent  ou  the  lower 
parts  than  the  European  bird.  Some  specimens  are  difficult  to 
separate  from  tytleri,  and  in  fact  there  are  many  immature 
birds  which  may  be  either  pale  specimens  of  tytleri  or  specially 
rufescent  ones  of  gutturalis. 

In   Sindh,   Guzerat,    and  Western   India   generally  we  get, 
almost  exclusively,  true  rustica,  with  a  wing  4-8  to  5'0,   and   a 
tail  from  47  to  5.  Of  gutturalis  the  measurements  of  the  finest 
specimens  we  have  out  of  over  40  are  :    Wing  4'3  to  4-55    and  ' 
tail,  3-7  to  4-2. 

Throughout  India  specimens  occur,  which  may  be  almost 
indifferently  assigned  to  either  species,  with  wings  varying 
from  4*4  to  4'8,  and  tails  from  4-  to  4-8.  But,  as  I  said,  for  the 
most  part  the  specimens  from  the  west  of  Continental  India 
are  pretty  typical  rustica,  while  in  the  East,  as  in  Eastern 
Bengal,  Assam,  Burma,  and  Tenasserim,  all  the  specimens  are 
either  gutturalis  or  are  birds  of  an  intermediate  size,  between 
what  we  call  gutturalis  and  rustica. 

In  comparing  a  large  series  of  European  and  Tenasserim 
specimens,  I  can  discover  no  constant  difference  in  the  shape  of 
the  bills.  Gutturalis,  therefore,  appears  to  me  to  be  merely  a 
small  race  of  rustica,  both  races  blending  perfectly  in  the 
Continent  of  India. 

82  ter. —Hirundo  tytleri,  Jerd.  (15).  B.  of  Ind.,  III., 
App.  870. 

(Karenne$,  Rams.)     Tavoy. 

An  occasional  visitant  to,  or  migrant  through,  the  province. 

6 


42  BIEDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

[I  only  met  "with  this  race  at  Tavoy  ;  they  appeared  for  a  few 
days  in  the  latter  end  of  April,  and  the  early  part  of  May,  in 
great  numbers,  and  then  disappeared  entirely  ;  but  whether 
moving  north  or  south,  I  am  unable  to  say. — W.  D.] 

See  my  remarks  as  to  the  migrations  of  this  race,  S.  F.,  III., 
41. 

I  have  carefully  compared  a  very  large  series  of  this  bird 
from  various  localities  in  Burma  and  Eastern  Bengal,  with 
specimens  of  ca/iirica  from  Damietta  on  the  Nile.  The  two  are 
certainly  very  close,  but  I  thiuk  that  they  are  generally  separ- 
able. The  great  majority  of  tytleri  are  much  paler  beneath, 
and  even  the  very  deepest  colored  ones  are  not  quite  so  deeply 
colored  as  all  my  specimens  of  cahirica.  Again,  the  black  blue- 
glossed  pectoral  band  appears,  to  judge  from  my  few  specimens, 
to  be  always  continuous  on  the  breast  of  cahirica,  whereas  in 
tytleri  I  have  found  no  single  specimen  in  full  deep  under- 
plumage  at  all  approaching  in  color  to  cahirica,  which  has  not 
the  pectoral  band  to  a  great  extent  interrupted  or  broken  in 
front. 

I  can  discover  no  other  differences  ;  in  size  the  birds  as  a 
body  do  not  differ,  nor  is  there  any  constant  difference  in  the 
amount  of  white  on  the  lateral  tail  feathers,  though,  as  a 
general  rule,  there  is  rather  less  white  in  the  case  of  tytleri  ; 
nor  again  is  there  any  constant  difference  in  the  sheen  of  the 
upper  parts.  In  tytleri,  no  doubt,  it  is  not  unfrequently 
much  more  purple  violet  than  it  appears  ever  to  be  in  cahirica, 
but  again  many  birds  are  undistinguishable  in  this  matter  from 
the  latter. 

"Whether  under  these  circumstances  tytleri  should  be  kept 
distinct  must  remain  a  matter  of  opinion.  I  am  inclined  to  think 
that  they  should  be,  because,  while  the  habitats  are  separated  by 
many  thousand  miles,  any  specimen  of  the  one  can,  I  think,  be 
separated  at  once  from  the  other  if  the  color  of  the  lower  parts 
and  the  continuity  of  the  pectoral  band  are  duly  taken  into 
account. 

82  quint. — Hirundo  horreorum,  Bart. 

Lord  Walden  notes  a  specimen  from  Tonghoo  as  undistin- 
guishable from  Californian  examples. 

Some  young  specimens  of  H.  tytleri  appear  to  me  not  easily 
separable  from  this  species.  They  have  the  forehead,  throat  and 
upper  part  of  the  breast  chestnut,  and  the  rest  of  the  lower 
surface  a  pale  yellowish  brown,  just  as  in  /wrreorum,  and  they 
want  the  breast  band.  The  wing,  however,  is  shorter.  It 
seems  to  me  not  impossible  that  Lord  Walden's  supposed 
horreorum  may  prove  to  be  only  this  stage  of  the  immature 
tytleri. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  43 

However,  although  I  consider  the  occurrence  of  true  hor- 
reorum  in  Tenasserim  very  doubtful,  Lord  Walden's  identifica- 
tion may  be  correct,*  and  I  quote  from  Swainson  a  full  descrip- 
tion of  the  species,  which  after  all  is  itself  doubtfully  distinct 
from  the  South  American  erythrog aster,  Bodd. 

"  Male." 

"  Colors. — Forehead,  throat,  and  upper  part  of  the  breast  pale 
chestnut ;  rest  of  the  under  plumage  yellowish  brown ;  top 
of  the  head  and  neck,  dorsal  plumage,  lesser  coverts  and  sides 
of  the  breast  deeply  glossed  with  violet-purple ;  the  base  of 
the  plumage  of  these  parts  being  grey,  the  middle  greyish 
white  and  pitch  black,  next  the  purple  tips  ;  quills,  greater 
coverts,  and  tail  blackish  brown,  with  dark  green  reflexions  ; 
all  the  tail  feathers,  but  the  central  pair,  having  a  large  white 
spot  on  the  middle  of  their  inner  webs  ;  bill  black  ;  irides 
dark  brown  ;  legs  blackish  purple. 

"The  female  has  the  under-plumage  paler,  the  purple  of  the 
back  less  vivid,  and  the  exterior  tail  feathers  a  quarter  of  an 
inch  shorter. 

tl  Dimensions. 


Inch.  Lin. 
length,  total  ...     7    3 

„  of  tail         ...     3    6 

„  o  f    t  a  i  1  in 

middle    ...     2     0 
„  of  wing      ...     4    8 


Inch.  Lin. 
Length  of  hill  ahove     0    3 
„        of  bill  to  rict- 
us        ...     0  7| 
„         of  tarsus    ...     0     6 
„        of  middle  toe     0    5 


Inch.  Lin. 
Length    of  middle 

nail  ..  0  21 

„     of  hind  toe...  0  3 
„    of  its  nail...  0  2V' 


83.— Hirundo  javanica,  Sparrm.  (3.) 

Mergui. 

Rare  in  Tenasserim,  probably  confined  to  the  more  southern 
portions  of  the  province. 

[I  met  with  a  few  of  this  species  at  Mergui  in  June,  but 
they  were  by  no  means  numerous.  They  were,  I  believe,  then 
migrating.  I  never  saw  them  elsewhere  in  Tenasserim,  but 
they  are  the  commonest  Swallow  all  the  year  round  on  the 
Nilgheris  breeding  in  every  out-house. — W.  D.] 

84.— Hirundo  filifera,  Steph.  (2.) 

(Tonglioo,  Hams.)  Pahpoon. 

Apparently  only  occurring  in  the  north  of  Tenasserim. 

[I  found  this  species  flying  over  the  paddy-fields  in  small 
numbers  at  Pahpoon  and  secured  a  couple.  I  did  not  notice 
it  elsewhere  in  the  province. — W.  D.] 

*  It  has  since  occurred  to  me  that  Lord  Walden  may  have  intended  to  suppress 
tytteri  altogether.  It  undoubtedly  runs  very  close  to  horreorum,  and  some  immature 
specimens  from  America  and  Eastern  Bengal  are  inseparable,  but  this  has  not  been 
the  case  with  any  adult  full-plumaged  specimens  that  I  have  examined. 


44  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

85  ? — Hirundo  striolata,  Tern. 

Lord  Tweeddale  says  (B.  of  B.,  p.  127.)  :  "  Karennee  at  2,600 
feet,  in  March;  Karen  Hills,  at  3,000  feet,  in  January — 
Wardlaw  Ramsay.  Identical  with  Flores,  Formosan,  and 
Chinese  examples.  Quite  distinct  from  C.  erythropygia,  which 
is  barely  separable  from  C.  rufula." 

I  look  upon  the  occurrence  of  true  striolata  in  Tenasserim 
with  much  doubt.  The  birds  referred  to  more  probably  belong 
to  nipalensis  or  sub-striolata,  S.  F.,  V,  264.  No  one  who  has 
at  all  studied  this  group  could  talk  of  erythropygia  as  barely 
separable  from  rufula !  The  distinctions  are  poiuted  out 
S.  F.,  V.,  265,  etante. 

85  Us.— Hirundo   nipalensis,   Modgs.   (9).   Descr. 
S.  P.,  V.,  262. 

Pahpoon  ;  Pakchan  ;  Bankasoon ;  Malewoon. 

Sparingly  distributed  in  suitable  localities  throughout  the 
province. 

[I  only  saw  these  Swallows  in  the  extreme  north  and  south 
of  the  province.  They  affect  open  grassy  slopes,  and  these 
are  not  common  elsewhere. — W.  T>.~\ 

I  have  already,  loc.  cit.  sup.,  dealt  fully  with  the  sub-group  of 
Swallows  to  which  this  species  belongs.  The  birds  here 
entered  are  of  course  the  daurica  of  my  first  list.  Moreover, 
the  birds  formerly  entered  in  my  second  list,  as  erythropygia, 
proved  on  careful  comparison  to  be  nipalensis  also. 

87—  Cotyle  riparia,  Lin.   (11).  S.  F.,  1,164;  III., 

452,  IV.,  507. 

Khyketo  ;  Kedai-Keglay ;  Theinzeik  ;  Thafcone. 

Confined  apparently  and  as  a  seasonal  visitant  to  the  tracts 
between  the  Salween  and  Sittang. 

[The  European  Sand  Martin  was  common  late  in  January 
and  early  in  February  over  the  whole  of  the  level  country 
lying  in  the  Thatone  sub-district,  but  I  have  not  as  yet  seen 
it  elsewhere  in  Tenasserim. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  of  four  males  and  two 
females  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males. — Length,  4-6  to  5'1 ;  expanse,  102  to  10'8 ;  tail  from 
vent,  1-9  to  2-1  ;  wing,  3'7  to  4'0  ;  tarsus,  0'35  to  0'4  ;  bill  from 
gape,  0-45   to  05  ;  weight,  0'3  to  0'35  oz. 

Females. — Length,  5*2  to  5'4 ;  expanse,  10'7  to  11-0  ;  tail  from 
vent,  2-1  to  2'12  ;  wing,  4'05  ;  tarsus,  0-4;  bill  from  gape,  0'4 
to  0'5  ;  weight,  from  a  little  over  0-25  to  0'4oz. 

Legs  and  feet  very  dark,  or  purplish  brown  ;  bill  black  ;  irides 
brown  to  deep  brown. 


BIKDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  45 

89.— Cotyle  sinensis,  Gray.    (2). 

(Tonffhoo,  Earns.)     Pahpoon. 

Confined,  to  the  northern  portions  of  the  province. 

[Rare  in  Tenasserim.  I  never  saw  it  in  the  Gyne,  Hong- 
thraw,  Attaran,  or  any  of  the  more  southern  streams ;  in  fact 
I  only  observed  it  at  Pahpoon,  where  they  occurred  in  mode- 
rate numbers.  When  I  was  leaving  Pahpoon  about  the  end 
of  February  these  birds  were  just  commencing  to  excavate 
their  nest-holes  in  the  banks  of  the  Younzaleen. — W.  D.] 

Tenasserim  specimens  are,  as  pointed  out,  in  the  case  of 
others  from  Thayetmyo,  S.  F.,  III.,  42,  slightly  different  from 
Indian  ones ;  but,  after  examining  good  specimens,  I  am  quite 
convinced  that  they  are  not  sufficiently  so  to  warrant  specific 
separation,  and  I  withdraw  the  name  obscurior  that  I  proposed 
for  them  if  they  proved  really  distinct. 

90  bis% — Ptyonoprogne  ? 

Davison  observed,  about  the  inaccessible  precipices  on  the 
eastern  side  of  Mooleyit,  near  its  summit,  numerous  specimens 
of  a  Ptyonoprogne,  similar  to,  but  smaller  and  much  darker 
colored  than,  rupestris,  which  he  knows  well,  as  it  is  common 
about  our  own  hill  at  Simla  during  October.  He  thinks  it 
was  exactly  like  concolor,  but  that  is  scarcely  likely  to  have 
occurred  there.  Some  such  species,  however,  does  occur  about 
Mooleyit ;  he  is  perfectly  certain  of  the  flight,  shape  of  wings, 
&c,  and  few  people  have  shot  as  many  or  know  as  well  the 
flight  and  shape  of  the  Collocalias,  Swifts,  and  Swallows  of  our 
part  the  world. 

92. — Chelidon  urbica,  Lin. 

Col.  Tickell  says  that  this  species  occurs  in  great  numbers 
at  Moulmein.  In  the  B.  of  B.  we  are  referred  to  J.  A.  S.  B., 
XXIV,  809,  for  this  remark  of  Col.  Tickell's.  It  may  save  trou- 
ble to  note  that  it  really  occurs,  p.  227,  n. 

95  bis. — Chsetura  coracina,  Mull.  (4). 

Choungfchanoung;  Pakchaii. 

Confined  to  the  extreme  southern  portions  of  the  province. 

[I  first  met  with  this  pretty  little  Spine  Tail  at  Choungtha- 
noung,  where  a  few  were  flying  about  over  the  tin  mines  ;  further 
south  I  met  with  it  on  several  occasions.  Going  up  the  Pak- 
chan  in  a  canoe  I  saw  numbers  hawking  over  the  water  in  com- 
pany with  C.  iridic  a,  Cypselusinfumatus,  &c,  but  shooting  them 
out  of  a  shaky  canoe  was  out  of  the  question.  In  habits  they 
much  resemble  the  greater  Spine  Tails,  shooting  down  with  the 


46  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

rapidity  of  lightning  with  a  shrill  scream  just  touching  the 
surface  of  the  water,  and  rising  again  with  equal  rapidity,  turn- 
ing and  swooping  down  again,  up-stream  and  down-stream, 
for  the  hour  together.  It  appears  to  be  a  forest-loving  species, 
never  being  found  far  from  it,  and  frequenting  only  those 
streams  whose  banks  are  lined  with,  and  those  clearings  sur- 
rounded by,  forest. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions,  &c,  of  this  species  re- 
corded in  the  flesh  : — 

Males. — Length,  4'  62  to  4*8  ;  expanse,  11*25  to  11*75  ;  tail  to 
end  of  spines,  1*62  to  1*75;  wing,  4*82  to  5*1  ;  tarsus,  035  to 
0'45  •  bill  from  gape,  05  to  0*76  ;  weight,  0*5  to  0-6  oz. 

Females. — Length,  4*75  to  48  ;  expanse,  11*25  to  11*75;  tail 
as  above,  1*5  to  1*75  ;  wing,  4*75  to  4*82  ;  tarsus,  0*35  to  0*4  ; 
bill  from  gape,  055  to  06. 

Legs  and  feet  livid  purple  ;  claws  and  bill  black ;  irides  dark 
brown. 

The  rump  and  upper  tail-coverts,  which  are  very  long,  ex- 
tending quite  to  the  end  of  the  webs  of  the  tail  feathers,  in  other 
words  to  the  bases  of  the  spines,  a  delicate  pearl  grey,  each 
feather  dark  shafted.  The  whole  of  the  rest  of  the  bird  is 
olack  (the  bases  of  the  feathers,  however,  being  brown,  which  in 
bad  specimens  show  through  especially  on  the  nape)  with 
a  deep  blue  gloss,  slightly  greenish,  however,  in   certain  lights. 

96.— Chaetura   indica,  Hume,  (3).   Descr.  S.  F.,  I., 
471 ;  IV.,  287. 

Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Confined  to  quite  the  southern  portions  of  the  province. 

[The  Indian  Spine  Tail  occurs  but  sparingly  in  the  Tenas- 
serim  Provinces.  I  have  seen  it  at  Mergui,  Malewoon  on  the 
Pakchan,  and  I  obtained  it  at  Bankasoon.  It  has  a  peculiar 
habit  of  appearing  suddenly  at  a  place,  hawking  backwards  and 
forwards  for  some  minutes,  and  then  disappearing  again,  as 
suddenly  as  it  appeared,  not  to  appear  again  till  next  day,  or 
several  days  after,  or  perhaps  not  at  all.  Having  seen  them  in  a 
place  one  day  is  no  criterion  that  they  will  be  found  there 
again.     Their  flight  is  exceedingly  swift. — W.  D.] 

96  Us. — Chaetura  gigantea,  Hasselt.  (1).  Descr.  S.  F., 
IV.,  287. 

(?  Karennee  Sills  beyond  British  boundary,  Lloyd.)  Malewoon. 

Very  rare  in  Tenasserim ;  apparently  only  an  occasional 
straggler  to  the  extreme  south  of  the  province;  possibly 
elsewhere. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  47 

[Temminck's  Spine  Tail  appears  to  be  rare  in  Tenasserim, 
Occurring  apparently  only  in  the  extreme  south.  I  obtained 
only  one  specimen  shot  at  Malewoon,  and  this  is  the  only  one 
I  have  seen  to  identify,  though  there  might  have  been  birds  of 
this  species  among  the  other  Spine  Tails  that  I  saw,  but  did  not 
shoot.     One  cannot  always  bag  these  Spine  Tails. — W.  D.] 

Lord  Tweeddale  (B.  of  B.,  p.  84)  gives  this  species  from 
Tonghoo*,  but  as  he  adds  "  G.  indica,  Hume,  is  synonymous/' 
•which  is  not  the  fact,  in  my  opinion,  and  shows  that  he  is 
unable  to  discriminate  the  two  species,  it  is  doubtful  whether 
Major  Lloyd's  bird  belonged  to  the  present  or  last  species. 

100  bis.— Cypselus  subfurcatus,  Blyth.  (7).  Descr. 
S.  F  ,  IL,  524. 

Choungthapee ;  Malewoon. 

Very  rare  and  confined  to  the  southernmost  portions  of 
the  province. 

[On  one  occasion  only  did  I  meet  with  this  Swift  in  the  Tenas- 
serim  Provinces,  and  this  was  at  a  small  Siamese  village  called 
Choungthapee,  about  half  way  between  Mergui  and  Malewoon. 
There  were  a  good  number,  fifty  I  should  say,  flying  rapidly  to 
and  fro  over  a  stream,  picking  insects  off  the  surface.  I  shot 
more  than  a  dozen,  but  unfortunately  we  had  a  very  long  march 
to  do  (we  did  not  get  to  the  end  of  it  till  about  9  r.  if.,'  and  our 
men,  and  amongst  them  the  man  with  the  birds,  did  not  arrive 
till  some  time  after  midnight,  others  not  till  morning)  and  the 
weather  was  un propitious ;  consequently  when  I  came  to 
measure  and  skin  the  birds,  out  of  all  the  Swifts  I  had  shot 
only  five  were  worth  the  skinning.  Some  of  our  people  later 
shot  a  couple  of  specimens  at  Malewoon. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  of  two  males  and  two 
females  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males.—  Length,  57  to  6-0  ;  expanse,  13*25  to  13*5  ;  tail  from 
vent,  2-12  to  2'25  ;  wing,  5*5  to  5-65;  tarsus,  0-4;  bill  from 
gape,  07  to  075  ;  weight,  1  oz. 

Females.— Length,  5  75  ;  expanse,  1275  to  13;  tail  from 
vent,  2-0  to  2*12  ;  wing,  5-25  to  575  ;  tarsus,  0*35  to  0*4  ;  bill 
from  gape,  07  to  0*8;  weight,  1-0  to  1*25  oz. 

The  legs  and  feet  varied  a  good  deal ;  in  one  male  and  one 
female,  these  parts  were  fleshy,  tinged  on  toes  and  claws  with 
dark  brown  ;  in  the  other  male  and  female  they  were  purplish 
black  j  bill  black ;   irides  dark  brown. 


*  Ramsay  points  out  that  the  bird  sent  by  Major  Lloyd  really  came  from  the  locality 
cited  above,  and  not  as  Lord  T.  supposed  Tonghoo. 


48  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

101  bis.— Cypselus  pacificus,  Lath.  (2).  Descr.  S.  E., 
III.,  43. 

Amherst  ;  Bankasoon. 

Only  observed  in  the  southern  half  of  the  province. 

[I  have  noticed  this  Swift  on  several  occasions  at  Amherst 
and  southwards,  but  it  cannot  be  said  to  be  common  anywhere. 
I  only  secured  two  specimens — one  at  Amherst  and  one  at 
Bankasoon. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  of  a  male  and  female  re- 
corded in  the  flesh  : — 

Male. — Length,  7*5  ;  expanse,  165  ;  tail  from  vent,  3*15 
wing,  6*8;  tarsus,  0*4;  bill  from  gape,  0*85;  weight,    1  oz. 

Female. — Length,  7"25  ;  expanse,  1575  ;  tail  from  vent 
312;  wing",  65 ;  tarsus,  0*5;  bill  from  gape,  0*75;  weight 
1-75  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  purplish  black  ;  claws  horny  black  ;  bill  black 
irides  deep  brown. 

102. —  Cypselus  batassiensis,  J.  E.  Gray. 

I  gather  from  Mr.  Blyth's  remarks  (B.  of  B.,  p.  84)  that  he 
was  of  opinion  that  this  species  occurred  in  Tenasserim.  I  how- 
ever doubt  its  occurrence.  Mr.  Davison  tells  me  that  near 
Khyketo  he  saw  a  number  of  small  Swifts  flying  in  and  out 
and  about  the  fronds  of  a  set  of  palm  trees.  He  made  sure 
that  they  were  batassiensis,  but  on  shooting  specimens  they 
proved  to  be  infumatus.  Other  people  shooting  this  latter, 
before  infumatus  became  generally  known,  may  probably  have 
reported  the  occurrence  of  batassiensis,  but  there  is  no  reason 
to  believe  that  this  does  really  ever  visit  Tenasserim. 

102  Us.— Cypselus  infumatus,  Sclater,  (16).  Descr. 
S.  F.,  III.,  44. 

{Tonghoo,  Rams.)  Pahpoon  ;  Khyketo;  Amherst;  Mergui ;  Bahonee  ;  Pak- 
chan  ;  Malewoon. 

Common  throughout  the  plains  portion  of  the  province, 
but  especially  abundant  in  the  south. 

[At  Amherst  all  round  the  circuit  bungalow,  at  Mergui  on 
the  five  pagoda  plains,  on  the  Thatone  plains,  in  fact  wherever 
the  ground  was  open,  many  of  these  birds  might  be  seen  hawk- 
ing close  over  the  ground.  I  have  once  seen  them  about  the 
fronds  of  a  toddy  palm.  I  do  not  know  where  they  roost  or 
breed.  They  seemed  to  me  to  be  permanent  residents. — 
W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions;  &c.;  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  49 

Males. — Length,  4-62  to  5-0,  expanse,  105  to  1137  ;  tail 
from  vent,  20  to  2-62  ;  wing,  4-45  to  4'75  ;  tarsus,  0*3  to  0*37  ; 
bill  from  gape,  05  to  0*45 ;  weight,  0'3  oz. 

Females. — Length,  4-62  to  5'0;  expanse,  10-12  to  ll'O ;  tail 
from  vent,  2-0  to  25  ;  wing,  4-1  to  4'8;  tarsus,  0-3  to  0-35  -, 
bill  from  gape,    0'5    to   052 ;  weight,    0-37  to  0*38  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  dark  purple ;  bill  black  ;  irides  deep  brown. 

103  bis. — Collocalia  linchi,   Horsf.  Descr.  S.  F.,  I, 
296 ;  II.,  157. 

Blyth  says  (B.  of  B.,  p.  85)  that  this  occurs  in  the  Mergui 
Archipelago.  It  very  probably  does,  but  not  on  Mergui  Island 
itself,  nor  on  any  of  the  small  islands  near  it. 

Lord  Tweeddale  again  repeats,  loc.  ck.,  that  this  is  the  true 
fuciphaga,  Thun.  It  seems  to  me  that  where  a  description  is 
like  Thunberg's  (quoted  S.  F.,  I.,  294)  clear  and  explicit  we  must 
go  by  it,  and  to  my  mind  the  "corpus  supra atrum,  vixmtens," 
and  the  <f  cauda  rotundata,  supra  infraque  atra,"  of  Thunberg's 
description,  are  perfectly  irreconcilable  with  linchi,  and  either 
Thunberg's  bird  was  distinct,  or  his  description  was  so  directly 
at  variance  on  important  points  with  fact,  that  his  name  must 
be  rejected  altogether. 

103  ter.— Collocalia  innominata,  Hume   (6.)  Descr 

S.  F,  I.,  294. 

Mergui;  Bankasoon. 

Confined  to  the  southern  portions  of  the  province. 

[This  species  appears  at  Mergui  and  southwards,  from  time  to 
time,  in  moderately  large  numbers,  (though  nothing  like  those 
in  which  spodiopygia  occurs,)  hawking  about  along  the  coast,  up 
estuaries,  along  the  course  of  creeks  and  rivers,  over  paddy 
fields,  and  sometimes  a  little  way  inland. 

During  the  day  they  usually  keep  high  up  and  out  of  shot, 
but  descend  lower  in  the  evening.  They  fly  swiftly,  and  are  not 
always  easy  to  shoot. 

They  come  and  go,  and  probably  breed  on  some  of  the  islands 
of  the  Mergui  Archipelago.  At  the  Andamans  1  only  saw  a 
single  specimen.  Here,  at  the  extreme  south  of  Teuasserim, 
they  are  not  rare. — W.  D.] 

In  my  list,  S.  F.,  IV.,  223, 1  mentioned  a  Collocalia  under  the 
name  of  Collocalia  maxima.  I  had  then  only  two  specimens  from 
Tenasserim,  adults,  and  did  not  recognize  their  identity  with 
C.  innominata,  which  was  described,  as  it  now  appears,  from  an 

7 


50  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

immature  specimen.  Having  now  obtained  other  speci- 
mens, old  atid  young,  male  and  female,  I  find  that  the  Ban- 
kasoon  birds  are  innominata. 

The  adult  has  the  whole  of  the  forehead,  crown,  occiput,  nape, 
mantle,  and  upper  tail-coverts  smoky  black  ;  the  rump  a  rather 
pale  brown ;  the  feathers  dark  shafted  ;  the  wings  and  tail 
blackish  brown,  the  latter  with  a  distinct  bluish  lustre  towards 
the  tip  ;  the  tail,  except  the  external  tail  feathers,  which  are 
about  0"05  shorter  than  the  penultimate  when  fully  spread,  is 
perfectly  square,  and  therefore  when  partly  closed  has  the 
appearance  of  being  somewhat  emarginate. 

There  is  a  similar  bluish  gloss  towards  the  tips  of  all  the 
later  primaries,  while  on  the  head  and  back  there  is  a  faint 
greenish  gloss. 

There  is  a  black  line  which  surrounds  the  eye  in  front  below  and 
behind  ;  a  greyish  white  spot,  conspicuous  in  good  specimens,  in, 
the  lores  just  in  front  of  the  eye;  the  rest  of  the  lores,  cheeks, 
ear-coverts,  throat,  breast,  abdomen,  veut,  and  lower  tail-coverts, 
a  dusky  grey  brown  ;  all  the  three  latter  with  the  feathers 
conspicuously  dark  shafted  ;  wing-lining  and  axillaries  blackish 
brown. 

In  younger  specimens  the  colors  are  everywhere  lighter,  and 
some  immature  birds,  like  the  type  specimen,  show  a  distinct 
darker  cap. 

In  some  specimens  the  rump  is  greyish  white  and  the  under 
parts  pale  brownish  grey.  But  at  all  ages  in  good  specimens  the 
black  orbital  line,  the  greyish  white  lores  spot,  and  the  darker 
shafting  of  the  abdomen,  vent,  lower  tail-coverts  and  rump, 
coupled  with  the  large  size  of  the  species,  serve  to  distin- 
guish it. 

The   dimensions   are   as   follows : — 

Length,  5'1  to  5*3;  expanse,  12  to  12"62  ;  tail,  2*1  to  22  ; 
wing,  5*2  to  5*5  ;  tarsus,  0*4  to  0*5 ;  bill  from  gape,  0'6  j 
weight  exceeding  075  oz. 

Legs  feathered  almost  to  the  foot,  blackish  brown ;  feet  and 
bill  black. 

At  the  Andamans  we  only  procured  a  single  specimen,  but 
about  Mergui  and  the  rest  of  the  Tenasserim  provinces  south 
of  this  they  are  very  common  in  June,  and  there  can  be  no 
possible  doubt  of  their  distinctness  from  spodiopygia,  which  is 
common  in  Tenasserim  all  the  year  round,  as  indeed  it  is  at  the 
Andamans,  and  again  from  Collocaliaunicolor,  Jerdon,  which, 
with  trifling  variations  in  color,  we  have  from  Ceylon,  the  Assam- 
boo  hills,  the  Nilgheris,  and  the  Himalayas  from  Murree  to 
Sudiya.  It  is  unnecessary  to  add  that  linchi,  which  belongs  to 
quite  a  different  sub-group,  is  distinct  from  all  these. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  51 

103  quat—  Collocalia  spodiopygia,  Peale.  (28).  Descr. 
S.  F.,  I.,  296 ;  II.,  160. 

Mergui ;  Pakchan  ;  Bankasoon. 

Extremely  common  throughout  the  year  in  the  southern  por- 
tions of  Tenasserim,  and  breeds  largely  in  the  islands  of  the 
Mergui  Archipelago  from  Tavoy  Island  southwards. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh : — 

Males. — Length,  47  to  4'9;  expanse,  1082  to  11*5  ;  tail  from 
vent,  2  0  to  2-15;  wing,  4-62  to  5*0;  tarsus,  035 j  bill  from 
gape,   0*5  to  0*55  ;  weight,  0*4  to  0*5  oz. 

Female. — Length,  4-65  to  4-85;  expanse,  10-82  to  11-65; 
tail  from  vent,  1*9  to  2-12  ;  wing,  4-62  to  4-85  ;  bill  from  gape, 
0-5   to  0-55  ;  weight,  0"5  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  purplish  brown  ;  bill  black  ;  irides  very  dark 
brown. 

104.— Dendrochelidon  coronata,  Tick  (2). 

(TonglioO)  Karennee  at  1,700  feet,  Rams.)   Pine  forests,  Salween  ;  Ngabeemah. 

Kare  in  Tenasserim  and  only  found  in  the  northern  and 
central  portions. 

[I  never  met  with  this  species  further  south  than  Ngabeemah 
on  the  Attaran. — W.  D.] 

104  bis.— Dendrochelidon  comata.  Tern,  (2). 

Ckoungthanoung;  Pakchan  ;  Bankasoon;  MalewooD, 

Confined  to  the  extreme  south  of  the  province  but  rather 
common  there. 

[I  first  met  with  this  lovely  little  Tree  Swift  at  the  Choun^- 
thanoung  tin  mines,  some  90  miles  south  of  Mergui,  where 
there  were  several  seated  on  the  dead  trees  about  the  mines 
occasionally  swooping  down  and  hawking  over  the  water  col- 
lected in  the  abandoned  pits.  Further  south  it  occurred  more 
numerously,  and  in  February  I  found  it  comparatively  com- 
mon on  the  higher  portion  of  the  Pakchan,  seated  singly,  or 
in  pairs,  on  the  bamboos  overhanging  the  stream.  This  and 
the  next  species  I  found  frequented  by  preference  Tounyahs 
or  clearings,  where  there  were  numbers  of  dead  trees  standing 
about,  where  they  could  perch  and  get  a  good  view  all  round. 
Sometimes  1  have  seen  both  species  flying  about  over  the  top 
of  heavy  forest ;  as  a  rule  they  avoid  settling  on  leafy  trees. 
They  are  not  at  all  shy  birds. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  of  this  species  re- 
corded in  the  flesh  : — 

Males.— Length,  6-12  to6'5  ;  expanse,  12-25  to  12*9  ;  tail,  2-8 
to  3-3  ;  wing,  4-83  to  5-12  ;  tarsus,  0*2  to    0'3  :  bill  from  o-ape 
0-62  to  0-7  ;  weight,  0-5  to  0'65  oz. 


52  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM, 

Females. — Length,  6"05  to  6*6;  expanse,  1225  to  13-25;  tail, 
3-05  to  3*4 ;  wing,  4-82  to  5'25;  tarsus,  0"25  to  03;  bill 
from  gape,  0-65  to  0*7  ;  weight,  065  to  075  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  purplish  pink  ;  bill  black  ;  irides  dark  brown. 

A  narrow  frontal  band  continued  over  the  eyes,  and  along 
the  margin  of  the  eye  tufts,  chin,  margin  of  the  throat,  and 
long  moustachal  plumes,  snow  white;  lores  black;  posterior 
portion  of  cheeks  and  ear-coverts  bright  chestnut  in  the  male, 
unicolorous  with  crown  in  female ;  forehead,  crown,  occiput,  a 
band  behind  the  ear-coverts,  upper  throat  and  sides  of  lower 
throat,  wing-coverts,  and  outer  margins  of  quills  deep  glossy 
steel  blue  ;  on  the  nape,  a  greener  metallic  band ;  a  trace  of  the 
same  on  the  sides  of  the  neck,  and  at  the  junction  of  the  wing 
with  the  body.  The  rest  of  the  back,  sides  of  the  neck,  rump 
and  upper  tail-coverts,  breast  and  abdomen,  glossy  metallic 
bronze ;  lower  tail-coverts  pure  white ;  so  are  the  short 
tertiaries ;  wing-lining  glossy  blackish  blue ;  inner  webs  of 
quills  deep  brown  ;  tail,  outer  feathers  brown,  paler  on  the  outer 
webs ;  rest  of  tail  feathers  blackish  brown  with  a  greenish  blue 
gloss.  There  is  also  sometimes  a  greenish  gloss  on  the  tips  of 
the  secondaries,  and  all  but  the  earlier  primaries.  Sometimes 
the  lower  abdomen  is  much  more  drab-colored  and  less  metal- 
lic, and  the  feathers  about  the  vent  as  well  as  the  lower  tail- 
coverts  are  white.  The  shafts  of  the  tail  feathers  on  their 
lower  surface  are  pure  white ;  those  of  the  quills  black  or 
brown. 

104  ter.— Dendrochelidon  longipennis,  Bafin.  (16). 

Mergui ;  Hankachin  j  Pakchan  ;  Bakasoon;  Malewoon. 

Confined  to  the  southern  portions  of  the  province. 

[This  species  extends  further  north  than  the  last,  for  I  have 
obtained  it  at  Mergui ;  it  may  extend  further  north  still,  but 
not  much  further,  as  I  failed  to  notice  it  at  Tavoy  or  its  neigh- 
bourhood. Its  habits  are  the  same  as  that  of  the  last  and  of 
J),  coronatus ;  it  frequents  the  same  situations,  and  like  them 
seems  to  avoid  grass  land.  Both  species  are,  I  believe,  perma- 
nent residents  in  Southern  Tenasserim. — W.  D.] 

Unfortunately  only  one  specimen,  a  female,  was  measured 
in  the  flesh.     Her  dimensions  were  : — 

Length,  7'7;  expanse,  1672  ;  tail,  3*6  ;  wing,  6'8  ;  tarsus, 
0*83 ;  bill  from  gape,  0'75  ;  weight,  1-5  ozs.  ;  but  they  run 
up  to  fully  8  inches  in  length,  with  a  wing  of  7*0. 

Lores  black;  forehead  and  frontal  crest,  crown,  occiput,  and 
wing- coverts,  nape,  sides  of  neck  and  interscapulary  region, 
metallic  green ;  all  but  the  three  latter,  which  have  a  more 
bronzy  lustre  usually,  but  not  invariably,  more'  or  less  streaked 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  53 

or  patched  with  deep  blue ;  ear-coverts  in  the  male  deep 
chestnut;  in  the  female  dusky,  with  a  slight  greenish  gloss;  mid- 
dle of  back,  rump,  and  tips  of  longest  scapulars,  hoary  grey  ; 
upper  tail-coverts  and  all  but  the  outer  tail  feathers,  which  are 
blackish  brown,  dark  glossy  green  ;  quills  blackish  on  their 
outer  webs,  with  a  bluish  green  gloss  ;  inner  webs  paling  towards 
the  margin,  where  they  are  pale  brown  ;  chin,  throat  and  breast, 
grey,  the  latter  with  faint  greenish  reflections  ;  sides  of  abdo- 
rx  en  and  sides  a  lighter  grey  ;  middle  of  abdomen,  vent,  and 
lower  tail-coverts  pure  white ;  flanks  slightly  darker  grey ; 
wing-lining  very  dark  green,  glossed.  Tertiaries  more  or  less 
white  or  greyish  white. 

A  young  bird  has  the  feathers  of  the  head  and  back  narrowly 
tipped  with  buffy  white ;  all  the  primaries  narrowly  and  all  the 
shorter  quills  broadly  tipped  with  white;  the  upper  tail-coverts 
are  also  tipped  with  white.  The  colors  generally,  but  specially 
the  grey  of  the  back,  duller,  and  there  is  a  line  of  white  mot- 
tling from  the  chin  on  either  side  down  the  sides  of  the 
throat. 

105     quat. — Batrachostomus     affinis,     Bly.     Desch. 
S.F.,  II.,  351. 

Blyth  remarks  that  Mason  gives  this  species  without 
mentioning  any  locality.  If  Mason  ever  obtained  the  bird 
it  was  probably  from  the  Hills  above  Tonghoo,  and  therefore 
within  the  limits  of  Tenasserim  as  now  limited,  but  there  is 
no  reason  as  yet  to  suppose  that  this  species  occurs  beyond 
the  limits  of  the  Malay  Peninsular,  and  Mason's  bird/if  he 
ever  got  one,  and  not  merely  heard  of  it,  belonged  probably  to 
the  next  species. 

106.— Batrachostomus  hodgsoni,    G.   E.    Or.   S.   F., 
II.,  349. 

Lieutenant  Ramsay  obtained  a  male  of  this  species  in  grey 
mottled  plumage  in  Karennee,  at  6,000  feet.  He  notes  the 
"iris  marbled  buff;  bill  light  madder;  legs  light  madder,  tinged 
violet." 

Lord  Tweeddale,  in  the  "  Birds  of  Burma/'  fell  into  the  error 
of  uniting  B.  castaneus,  nobis,  (which,  as  I  suggested  when  des- 
cribing it,  is  probably  one  sex  of  the  present  species)  with 
affinis  of  Blyth,  as  also  of  uniting  pundatw,  nobis,  with 
moniliger,  Layard. 

This  was  pointed  out,  S.  F.,  IV.,  376. 


54  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

His  Lordship  then  writes  a  long  *  letter  to  the  Ibis  to  prove 
that  he  is  right,  and  that  affinis  is  castaneus,  &c. 

This  is,  of  course,  a  mistake.  Any  one  who  has  once  seen 
affinis  could  never  confound  it  with  castaneus,  but  there  was  a 
serious  blunder  in  my  paper,  which  his  Lordship  failed  to  detect, 
and  that  was,  that  in  copying  from  the  paper  in  which  dimen- 
sions of  the  several  species  were  recorded,  the  dimensions  of 
the  bills  of  javanensis  were  given  for  those  of  affinis,  I  having 
(though  perfectly  correct  as  to  the  entire  distinctness  of  affinis 
and  castaneus)  made  in  writing  out  my  paper  hurriedly  from 
notes  almost  as  great  a  muddle  as    his    Lordship. 

However,  the  main  point  for  ornithologists  is  the  distinct- 
ness of  the  several  species ;  and,  pending  the  appearance  of  a 
monographic  note  on  the  Indian  and  Malayan  species  which 
I  have  by  me,  I  reproduce,  to  prevent  any  miscomprehension 
amongst  my  Indian  readers,  extracts  fron  a  letter  which  I 
recently  addressed  to  the  Editors  of  the   Ibis. 

"  There  exist  in  the  Malay  Peninsula,  besides  the  magnificent 
B.  a%ritus,\  which  cannot  well  be  confounded  with  any  other 
Asiatic  form,  two  distinct  rufous  forms  of  BatracJwstomi. 

i€  The  one,  the  larger  javanensis,  apud  Blyth,  with  conspi- 
cuous white  wing  spots,  with  the  wing  usually  measuring  from 
4*75  to  5,  and  with  a  bill  from  1*3  to  1*4  wide  at  base,  and  from 
l-37  to  1*49  straight  from  angle  of  gape  to  tip  of  bill.  I  have 
twenty  specimens  of  this  form  now  before  me  They  vary  a 
great  deal  in  the  tone  of  the  upper  and  lower  plumage;  the 
upper  surface  from  light  dingy  chestnut  to  a  very  deep  rufous 
brown |  and  the  lower  surface  correspondingly,  though  in  a 
lesser  degree,  but  all  unmistakably  belong  to  the  same  species. 

"  The  other,  the  smaller,  affinis,  apud  Blyth,  with  in  three  spe- 
cimens out  of  four,  no  white  spots  on  the  wings,  with  wings 
varying  from  4"28  to  4*6§  and  with  bills  varying  in  width,  at  gape 
from  0"95  to  1*13  and  in  length  from  gape  to  tip  from  1'05  to 
1*33.  I  have  four  specimens  of  this  form  before  me;  one  is 
precisely  similar  to  the  type  ;  three  answer  well  to  Blyth's  des- 
cription, but  the  fourth  has  some  spots  upon  the  wing,  and  may, 

*  His  Lordship  in  this  letter  seems  to  think  that  any  one  who  ventures  to 
dispute  his  dicta  is  a  public  offender.  This  is  very  childish ;  we  are  all  quite  willing 
to  give  him  full  credit  for  all  the  good  work  he  does  and  has  done ;  but  of  course  if  he 
will  mar  the  effect  of  this  by  flagrant  self-sufficiency  and  an  affectation  of  being 
the  supreme  authority  in  such  matters,  he  will  be  laughed  at,  despite  all  his  merits, 
and  when  he  makes  blunders,  as  he  and  all  of  us  too  often  do,  of  course  he  will  be 
more  sat  upon  than  other  less  pretentious  mortals. 

"f  This  is  also  the  Bombycistoma  fullertonii  vel  bombycivoras,  Hay,  J.  A.  S.  B, 
X.,  574,  a  voluminous  designation  that  requires  a  mouth  almost  proportionally  as 
large  as  the  bird's  own  to  give  it  a  duly  sonorous  utterance.  This  grand  designation  was 
bestowed,  the  author  naively  tells  us,  "  the  supposition  being  that  it  rests  on  branches 
to  receive  and  devour  that   immense  moth,  the  Bombyx  atlas,"! 

J  In  this  stage  it  seems  to  be  stictopterus  of  Cabanis. 

§  Blyth  gives  the  wing  as  4'5. 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM.  55 

perhaps,  notwithstanding  the  exteme  narrowness  of  its  bill,  and 
short  wings,  belong  to  the  other  form  (which  it  closely  resem- 
bles) as  it  has  the  bill  1*  33  in  length,  whereas  in  the  other 
three  specimens  the  bills  are  only  1  05,  l'l,  and  1*2  in  length. 

"Setting  aside  this  possibly  doubtful  specimen,  I  have  three 
specimens,  at  any  rate,  of  typical  affinis,  all  shot  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Malacca.  Wings  4*28,  4*5,  and  4*6,  with 
tails  4-4  and  4-5,  answering  in  every  respect  to  Blyth's 
description,  and  which,  in  my  opinion,  no  one  who  compares 
them  with  either  type  or  description  can  possibly  doubt  to  be 
the  form  described  by  Blyth  as  affinis. 

"  I  have  also  before  me  four  chestnut  castaneus,  wings,  5*2, 
5*25,  5-25,  and  55.  It  seems  to  me  that  this  difference  in  size 
alone  is  sufficient  to  separate  the  two ;  castaneus  is  really  more 
than  double  the  bulk  of  affinis,  but  the  whole  character  and 
color  of  the  plumage  is  also  totally  different.  The  plumage  in 
affinis  is  of  the  same  color  and  character  as  that  of  javanensis, 
apud  Blyth,  and  both  are  clearly  different  to  any  practised  eye 
from  that  of  castaneus.  The  plumage  of  this  latter  is  softer  and 
silkier,  and  the  chestnut  is  brighter  everywhere  (but  most 
conspicuously  so  on  the  throat  and  breast)  in  the  dullest 
castaneus  than  in   the   brightest  javanensis  or  affinis. 

"I  say  nothing  now  of  the  grey  white  mottled  birds  from 
Malacca,  and  the  similar,  though  immediately  distinguishable, 
ones  from  the  Himalayas.  I  assert  nothing  as  to  the  validity  of 
Blyth's  affinis,  nor  as  to  the  correct  name  that  this  or  javanensis, 
apud  Blyth,  should  bear. 

u  I  merely  assert  that  in  the  Malayan  Peninsula  occur  two 
forms,  a  larger  and  a  smaller  (both  fully  represented  in  my 
museum),  agreeing  alike  with  the  descriptions  and  the  types  of 
javanensis*  and  affinis,  Blyth,  and  both  absolutely  and  unmis- 
takably distinct,  and  distinguishable  at  a  glance  from  castaneus. 

"  Secondly  as  to  punctatus  and  moniliger.  I  have  moniliger 
both  from  the  Travancore  Hills  and  from  Ceylon  perfectly 
identical.  In  no  adult  moniliger  does  the  wing  fall  short  of  4*7. 
In  punctatus,  on  the  other  hand,  of  which  several  specimens 
have  now,  Mr  White  informs  me,  been  obtained,  the  wing 
appears  to  be  always  under  4-5  (in  the  type  it  is  only  4'3), 
and  though  unquestionably  there  is  a  strong  family  resemblance 
between  the  males  of  moniliger  as  sexed  by  Mr  Bourdillion 
(for  I  have  no  really  reliably-sexed  specimens  except  hisj  and 
punctatus  as  described  (I  have  not  yet  seen  the  rufous  form  of 
this),  the  difference  between  the  two  birds  in  every  dimension 
and  even  in  plumage  is  such  that  no  one  who  compares  them 
can  ever  confound  the  two/' 

*  By  types  of  javanensis  I  mean  the  specimens  labelled  with   this  name  by  Blyth 
himself. 


56  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

I  note  further  that  in  his  remarks  on  the  late  Col.  Tickells' 
manuscript  illustrations  of  Indian  Ornithology,  Ibis,  1876,  355, 
His  Lordship  further  remarks  that  the  first  plate  in  Col. 
Tickell's  volume  VII,  "  illustrates  a  species  of  Batrachostomus, 
obtained  near  Tongu-ngoo,  Burma,  and  identified  by  Col. 
Tickell  with  B.  moniliger  (Layard).  The  figure  very  acutely 
represeuts  B.  affinis,  Bly  th,  in  bright  chestnut  plumage,  a  species 
which  can  hardly  be    separated    from  B.   moniliget.'" 

Now  B.  affinis  never  has  bright  chestnut  plumage ;  it  varies 
through  the  same  shades  as  does  javanensis,  apud  Blyth  ;  but 
Lord  Walden  intended  to  refer  probably  to  B.  castaneus,  nobis, 
which  is,  as  I  originally  suggested,  probably  one  sex  of  B. 
hodgsoni. 

But,  admitting  this,  how  any  one  who  has  examined  a  series  of 
both  can  possibly  talk  of  moniliger  being  barely  separable  from 
castaneus,  altogether  passes  my  comprehension  ;  affinis,  Blyth, 
castaneus,  vel  hodgsoni  and  moniliger,  are  three  about  as  easily 
separable  species  as  can  be  met  with. 

107. —  Caprimulgus  indicus,  Lath. 

Blyth  gives  this  as  generally  diffused  throughout  Burma, 
but  he  probably  referred  to  the  larger  race  of  this  species^ 
now-a-days  identified  as  jotaka,  the  next  species  (?). 

107  bis— Caprimulgus  jotaka,  Tern,  and  Schl.  (4). 

(Tonghoo,  Llojd.)  Choungthanoung  ;  Bankasoon. 

Very  sparingly  distributed  throughout  the  more  open  portions 
of  the  province. 

[Appears  to  me  to  be  very  rare  in  Tenasserim.  I  distin- 
guished them  from  macrourus,  but  put  them  down  as  indicus. 
I  certainly  shot  the  only  two  I  saw,  and  these  occurred  quite 
at  the  south  of  the  province. — W.  D.] 

The  birds  here  entered  appear  to  be  similar  to  those  identi- 
fied by  Godwin-Austen,  the  Marquis  of  Tweeddale  and  others 
as  Caprimulgus  jotaka.  Whether  really  identical  with  Japanese 
specimens  I  am  hardly  in  a  position  to  decide,  as  I  have  only 
a  single  Japanese  bird ;  but  this,  though  slightly  more  rufes- 
cent,  agrees  fairly  well  with  our  Tenasserim  examples. 

In  former  lists  I  identified  these  specimens  as  indicus,  which 
Mr.  Blyth  (B.  of  B.,  p.  83)  says  is  generally  diffused  in  Burma, 
extending  southward  to  Malacca  and  Sumatra,  and,  except  in 
the  matter  of  size,  I  can  discover  no  constant  point  of  difference 
between  the  two  species. 

Taking  indicus  to  be  the  bird  of  the  plains  of  the  Punjab, 
the  North-West  Provinces,  Oudh,  the  Central  Provinces, 
and  of  the  whole  of  Peninsular  India,  it  may  be  broadly   stated 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  57 

that  the  wings  of  the  adult  males  in  this  species  vary  from 
7*4  to  76 ;  also  that  the  white  of  the  tips  of  the  lateral  tail 
feathers  usually  extends  to  the  very  end  of  the  feathers. 

Typical  jotaka,  we  are  informed,  has  in  the  male  the  wing 
8" 8,  and  the  white  in  the  lateral  tail  feathers  occurs  as  a  broad 
penultimate  baud,  distant  from  half  to  a  quarter  of  an  inch  from 
the  end.  of  the  tail. 

In  the  so-called  jotaka  from  Tenasserim,  the  Karen  Hills,  the 
Khasia  Hills,  Assam,  Sikhim,  Gurhwal,  Kotegurh,  and  right 
away  to  Hazara  in  Abbottabad,  the  wings  in  the  males  vary 
from  8  to  8-6,  and  average  about  8-3,  and  the  white  occurs  in 
a  penultimate  band  ;  in  some  cases  no  doubt  more  than  half  an 
inch  distant  from  the  tip  of  the  tail,  in  other  cases  less  than  a 
quarter  of  an  inch,  and  in  one  specimen  before  me  less  than 
one-tenth  of  an  inch. 

Taken  as  a  body,  the  males  of  the  so-called  jotaka  are,  I  think, 
more  silvery  than  the  generality  of  the  plains  indicus,  in 
fact  resembling  in  tint  the  typical  Nilgheri  and  Ceylon  kelaarrti ; 
but  there  are  plains  indicus  with  wings  only  7'6,  and  with  the 
white  separated  from  the  tip  of  the  tail  by  a  dark  band, 
inseparable  from  Hazara  males  with  the  wing  8,  which  again 
are  inseparable  from  Sikhim  and  Tenasserim  males,  with  the 
wings  86. 

The  breadth  of  the  bars  of  the  flanks  and  lower  tail-coverts 
is  also  a  character,  by  which,  as  a  body,  the  so-cailledjotaka  might 
possibly  be  distinguished;  but  this  even  does  not  hold  absolutely 
good,  and  will  not  suffice  to  separate  the  birds  from  indicus,  and 
the  same  may  be  said  of  the  wing-lining,  which  in  most  of  the 
Himalayan  and  ~Bavmese  jotaka  is  a  brighter  rufescent  fulvous, 
less  barred  and  marked  with  dusky  than  in  the  majority  of  the 
plains  indicus.  After  examining  carefully  a  large  series  of  both 
these  forms,  I  can  discover  no  absolute  diagnosis  beyond  that  of 
size.  It  remains  to  be  seen  whether  the  birds  identified  as 
jotaka  from  Burma,  &c,  are  really,  as  my  one  specimen  leads  me 
to  infer,  identical  with  the  Japanese  birds.  In  no  Indian  or 
Burmese  specimen  that  I  have  seen  has  the  wing  come  quite  up 
to  Professor  SchlegePs  dimensions  of  8-8.  The  largest  specimen 
that  I  have  met  with  has  the  wing  8'6,  while  of  my  Japanese  spe- 
cimen the  wing  is  only  835,  but  then  the  first  three  primaries 
are  not  fully  developed. 

109. — Caprimulgus  albonotatus,  Tick. 

This  species  is  said  (B.  of  B.,  p.  83)  to  have  been  procured  at 
Tonghoo  by  W.  Ramsay.  It  is  very  probable  that  some  of 
the  specimens  I  have  entered  as  macrourus,  would  be  identified 
by  others  as  albonotatus. 

8 


58  BIRDS   OF  TENASSEMM. 

110.— Caprimulgus  macrourus,  Eorsf.  (28.) 

(Tonghoo,  Bums.)  Pahpoon ;  Thatone  ;  Wimpong  ;  E-poo  ;  Moulmein  ;  Am- 
herst ;  Yea;  Pabyin;  Mergui;  Bankasoon ;  Malewoon. 

Common  everywhere  except  in  dense  forest  throughout  the 
less  elevated  portions  of  the  province. 

[In  habits  this  species  differs  in  no  way  from  the  other  and 
better  known  species  of  the  genus,  Its  note  might  be  syllablized 
tok  tok  tok,  repeated  quickly  three  or  four  times,  then  a  short 
pause,  when  it  is  again  repeated.  I  know  of  nothing  so  tho- 
roughly disagreeable  when  one  is  lying  ill  with  fever  in  the  jungle 
as  the  monotonous  call  of  this  Night  Jar,  which  goes  on  inces- 
santly from  early  in  the  evening  till  dawn  next  morning.— 
W.  D.] 

I  have  entered  all  our  Tenasserim  specimens  as  macrourus, 
and  some  of  these  are  what  I  consider  typical  macrourus,  but 
the  great  mass  are  neither  typical  macrourus  nor  typical  albono- 
tatus,  but  an  intermediate  form,  such  as  one  gets  about  Dacca 
also.  When  I  speak  of  macrourus  I  mean  macrourus  such  as 
one  gets  about  the  southern  extremity  of  the  Malay  Peninsula. 
I  have  no  Javan  specimen  by  me  at  present  to  compare. 

Jerdon  pretty  clearly  discriminated  albonotatus  from  macrourus. 
Typical  albonotatus  is  altogether  a  larger  bird,  (wing  9,  against 
7*75  to  8"0  in  macrourus,)  both  above  and  below  altogether  a 
lighter  colored  and  more  buffy  bird,  with  broader  white  orbuffy 
or  creamy  white  margins  to  the  scapulars  and  wing  feathers, 
and  with  the  whole  lower  parts  comparatively  uniform ;  where- 
as in  macrourus  the  breast  is  much  darker  and  contrasts  strong- 
ly  with  the  much  paler  abdomen. 

These  points  indicate  the  differences  observable  between 
specimens  at  the  extreme  ends  of  the  scale,  but  in  between 
them  every  possible  intermediate  form  occurs,  and  in  this,  as  in 
many  other  cases,  I  see  no  way  so  to  define  both  species  as  not 
to  exclude  at  least  one-third  of  all  the  specimens  one  procures. 
It  must  be  noticed  that  in  no  locality  that  I  know  of  is  either 
species  absolutely  true.  I  have  obtained  specimens  at  Etawah 
in  the  North  Western  Provinces  much  nearer  to  macrourus  than 
to  albonotatus,  and  Davison  shot  at  Pulo  Seban,22  miles  from  Ma- 
lacca, along  with  a  typical  macrourus  male,  a  female,  that,  so 
far  as  coloration  goes,  is  a  typical  albonotatus,  but  has  the  wing 
only  7 '3,  so  that  to  a  great  extent  the  discrimination  of  these 
two  species  must  depend  upon  dimensions.  Amongst  the  Tenas- 
serim specimens  the  majority  show  the  dark  breast,  but  a 
few    show  no  traces  of  this,  and  several  show  it  very  faintly. 

The  wings  of  those  that  show  no  trace  of  the  dark  breast,  and 
that  are  miniatures  of  typical  albonotatus,  measure  as  follows  : — 

Female. — 7*5,  Malewoon ;  absolutely  identical  with  the  Pulo 
Seb^rx  female  already  referred  to. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  5iJ 

Female.— 8-1,  Myawadee,  but  with  the  upper  surface  greyer 
and  darker  than  in  true  albonotatus,  though  not  nearly  so  dark 
as  in  typical  macrourus. 

Male. — 7'81,]VIergui,  of  the  albonotatus  type  above  and  below. 

All  the  other  specimens,  some  of  them  shot  at  the  same  time 
and  place  with  these  three,  show  more  or  less  distinctly  the  dark- 
er breast,  and  are,  without  exception,  somewhat  greyer  and  dar- 
ker above  than  albonotatus,  and  some  few  of  them  are  typical 
macrourus  in  every  respect. 

The  following  are  dimensions  of  wings  : — 

Males.— 7-8  ;  7-51  ;  8-2  ;  7-5  ;  7-9  ;  8'2  ;  80  ;  8'25 ;  8-12  ; 
7-5;  7-5  ;  7-98;  80. 

Females.— 8-2  ;  8-0  ;  7*7  ;  8*0  ;  8-1  ;  7-9  ;  7-9. 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  dimensions  vary  immensely,  but 
it  is  quite  impossible  to  separate  these  birds  into  two  species, 
and  curiously  enough  some  of  the  biggest  birds,  for  instance 
the  first  female,  is  one  of  the  closest  to  the  typical  macrourus  in 
plumao-e.  On  the  whole,  both  as  regards  dimensions  and  plumage, 
the  birds,  as  a  body,  are  much  nearer  macrourus,  and  they  all  so 
grade  into  each  other  that  I  cannot  consistently  enter  them 
under  different  names. 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  of  a  very  large  series  re- 
corded in  the  flesh  : — 

Males. — Length,  11-75  to  12-3;  expanse,  23*5  to  24*75  ;  tail 
from  vent,  5-8  to  6"62;  wings,  7*5  to  8'25  ;  tarsus,  065  to 
075  ;  bill  from  gape,  1*15  to  1-62  j  weight,  3  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  11*6  to  12*0  ;  expanse,  22-75  to  25  ;  tail 
from  vent,  6'25  to  6-5  ;  wing,  7'3  to  8-2;  tarsus,  0-62  to  075  ; 
bill  from   gape,  0'7  to  1*5  ;  weight,  25  to  2' 75  ozs. 

The  legs  and  feet  are  pinkish  brown,  dull  brown,  or  yellowish 
brown  ;  bill  black  ;  edges  of  both  mandibles  and  gape  pinkish 
brown ;  irides  very  narrow,  and  so  dark  a  brown  as  to  be  barely 
distinguishable  from  the  pupil. 

112.— Caprimulgus  asiaticus,  Lath.  (l). 

Amherst. 

Must  be  extremely  rare  in,  and  is  probably  only  a  straggler 
to,  Tenasserim.  Davison  never  once  met  with  it,  but  Dr. 
Armstrong  obtained  a  single  specimen  near  Amherst. 

114.— Caprimulgus  monticolus,  Frankl.  (7). 

(Tonghoc,  Rams.)  Pahpoon  ;  Thatone  ;  Yea-boo  ;  Amherst. 

Confined  to  the  northern  and  upper  central  portions  of  the 
province. 

[This  Night  Jar  also  occurs  in  Tenasserim,  but  its  range  to 
the  south  appears  to  extend  only  about  as  far  as  Amherst  ;  be- 
low this  I  have  not  yet  observed  it. 


60  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

On  the  3rd  March  1874  I  shot  a  female  of  this  species  off  her 
nest  containing  two  eggs  at  Yea-boo  up  the  Attaran. — W.  D.] 

114  Us.— Lyncornis  cerviniceps,  Gould.  (34), 

(Tonghoo,  Lloyd.)  Eollidoo  ;  Pahpoon  ;  Thatone  ;  Pabyin  ;  Bankasoon. 

Generally  distributed  throughout  the  better-wooded  portions 
of  the  province  up  to  4,000  feet. 

[This  grand  Night  Jar  is  not  at  all  uncommon  in  the  well- 
wooded  portions  of  Tenasserim  from  north  to  south,  but  it  does 
not  seem  to  occur  in  those  portions  that  are  scantily  wooded, 
or  where  the  forests  or  the  greater  portion  of  them  are  deci- 
duous and  not  evergreen,  as  in  the  vicinity  of  Moulmein  and  be- 
tween that  place  and  Tavoy.  South  of  Mergui,  as  at  Malewoon 
and  Bankasoon,  it  is  common. 

It  makes  its  appearance  soon  after  sundown,  flying  at  a  great 
height,  and  numbers  coming  from  the  same  direction  (though 
quite  independently  of  one  another  and  not  altogether),  utter- 
ing its  full  and  clear  whistle.  As  the  evening  advances,  they 
descend  lower  and  lower,  till  by  the  time  it  is  quite  dark  they 
are  flying  about  within  a  few  feet  of  the  ground.  I  have  noticed 
(and  I  have  had  great  opportunities  of  observing  them')  that 
only  for  about  an  hour  after  their  first  appearance  of  an 
evening  do  they  call,  after  which  they  are  neither  seen  nor  heard 
again  till  dawn  the  next  morning,  when  numbers  are  again 
heard  calling  and  seen  wending  their  way  back  in  the  direction 
from  whence  they  came  the  preceding  evening. 

I  have  travelled  through  many  and  many  a  mile  of  forest 
land,  and  T  have  flushed  a  great  many  Caprimulgi,  but  only 
on  one  occasion  have  I  ever  seen  a  Lyncornis  during  the  day, 
and  that  one  I  flushed  and  shot  in  a  narrow  strip  of  thin  tree 
jungle  at  Malewoon  as  she  rose  from  her  nest  containing  one 
egg,  quite  fresh ;  the  egg  was  laid  in  a  slight  depression  on  the 
bare  ground,  without  the  slightest  apology  for  a  nest. 

I  cannot  imagine,  and  I  have  often  wondered,  where  these 
birds  roost  during  the  day.  I  have  walked  up  hill  and  down 
dale  Over  many  hundred  miles  of  country,  and  over  ground 
covered  in  every  conceivable  way,  with  dense  forest  (sometimes 
so  dense  that  every  step  of  the  way  had  to  be  cut),  with 
thin  tree  jungle,  with  grass,  and  with  nothing  but  stones 
and  rocks,  and  yet  only  once  have  I  flushed  a  Lyncornis 
and  that  was  brooding.  I  have  thought  that  they  might  possibly 
roost  on  the  larger  limbs  of  trees  during  the  day  ;  but  I  hardly 
think  it  possible  that  I  should  have  failed  to  find  them  if  they 
did,  for  many  a  time  have  I  detected  and  shot  other  species  of 
Caprimulgi  during  the  day,  roosting  on  the  larger  limbs  of 
trees.     I  have  noticed  that,  when  they  make   their   appearance 


BIRDS   OF  TEKASSEEIM.  61 

of  an  evening,  they  always  come  from  the  direction  of  the 
mountains,  numbers  following  exactly  in  the  trail  of  those 
that  had  gone  before,  and  all  going  back  exactly  the  same 
way  at  dawn  the  next  morning"*.  This  I  have  not  only  noticed 
to  be  the  case  with  L.  cerviniceps,  but  also  with  the  smaller 
L.  lemminckii  of  the  Malay  Peninsula. 

The  note  of  the  present  species  is,  as  I  mentioned  before,  a 
full  clear  whistle  which  cau  be  heard  a  very  long  distance  off; 
it  might  be  syllabized  two-wee-oo,  each  syllable  lengthened 
out,  but  specially  so  the  middle  one.  Occasionally  the  first 
syllable  is  double  and  shortened  too-too-wee-oo  ;  this  whistle 
the  bird  repeats  at  irregular  intervals,  one  calling  and  another 
answering. 

Unlike  the  ordinary  Night  Jars,  they  appear  to  settle  but 
seldom.  I  have  never  seen  them  settle  on  the  ground,  but  on 
one  occasion,  and  on  one  occasion  only,  while  lying  at  anchor 
close  to  the  bank  in  the  creek  at  Choungthanoung,  a  Lyncornis 
settled  on  an  old  stump  within  twenty  yards  of  the  boat,  where  it 
remained  some  six  or  eight  minutes,  uttering  at  short  intervals 
its  fine  whistle  ;  it  was  a  clear  moonlight  night,  and  I  could 
see  it  distinctly,  and  I  noticed  that,  when  about  to  whistle,  its 
head  shot  forward  with  a  jerk.  Its  position  when  seated  was 
the  same  as  that  of  Caprimulgus,  squatting,  with  the  lower  breast 
and  abdomen  resting  on  the  thing  on  which  it  was  seated. 

In  the  majority  of  the  specimens  I  obtained  (thirty-four),  the 
whole  of  the  abdomen  down  to  the  vent  was  covered  with  a  thick 
layer  of  white  fat,  half  an  inch  thick  in  some  cases,  lying 
between  the  skin  and  the  muscular  tissue,  but  which  separated 
without  difficulty  from  the  skin. 

The  food,  of  course,  consists  entirely  of  insects,  which  are 
taken  on  the  wing. 

This  species'  extends  as  far  south,  certainly,  as  Tonka  in  the 
Malayan  Peninsular,  but  how  much  further  south  it  goes,  and 
where  it  meets  with  L.  temminckii,  I  am  unable  to  say. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  of  numerous  specimens 
measured  in  the  flesh  : — 

Hales. — Length,  14'9  to  16-5  ;  expanse,  34  to  37*25  ;  tail,  8 
to  9;  wing,  11 -4  to  12-5  ;  tarsus,  0-7  to0"9  ;  bill  from  gape,  1*62 
to  1*9 ;  weight,  8  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  15-12  to  165  ;  expanse,  345  to  36-25  ; 
tail,  7-9  to  9-0;  wing,  11-37  to  12-62  ;  tarsus,  0-75  toO'82  ;  bill 
from  gape,  1-7  to  2-0  ;  weight,  8  ozs. 

The  legs  and  feet  varied  ;  some  were  brownish  pink,  some 
dull  purpish  brown,  some  light  plumbeous  brown  ;  the  irides 
were  dark  brown. 

*  It  is  just  possible,  though  by  no  means  probable,  that  like  some  near  allies  the 
Lyncornis  may  roost  in  caves  in  the  hills. — A.  O.  H. 


62  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

The  bill  with  the  tips  of  both  mandibles  black,  pinkish  or 
dark  fleshy  at  the  base  and  gape. 

It  is  impossible  to  describe  this  magnificent  bird  in  detail  at 
all  satisfactorily,  because  I  find  that,  with  more  than  thirty 
magnificent  specimens  before  me,  not  two  are  alike.  I  shall, 
therefore,  only  endeavour  to  give  such  a  general  description  as 
will,  coupled  with  the  dimensions  already  given,  enable  any  one 
to  identify  the  birds. 

The  chin,  upper  part  of  throat  and  breast  are  intense 
brown  ;  the  feathers  often  more  or  less  margined  at  the  tips 
with  bright  ferruginous  ;  right  across  the  throat  is  a  snow-white 
band,  forming  more  or  less  of  an  angle  in  the  middle,  and 
passing  to  buffy  behind  the  ear-coverts  ;  the  deep  color  of  the 
breast  is  encircled  by  a  buffy  white  to  rich  buff  collar,  which 
nearly  joins  the  prolonged  ends  of  the  white  throat  band  behind 
the  ear-coverts :  though  generally  conspicuous,  in  some  speci- 
mens this  collar  is  barely  traceable  ;  the  whole  of  the  rest  of  the 
lower  parts  are  blackish  brown  to  greyish  dusky ;  the  feathers 
broadly  tipped  with  yellowish  white  to  rusty  buff,  producing  a 
barred  appearance  ;  the  lower  tail- coverts  are  buff,  with  con- 
spicuous transverse,  more  or  less  cuspidate,  blackish  brown 
bands,  which  are  dotted  and  pencilled  over  with  the  same  color 
as  the  rest  of  the  feather.  The  lower  surface  of  the  tail  feathers 
is  blackish  brown,  with  very  broad  mottled  bars  on  both  webs, 
from  fulvous  white  to  golden  buff. 

The  lores  and  ear- coverts  are  deep  brown,  pencilled  and 
tipped  more  or  less  with  light  to  deep  ferruginous ;  the 
forehead,  crown,  occiput,  and  inner  feathers  of  the  great  ear 
tufts  are  buff  or  yellow,  or  pale  ferruginous  of  different  shades 
in  different  specimens,  excessively,  minutely  and  delicately 
pencilled  all  over  with  blackish  brown  zig-zag  lines,  finer 
and  closer  in  some,  coarser  and  further  apart  in  others,  so 
that  the  heads  in  some  look  a  great  deal  greyer  and  browner, 
and  in  others  a  great  deal  yellower  and  brighter.  Some  of 
the  feathers  of  the  crown  and  occiput  in  most  birds,  many  in  a 
few,  but  none  in  exceptional  cases,  exhibit  larger  or  smaller  black 
spots  near  the  tips,  which  spots  again  vary  both  in  shape  and 
in  position  ;  sometimes  there  are  several  rows,  sometimes  a 
single  row  quite  on  one  side  of  the  head,  more  generally  they 
are  in  an  irregular  row  down  the  centre  of  the  crown  and  occi- 
put ;  sometimes  there  is  only  a  single  spot,  sometimes  a 
number;  not  unfrequently  some  or  all  the  feathers  of  the  head 
have  a  very  decided  blue  grey  shade  ;  the  longer  and  outer 
feathers  of  the  ear  tufts  are  black,  tipped  and  sometimes  a  little 
mottled  with  fulvous  white  to  deep  ferruginous  ;  the  primaries 
and  secondaries  are  blackish  brown,  with  very  close  set  mottled 
bars  (in  some  of  the  later  secondaries  almost  confluent)   which 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  63 

are  buff  to  deep  ferruginous  ;  tail  feathers  black,  with  broad 
mottled  transverse  bars,  the  upper  portion  of  each  bar  being 
pale  to  bright  ferruginous  buff,  and  the  lower  portion  much 
paler,  almost  pure  white  in  some  specimens. 

The  mantle  is  a  constantly  varying  combination  of  a  paler 
color  varying  from  nearly  white  to  rich  buff,  most  delicately 
pencilled  all  over  black,  and  more  or  less  spotted  with  black, 
and  with  black  mottled  and  margined  with  deep  ferruginous 
in  no  two  specimens  that  I  have  met  with  are  the*  backs 
precisely  alike. 

Mr.  Gould's  plate  of  this  species,  Icones  Avium,  Pt  II    pi  4 
is  extremely  good.  '  ' 

115  bis— Harpactes  duvaucelii,  Tern.  (17). 

Palaw-ton-ton  ;  Bankasoon  j  Malewoon. 

Confined  to  the   extreme   south  of  the   province,  but  fairly 
common  in  the  forests  there.  ^ 

[This  handsome  little  Trogon  is  not  uncommon,  from  about 
midway  between  Mergui  and  Malewoon  southwards  to  Johore 
the  extreme  point  of  the  Malayan  Peninsula.  In  habits  it 
resembles  the  other  members  of  the  genus,  inhabiting  the  most 
shady  depths  of  the  evergreen  forests,  sitting  quietly  on  some 
low  branch,  from  which  it  occasionally  swoops  off  to  seize  an 
insect,  and  at  intervals  uttering  its  soft  note,  which  much  re- 
sembles that  of  the  other  Trogons,  but  is  much  softer,  and 
consists  of  the  three  syllables,  too-too-too,  repeated  quickly. 
When  suddenly  alarmed  it  has  a  peculiar  note,  a  sort  of  kir- 
r-r-r,  which  it  utters  as  it  takes  flight. — "W.  D.l 

The  following  are  dimensions  and  colors  of  the  soft  parts  re- 
corded in  the  flesh  from  a  very  large  series  of  specimens  ob- 
tained in  the  extreme  south  of  the  province  of  Tenasserim  : 

Males.— Length,  9"5  to  10*25  ;  expanse,  12-5  to  1375;  tail 
from  vent,  5'26  to  5-62  ;  wing,  4-2  to  4-37  ;  tarsus,  035  to  0*45; 
bill  from  gape,  085    to  1*0 ;  weight,  1-25  to  1*5  oz. 

Females.— Length,  9'25  to  9-62;  expanse,  13  to  13-25  ;  tail 
from  v.ent,  4-25  to  5-5  ;  wing,  4-12  to  4*25  ;  tarsus,  0*37  to  0*4 ; 
bill  from  gape,  09  ;  weight,  1-5  oz.  (Only  two  females  mea- 
sured.) 

The  colors  of  the  soft  parts  do  not  differ  appreciably  in  the 
two  sexes,  but  they  are,  perhaps,  slightly  duller  in  the 
female. 

Legs  and  feet  pale  smalt  blue,  smalt  blue,  dark  purplish 
blue  ;  claws  horny  ;  irides  deep  brown ;  bare  space  over  eye,  deep 
to  bright  smalt  blue ;  gape,  to  within  0'5  of  tip  of  bill,  a  rich 
cobalt,  shading  to  pale  cobalt  at  tip  of  lower  mandible  ;  tip  and 
ridge  of  culmen  and  a  narrow  streak  on  each  side  horny  black; 


64  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

or,  gape  and  sides  of  bill  cobalt  blue;  culmen,  tips  of  upper  and 
lower  mandibles,  and  edges  of  both  for  about  one-third  of 
their  length   measuring  from  the  tip,  black. 

The  perfect  plurnaged  adult  male  has  the  entire  head  and 
upper  neck  all  round,  velvet  black  ;  the  entire  breast,  abdomen, 
vent,  lower  tail-coverts,  rump  and  upper  tail-coverts  a  bright 
crimson  scarlet,  fading  a  little  on  the  lower  tail-coverts ;  entire 
back,  scapulars,  lower  part  of  sides  of  the  neck,  bright  brownish 
ochraceous,  paler  and  brighter  in  some  specimens,  darker  and 
browner  in  others ;  central  tail  feathers  a  light  bright  bay,  as  a 
rule,  conspicuously  tipped  with  black,  but  this  is  entirely  want- 
ing in  some  specimens.  The  next  two  pairs  of  feathers  jet  black ; 
the  three  outer  pairs  very  broadly  tipped  with  white  obliquely, 
so  that  there  is  very  much  more  white  on  the  outer  web  than 
on  the  inner  margin  of  the  inner  web ;  wings  blackish  brown  j 
the  outer  web  of  the  first  primary,  the  winglet,  coverts,  tertia- 
ries  and  outer  webs  of  secondaries  very  closely  barred  with 
very  fine  white  lines,  preceded  by  still  narrower  lines  of  a 
darker  shade  than  the  ground  color  of  the  feather. 

A  younger  male  has  the  black  of  the  head  patched  with 
brown  ;  the  rump  only  patched  with  the  ochraceous  of  the  back, 
the  whole  abdomen  ochraceous  buff,  patched  here  and  there 
with  crimson  ;  many  of  the  lines  of  the  barring  on  the  wings 
ochraceous  buff  instead  of  white,  and  the  outer  webs  of  the 
secondaries  with  much  broader  and  more  distant  pale  buffy  bars. 

In  some  adult  males  the  primaries  are  conspicuously  mar- 
gined on  their  outer  webs  towards  their  bases  with  white, 
which,  in  some  specimens,  forms  a  continuous  line,  in  others  a 
line  of  white  dots. 

In  the  perfect  plumaged  female  the  cap  is  a  moderately  dark, 
somewhat  olivaceous,  brown ;  the  lores  and  sides  of  the  head 
similar,  but  more  rusty  ;  the  chin  and  throat  brownish  rusty; 
the  extreme  upper  portion  of  the  breast  rusty  pale  buff,  slightly 
tinged  with  rosy  crimson  ;  the  whole  of  the  rest  of  the  lower 
parts  a  delicate  rosy  crimson ;  tail  as  in  the  male,  but  usually 
with  less  white  on  the  lateral  tail  feathers ;  back  as  in  the 
male,  but  duller  and  with  an  olivaceous  shade ;  rump  and 
upper  tail-coverts  much  the  same,  but  very  strongly  tinged 
and  overlaid  with  crimson ;  the  wings  are  as  in  the  adult 
males,  but  the  barrings  are  everywhere  pale  buffy  yellow,  and 
the  white  margins  of  the  second  and  succeeding  primaries  are 
generally  more  conspicuous. 

In  the  young  female  the  head  is  a  somewhat  lighter  and 
more  distinctly  olivaceous  brown ;  the  back  is  as  in  the  adult, 
but  even  duller ;  the  rump  and  upper  tail-coverts  of  the  same 
bright  ochraceous  as  the  back  of  the  adult  male,  without  the 
faintest  tinge  of  crimson ;  the  breast,  abdomen,  and  lower  parts 


BIRDS   OP  TENASSERIM.  65 

orange  buff,  slightly  shaded  with  olivaceous  on  the  breast  and 
sides,  and  with  a  faint  tinge  of  rosy  here  and  there  on  the 
abdomen.  The  wings  are  as  in  the  adult  female,  but  the  bar- 
rings on  the  outer  webs  of  the  secondaries  are  comparatively 
broad  and  far  apart,  as  described  ia  the  young  males. 

At  this  stage  the  central  tail  feathers  very  generally  want 
the  black  tippings ;  a  little  later  a  crimson  tinge  begins  to 
appear  on  the  rump,  and  the  abdomen  acquires  a  beautiful 
rosy  orange  tinge,  but  the  broad  barring  of  the  secondaries 
remains  for  long  an  indication  of  immaturity. 

Every  male  of  our  large  Tenasserim  series  is  distinctly 
duvaucelli.  We  have  obtained  no  specimen  in  this  province 
referable  to  ruiilus,  Vieill.,  orrophaeus,  Cab.,  but  from  the 
neighbourhood  of  Malacca  and  Singapore  we  have  obtained 
numerous  adult  males  of  this  latter  species  or  supposed  species, 
which  differs  in  having,  in  the  perfect  adults,  the  rump  and 
upper  tail-coverts  uniform  with  the  back,  and  in  having  the 
lower  parts  a  somewhat  dingier  and  less  bright  crimson,  with 
a  greater  tendency  to  pale  excessively  towards  the  vent  and 
lower  tail-coverts.  The  birds  have  been  described  as  larger 
and  with  stouter  bills,  and  it  does  appear  to  me  that  there 
is  some  truth  in  this,  but  the  most  careful  measurements 
of  tails  and  wings  fail  to  show  any  decided  superiority  in  size, 
and  though  the  bills  may  be  broader  on  the  average  at  the 
base,  it  is  impossible  to  establish  this  when  a  series  of  both 
are  measured. 

How  the  females  of  the  two  forms  are  to  be  distinguished 
I  am  unable  to  say.  We  have  not  yet  met  with  in  the 
Malayan  Peninsula  any  fully  adult  female  entirely  devoid  of 
all  tinge  of  crimson  on  the  rump.  We  have  specimens  entirely 
devoid  of  this,  but  then  the  comparatively  broad  banding  of 
the  outer  webs  of  the  secondaries  shows  that  they  are  not 
mature,  and  then  again  we  have  specimens  which  are  mature 
by  the  wing,  which  show  extremely  little  of  the  crimson  a 
mere  tinge,  or  patches  here  and  there,  but  we  have  these  equally 
from  Tenasserim,  where  we  have  never  seen  the  male  rutilus* 
and  from  the  southern  portion  of  the  Malay  Peninsula,  where 
these  latter  are  common,  and  we  have  among  the  Tenasserim 
females  birds  exhibiting  all  degrees  of  amount  of  red  on  the 
rump,  from  the  merest  trace  to  what  I  have  described  as  the 
plumage  of  the  adult  bird. 

On  the  one  hand  it  is  extremely  unlikely  that  we  should 
have  obtained  several  female  rutilus  in  Tenasserim  and  no 
males  ;  on  the  other  hand,  it  is  extremely  improbable  that  none 
of  our  numerous  females  from  the  south  of  the  Malay  Pen- 
insula should  belong  to  this  species,  where  so  many  of  our 
males    from    the   same    locality   unquestionably   do.      I    am 

9 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

inclined  to  believe  that  the  females  of  the  two  species  (or  races) 
will  be  found  to  differ  only  in  that  those  of  rutilus,  as  a  body, 
have  somewhat  less  crimson  on  the  rump  than  those  of 
duvaucelli. 

116.— Harpactes  hodgsoni,  Gould.  (5 ) 

(Karennee,  at&fiOOft.,  Earns.)  Pine  forests,  Salween  5  Kyouknjat  ;  Pahpoon  j 
Mooleyifc. 

Confined  to  the  hill  forests  of  the  northern  and  central 
portions  of  the  province,  and  even  there  it  is  not  common. 

Our  specimens  from  various  parts  of  the  Tenasserim  Hills 
from  Mooleyit  to  Pahpoon  are  apparently  precisely  identical 
with  specimens  from  Sikkim,  and  so  are  specimens  from 
Tipperah,  the  Nepal  Terai,  the  Arrakan  Hills,  the  eastern  and 
western  Pegu  Hills,  and  Thayetmyo,  and  I  confess  that  I  do 
not  at  present  believe  in  H.  erythroeephalus,  Gould,  as  a  distinct 
species. 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  and  the  colors  of  the  soft 
parts  of  three  very  fine  Tenasserim  specimens,  one  male  and 
two  females : — 

Male. — Length,  13*5  ;  expanse,  17*0;  tail,  7"5  ;  wing,  5*7  ; 
tarsus,  0-6 ;  bill  from  gape,  1*0. 

The  legs  and  feet  were  dark  fleshy  pink,  tinged  blue  ;  the 
irides  light  brown  ;  orbital  skin,  gape,  and  lower  mandible  to 
angle  of  gonys,  and  upper  mandible  to  P25  inch  beyond  the 
nostril,  deep  smalt,  tinged  purple ;  rest  of  bill  blackish  horny. 

Females. — Length,  1325  to  13*9 ;  expanse,  17*5  to  18*25  ;  tail, 
7*4  to  8'2  ;  wing,  5*62  to  605  ;  tarsus,  0*6  to  0-65  ;  bill  from 
gape,  T05  to  1*1  j  weight,  2  -5  oz. 

In  one  female  the  legs  and  feet  were  dark  brownish  pink  ; 
the  irides  pale  clear  red  ;  orbital  skin  and  gape  a  clear  light 
purple,  bluer  from  the  gape,  and  the  color  gradually  shading 
to  a  cobalt  blue  ;  the  terminal  portion  of  both  mandibles 
blackish  horny. 

Gould  figures  (B.  of  As.,  XVII.,  PI.  1.)  the  male  with  the 
iris  red,  the  female  with  the  iris  brown  ;  most  unfortunately  we 
neglected  to  record  the  colors  of  the  irides  in  more  than  two 
specimens,  and  in  these  it  was  the  male  that  had  the  brown 
irides  and  the  female  that  had  the  red. 

116  t er. —Harpactes   oreskios,    Tern.    (58.)  Descr. 
S.  F.,  III.,  48. 

{Karen  Sills,  Earns.)  Kyouk-nyat  ;  Dargwin  ;  Pahpoon  ;  Thatone ;  Wimpong  ; 
Meetan  ;  Amherst  ;  Lemyne  ;  Yea  ;  Omagwen  ;  Meeta  Myo  ;  Tavoy  ;  Mergui ; 
Pakeban  ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon  ;  Yictoria  Point. 

Generally  distributed  throughout  the  province  up  to  eleva- 
tions not  exceeding  4,000  feet. 


BIRDS  OF  TENASSERIM.  67 

[This  Trogon  occurs  throughout  Tenasserim,  but  is,  I  should 
say,  less  numerous  in  the  north  and  south  than  in  the  central 
portion,  that  is  between  Moulmein  and  Tavoy.  It  is  less  ex- 
clusively addicted  to  heavy  forest  than  any  of  the  other  species 
with  which  I  am  acquainted,  occurring  in  thin  tree  jungle, 
bamboo  forest,  and  even  in  isolated  clumps  of  trees,  provided 
they  are  not  too  far  off  from  some  considerable  extent  of  forest. 

In  habits  and  food  it  resembles  the  other  Trogons. 

It  lives  entirely  on  insects,  chiefly  bugs  and  beetles,  which 
it  habitually  catches  on  the  wing,  darting  from  its  perch  like 
a  Flycatcher  or  Roller,  but  rarely  returning  with  its  prey  to 
the  same  perch.  Not  unfrequently  it  descends  to  the  ground 
to  pick  up  insects,  and  I  once  shot  one  dusting  its  feathers  in 
the  middle  of  the  road  like  a  sparrow  or  a  fowl. 

They  are  very  tame  birds,  very  easy  to  shoot,  but  owing  to 
their  flimsy  skins  very  difficult  to  skin,  and  in  consequence  of 
the  feeble  attachment  of  their  feathers,  numbers  of  which  fall 
out  if  the  bird  drops  from  a  height  of  only  a  few  feet,  still 
more  difficult  to  make  into  really  perfect  specimens. — W.  D.] 

117.— Merops  viridis,  Lin.  (21). 

{Karen  Hills,  Tonghoo  Hills,  Earns.)  Dargwin  ;  Pahpoon  ;  Kedai-Keglay  ; 
Moulmein  ;  Amherst  ;  Tavoy  ;  Mergui. 

Common  throughout  the  more  open  portions  of  the  province 
to  an  elevation  not  exceeding*  3,000  feet  from  Mergui  north- 
wards. 

[Occurs  as  far  south  as  Mergui ;  further  south  in  Tenasserim 
I  did  not  observe  it.  By  preference  it  frequents  open  land, 
such  as  paddy  land,  open  downs,  covered  with  short  turf,  and 
avoids  forest. 

Everywhere  north  of  Mergui,  in  the  plains  outside  heavy 
forest,  it  is  excessively  abundant,  but  it  never  seems  to  get 
south  of  Mergui,  and  I  never  saw  it  in  the  Malay  Peninsula. 
— W.  D.] 

118.— Merops  philippinus,  Lin.  (3). 

(Tonglioo,  Rama.)  Thatone  ;  Amherst  ;  Baukasoon. 

Apparently  rare  in  Tenasserim,  and  only  appearing  there 
occasionally.  Armstrong  got  a  specimen  or  two  at  Amherst, 
and  Davison  says  : — 

[Only  on  one  or  two  occasions  have  I  met  with  this  Bee-eater 
in  Tenasserim  ;  once,  quite  at  the  latter  end  of  February  1875  ; 
a  small  flock  appeared  at  Malewoon,  out  of  which  Mr.  Hough 
shot  one  ;  on  the  27th  February  the  same  flock,  apparently, 
appeared  at  Bankasoon,  settling  on  the  fences  and  dead  trees 
about,  and  hawking  over  the  paddy  land  :  next  morning  they 
had  all  disappeared,  probably  migrating  further  north. 


68  BIEDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

Again  I  saw  them  in  the  Thatone  plains  in  November,  but 
at  no  other  place,  and  on  no  other  occasion  did  I  meet  with 
them  in  Tenasserim,  though  they  are  common  enough  towards 
the  south  of  the  Malay  Peninsula. — W.  D.] 

119.— Merops  leschenaulti,  Vieill.  (16). 

(Karennee,  Earns.)  Pahpoon  ;  E.-poo  ;  Moulmein  ;  Meefcan  ;  Karope  ;  Am- 
herst ;  Tavoy  ;  Pabjin  ;  Tenasserim   Town  ;   Palaw-ton-ton  :    Bankasoon. 

Generally  distributed  throughout  the  province  in  all  well- 
wooded  localities  to  an  elevation  not  exceeding  3,000  feet. 

[The  only  place  where  I  found  this  species  abundant  was 
up  the  head  waters  of  the  Pakchan.  There  immense  numbers 
were  perched  about  in  company  with  Dendrochelidon,  &c,  on 
the  bamboos  overhanging  the  stream.  Other  favorite  resorts  of 
this  bird,  were  the  tin  mines  ;  these  are  usually  surrounded  by 
forest,  and  have  numbers  of  dead  trees  dotted  about  them, 
and  the  old  abandoned  pits  usually  contain  stagnant  or  semi- 
stagnant  water,  which  apparently  attract  numbers  of  insects, 
dragon  flies,  &c,  so  that  there  is  an  abundance  of  insect  food 
about  such  places,  which  are  consquently  frequented  by  Bee- 
eaters,  Tree,  and  other  Swifts,  Rollers,  &c. 

These  birds  never  eat  the  wings  of  butterflies.  You  see 
one  of  them  swoop  on  to  a  butterfly  close  at  hand  ;  then  you 
hear  a  little  click  of  the  bill,  and  as  the  bird  flies  off  the  pair 
of  wings  come  slowly  fluttering  down  to  the  ground. — W.  D.] 

Lord  Tweeddale  remarks  (B.  of  B.,  p.  27)  that  the  Malaccaa 
habitat  of  this  species  is  doubtful.  Davison  shot  two  speci- 
mens on  Penang  Island. 

122.— Nyctiornis  athertoni,  Jard.  and  Selb.  (10). 

(Karen  Sills,  Tonglioo,  Earns.)  Pahpoon  ;  Thatone  5  Salween  River  j 
Thouugsha,  Gyue   Eiver  ;  Kanee  ;  Khyin  ;  Amherst. 

Sparingly  distributed  throughout  the  better-wooded  and 
less  elevated  parts  of  the  northern  and  central  portions  of  the 
province. 

[The  Blue-bearded  Bee-Eater  I  met  with  only  at  Amherst  and 
northwards  of  that  place  ;  it  was  nowwhere  very  common,  and 
only  occurred  in  the  better-wooded  portions  of  the  country. 
As  a  rule  it  prefers  to  keep  to  the  forest,  but  it  occasionally 
wanders  into  gardens,  and  at  Amherst  I  shot  two  specimens 
off  a  large  peepul  tree  growing  some  considerable  distance 
from  any  forest. 

I  have  not  met  with  this  species  south  of  Amherst,  though 
it  possibly  does  occur  somewhat  further  south. — W.  D-] 


BIEDS  OF  TENASSEMM.  69 

The  following  are  the  dimensions,  fee,  of  a  male  and  female 
recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Male. — Length,  135  ;  expanse,  18'0  ;  tail  from  vent,  5*75  ; 
wing,  5  2  ;  tarsus,  065  ;  bill  from  gape,  2  3  ;  weight,  312  oz. 

Female. — Length  14-12  ;  expanse,  18'5  ;  tail  from  vent, 
5*62 ;  wing,  5*5  ;  tarsus,  0*7  ;  bill  from  gape,  2"2. 

Legs  and  feet  dull  greenish  brown  ;  claws  bluish  horny  ; 
bill  dark  horny  brown,  bluish  at  base  of  lower  mandible  ; 
irides  brown. 

122  bis.— Nyctiornis  amicta,  Tern.  (29). 

Thoungya  Sakan  ;  fifty  miles  South  of  Yea  ;  Pakchan  ;  Falaw-ton-ton ;  Banka- 
soon  ;  Malewoon. 

The  Red-bearded  Bee-Eater  is  confined  to  the  southern  and 
southernmost  central  portions  of  the  province. 

[The  most  northern  point  at  which  I  saw  and  obtained  this 
species  in  the  plains  was  at  a  village,  four  days'  march  south 
of  Yea,  about  14°  30'  N.  Lat.  From  this  point  it  gets 
less  uncommon  as  one  goes  south.  In  the  hills,  however,  it  ex- 
tends further  north,  and  on  the  slopes  of  Mooleyit  I  got  it 
in  nearly  17Q  N.  Lat.  This  species  less  often  occurs  away  from 
forest  than  athertoni,  but  although,  keeping,  as  a  rule,  to  the 
woods,  it  avoids  the  denser  portions,  frequenting  those  parts 
where  the  larger  trees  are  somewhat  scattered,  and  where 
plenty  of  sun  light  penetrates  ;  favorite  places  are  the  banks 
of  large  streams,  and  the  borders  of  swamps  and  shallow  la- 
goons surrounded  by  forest. 

The  note  of  this  bird  is  something  similar  to  that  of  N. 
atliertoni,  and  is  a  hoarse  quo-qua-qua-qua  uttered  at  irregu- 
lar intervals.  When  one  calls  it  is  usually  answered  by  its 
mate,  the  birds  being  generally  found  in  pairs,  seldom  singly, 
and  never  that  I  know  of  in  parties.  "When  uttering  its  note 
the  bird  leans  forward,  stretches  out  its  neck,  and  puff's  out  the 
feathers  of  its  throat,  and  at  each  syllable  of  its  note  bobs 
its  head  up  and  down. 

It  breeds,  I  should  say,  about  March  and  April,  as  on  the 
20th  of  March  I  shot  a  female,  out  of  which  I  took  an  egg 
that  was  fully  formed,  but  still  quite  soft  ;  but  I  was  unable 
to  find  the  nest. 

I  have  not  noticed  that  either  this  bird  or  athertoni  were 
crepuscular.  Occasionally  on  a  clear  moonlight  evening,  about 
about  7  or  8  o'clock,  I  have  heard  the  note,  but  there  are 
numbers  of  birds  that,  of  a  bright  evening,  or  if  they  have 
been  in  any  way  disturbed,  will  call.  Like  the  true  Bee-eaters 
it  lives  entirely  on  insects  which  it  takes  on  the  wiDg. — W.  D.] 


70  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

Cabanis  (Mus.  Hein.,  II.,  133, 1859-60)  described  N.  malac* 
censis  a  supposed   new  species,  in  the  following  terms  : — 

"  Minor,  rostro  breviore,  graciliore ;  sincipite  late  rubro, 
verticem  roseo-lilacinum,  versus  sensim  rosescente  ;  gula  jugulo- 
que  minus  late  rubris,  caudce  apieibus  angustius  nigris." 

On  this  Count  Salvadori  (Uccelli  di  Borneo,  92.,  1874) 
remarks  that  ci  the  characters  given  as  distinctive  of  this 
supposed  species  are  exactly  those  of  the  female  of  N.  amicta." 

The  Marquis  of  Tweeddale  {Ibis,  1877,  298)  remarks  on 
this  :  "  Count  Salvadori  refers  N.  malaccensis,  Cab.,  to  the  fe- 
male, thus  assuming  that  the  female  wants  the  crimson  pectoral 
and  pink  frontal  plumes.  I  rather  incline  to  the  belief  that 
the  adult  birds  of  both  sexes  are  alike,  and  that  the  uniform 
green  birds  belong  to  a  young  stage  of  plumage.  One  of  the 
examples  obtained  by  Mr.  Buxton  is  in  plain  green  dress 
(N.  malaccensis),  but  has  one  small  frontal  plume,  pink." 

This  is  hardly  correct.  In  the  first  place  Salvadori  does  not 
assume  that  the  female  wants  the  crimson  pectoral  and  pink 
frontal  plumes.  In  the  second  place  the  adult  birds  of  both 
sexes  are  not  alike.  In  the  third  place  the  plain  green  dress 
is  not  what  was  described  as  malaccensis. 

What  Cabanis  did  describe  as  malaccensis  may  be  seen  by 
a  glance  at  the  original  description  above  quoted,  and  Count 
Salvadori  was  perfectly  correct  in  identifying  malaccensis  of 
Cabanis  with  the  adult  females  of  amicta. 

We  have  shot  and  sexed  scores  of  these  birds. 

The  adult  males  invariably  have  larger  bills  than  the  females. 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  of  bills  of  adult  speci- 
mens of  both  sexes,  rejecting  all  specimens  in  which  the  bills 
are  at  all  broken  at  the  point  (a  thing  very  common  in  this 
species)  and  measuring  the  bills  with  compasses  from  the 
frontal  bone  to  the  tip  : — 

Males.— 2-28;  2-29;  2"28 ;  2-2;  2-2;  2-22;  2-39  ;  2'25;  2'26; 
2-32  ;  2-22  ;  2'22  ;  2-39  ;  2'28  ;  23  ;  2-24  ;  2-2. 

Females.— 2-07  ;  2'0  ;  2*06  ;  2"05  ;  2'12  ;  2'07  ;  2'1  ;  215  ; 
2-12;  2-0;  2-05;  2-0. 

Then  the  fully  adult  male  has  the  entire  forehead,  except  a 
pale  bluish  green  line  along  the  base  of  the  bill  ;  the  whole  or 
at  times  only  the  upper  portion  of  the  lores,  and  nearly  the 
whole  of  the  crown,  what  I  should  call  peach-blossom  colored, 
shaded  with  lilac  posteriorly.  A  patch  at  the  base  of  the 
lower  mandible,  and  often  more  or  less  of  the  lower  portion 
of  the  lores,  the  upper  portion  of  the  throat,  and  a  broad 
band  down  the  front  of  the  neck  to  the  breast,  scarlet  to 
crimson  scarlet  ;  there  is  generally  a  bluish  peach  bloom 
line  in  old  adult  males  from  the  anterior  angle  of  the  eye  some 
distance  down  aloDg  the  margin  of  the  red  throat  patch. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  71 

The  feathers  of  the  lower  eyelid  are  bluish  green  or  green- 
ish blue. 

In  the  perfectly  adult  female  the  forehead  (excepting  always 
the  greenish  blue  line)  and  the  entire  lores  are  concolorous 
with  the  throat.  The  peach  bloom  behind  this  does  not 
extend  so  far  back  on  the  crown  as  it  does  in  the  male.  The 
feathers  of  the  lower  eyelid  are  green,  unicolorous  with  the 
back,  and  the  eye  stripe  is  entirely  wanting  or  at  most  in 
some  few  exceptional  cases  just  indicated. 

As  for  the  black  on  the  tails,  as  an  average,  the  band  is 
undoubtedly  less  wide  in  females  than  males,  but  the  birds 
cannot  be  discriminated  by  this,  as  one  or  two  of  the  females 
have  the  bands  comparatively  broad,  and  one  or  tw  o  of  the 
males  have  this  narrow. 

As  regards  the  throat  band,  as  a  rule,  the  females  have  this 
somewhat  narrower,  paler,  more  scarlet  and  less  tinged  with 
crimson  than  the  males,  but  neither  is  this  a  certain  diagnosis, 
as  some  females  and  males  can  be  selected  out  of  a  very  large 
series  which  hardly  differ  in  this  respect. 

The  nearly  adult  male  (except  as  regards  the  size  of  bill)  pre- 
cisely resembles  the  female ;  gradually  the  feathers  of  the 
lower  lid  become  bluish,  the  peach  bloom  begins  to  mottle,  the 
scarlet  of  the  forehead  and  the  bluish  peach  bloom  stripe  from 
the  front  of  the  eye  begins  to  show  out. 

The  young  birds  of  both  sexes  are  entirely  green,  and  of  a 
darker  and  different  green  to  that  of  the  adults. 

The  Marquis  of  Tweeddale  remarks  that  he  has  one  speci- 
men in  the  plain  green  dress  with  one  small  frontal  plume 
pink.  This  is  most  remarkable,  because  in  the  normal  stages  of 
plumage  no  pink  shows  itself  on  the  forehead  until  after  the 
whole  forehead  has  become  scarlet. 

The  following  are  further  dimensions  of  this  species  : — 

Males.— Length,  1275  to  18-4 ;  expanse,  17  to  18-25;  tail, 
5*05  to  5-5  ;  wing,  5*  to  5-5  ;  tarsus,  0*55  to  0'62  ;  bill  from 
gape,  2-34  to  2-55;  at  front,  2-2  to  2*39;  weight,  3  to  3-25 
ozs. 

Females.— Length,  1225  to  12-75;  expanse,  17  to  17*25; 
tail,  46  to  5-0;  wing,  4-82  to  5-3;  tarsus,  0-55  to  0*65;  bill 
from  gape,  2  to  2*37;  at  front,  2-  to  215;  weight,  2-5  to  3 
ozs. 

Legs  aud  feet  pale  green,  often  dingy,  sometimes  bluish ;  bill 
black,  whitey  brown  at  base  from  nostril  to  gape  of  upper 
mandible,  and  lower  mandible  from  about  angle  of  gonys  to 
base ;  irides  bright  yellow  to  orange  yellow  ;  eyelids  dark  plum- 
beous green. 

I  may  add  to  what  I  said  above  that  the  abdomen,  vent,  and 
lower  tail-coverts  are  white,  tinged  with  green,  but  the  whole 


72  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

of  the  rest  of  the  upper  and  lower  plumage,  not  scarlet  or 
peach  bloom,  is  dark  grass  green  ;  on  the  lower  surface,  the  tail 
has  the  terminal  one-third  of  all  the  feathers,  and  entire  outer 
web  of  outer  rectrix,  black  ;  rest  golden  ochre  ;  inner  webs  of 
quills  hair  brown  ;  wing-lining  and  margins  of  inner  webs  of 
quills  pale  yellowish  buff. 

124.— Coracias  affinis,  McClell.  (34). 

(Tonghoo,  Earns.)  Kollidoo  ;  Palipoon  ;  Khyketo  ;  Theinzeik  ;  Thatone  ;  Moul- 
mein  ;  Pabyouk  ;  Amherst ;  Tavoy  ;  Choungthauoung. 

Common  throughout  the  more  open  and  better  cultivated 
plains  portions  of  the  province,  except  in  the  extreme  south. 

[This  species  is  very  common,  but  only  in  those  parts  where 
the  country  is  open.  It  avoids  forest  and  affects  principally 
the  inhabited  and  cultivated  parts.  Though  plentiful  in  all  suit- 
able localities  it  is  particularly  abundant  in  some  localities, 
as  for  instance  in  the  plains  country  lying  between  the  Salween 
and  Sittang.  In  some  places  I  have  found  it  shy  and  difficult 
to  procure,  in  others  not  at  all  so.  In  habits,  &c,  it  did  not 
differ  that  I  could  see  from  its  Indian  ally,  C.  indica.  I  never 
saw  it  about  JBankasoon  or  Malewoon,  nor  in  any  part  of  the 
Malay  Peninsula.— W.  D.] 

126.— Eurystomus  orientalis,  Lin.  (15). 

(Karen  Sills,  Earns.)  Bopyin ;  Choungthanoung  ;  Pakchan ;  Bankasoon; 
Malewoon. 

Confined  to  the  southern  portions  of  the  province  and  the 
Karen  Hills,  but  common  enough  there. 

[In  habits  the  Broad-billed  Roller  differs  conspicuously  from 
C.  affinis.  During  the  day  it,  as  a  rule,  keeps  to  the  forest, 
or,  at  any  rate,  within  its  immediate  vicinity,  and  is  not  at 
all  active,  remaining-  seated  on  the  topmost  branches  of  some 
tall  dead  tree  for  hours  at  a  time.  In  the  morning  and  even- 
ing, but  especially  during  the  latter  time,  it  is  very  active;  it 
then  comes  into  the  clearings,  and  from  some  commanding 
perch  keeps  a  sharp  look-out  for  any  passing  insect,  generally 
seizing  them  on  the  wing,  but  often  descending  to  the  ground 
to  pick  one  up.  They  might  almost  be  termed  crepuscular  in 
their  habits,  for,  when  all,  or  nearly  all,  other  diurnal  birds  have 
gone  to  roost,  and  only  Night  Jars,  Owls*  and  Bats  are  abroad 
Eurystomus  is  still  busy  hawking  for  insects.  In  the  morning 
and  evening  they  are  generally  easily  approached  and  shot,  but, 
as  a  rule,  during  the  day  they  are  shy,  at  least  this  is  my  expe- 
rience of  them  in  Burma. 

*  I  think  I  have  noticed  some  of  the  Dicrwri  about  quite  as  late  as  Eurystomi. 
-A.  O.  H. 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM.  73 

Unlike  C.  affinis,  it  avoids  the  open  or  sparsely-wooded  por- 
tions of  the  country,  being  (so  far  as  I  have  observed)  found 
only  in  the  evergreen  forests,  and  their  immediate  vicinity. 
The  most  northerly  place  at  which  I  observed  it  was  on  the 
island  of  Mergui.  Here  I  noticed  a  few  in  the  forest 
towards  the  north-east  end  of  the  island ;  further  south  I  ob- 
tained it  at  different  places,  as  at  Bopyin,  Choungthanoung, 
&c,  and  at  Bankasoon  I  found  it  common;  it  extends  much 
further  south,  as  I  observed  it  at  Malacca  and  Johore — W.D.] 

127  bis.— Pelargopsis  burmanica,  Sharpe.  (50).  Descr. 
S.  F.,  II.,  165. 

CKarennee,  Rams.)  Kyouk-nyat. ;  Pnlipoon  ;  Younzaleen  Creek  ;  galween  R.  ; 
Khjketo  ;  Thatone  ;  Wimpoug  ;  Kanee  ;  Ko-go-Houngthraw  ;  Moulrnein  ; 
Moumenzeik  ;  Pabyouk  ;  Karope  ;  Amherst;  Yea  ;  Tavoy  ;  Mergui;  Pakchan  ; 
Bankasoon. 

Common  throughout  the  province,  but  not  ascending  the 
hills  to  any  considerable  elevation. 

[This  species  is  sometimes  found  about  the  mouths  of  tidal 
creeks  or  along  the  sea  shore,  but  this  is  comparatively  rare. 
By  preference  it  frequents  fresh  water,  being  most  common 
along  the  higher  portion  of  streams,  far  beyond  tidal  influ- 
ences, inland  ponds  and  even  swamps. 

Like  all  the  other  Stork-billed  Kingfishers,  with  which  I  am 
acquainted,  it  is  an  excessively  noisy  bird,  darting  off  when 
disturbed  with  a  harsh  chuckling  scream,  which  it  continues 
for  some  time  after  it  has  reseated  itself.  Though  its  food 
chiefly  consists  of  fish,  frogs,  &c,  taken  from  the  water,  yet  it 
not  uufrequently  feeds  on  lizards,  &c,  which  it  secures  on  dry 
land. 

It  breeds  apparently  in  the  latter  end  of  April  and  the  com- 
mencement of  May.  At  Meeta  Myo  I  found  a  pair  on  the 
18th  April  at  work,  excavating  their  nest  hole  in  the  clayey 
bank  of  a  stream. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions,  &c,  of  adults,  recorded  in 
the  flesh  from  a  very  large  series  : — 

Males. — Length,  14-5  to  15  ;  expanse,  21*0  to  22-25  ;  tail 
from  vent,  4-25  to  4*75  ;  wing,  5-82  to  6-12  ;  tarsus,  065  to  075  ; 
bill  from  gape,  3-55  to  4-0 ;    weight,  60  to  6'25  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  14-82  to  16-25  ;  expanse,  21-25  to  22-5; 
tail  from  venta  4'7  to  4-82  ;  wing,  6-0  to  67;  tarsus,  0'55  to 
08;  bill  from  gape,  3-75  to  395;  weight,  6'5  to  7  ozs. 

128.— Pelargopsis  amauroptera,  Pearson,  (6). 

Amherst  ;  Mergui ;  Laynah  ;  Malewoon. 

Pretty  common  everywhere  along  the  Tenasserim  coast,  not 
extending  far  inland. 

10 


74  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

[This  species,  unlike  P.  burmanica,  is  eminently  a  Sea-water 
Kingfisher.  It  occurs  along  the  sea  coast  about  the  mouths  of 
tidal  creeks,  and  up  these  creeks  only  so  far  as  the  tideway 
reaches.  I  noticed  it  first  in  the  Yea  River,  near  its  mouth ; 
again  at  Amherst  in  the  Waghrau  Creek,  where  it  was  not  un- 
common ;  at  Mergui,  about  the  numerons  creeks,  it  was  quite 
common,  and  I  noticed  it  also  frequently  along  the  coast  to 
the  south  of  this,  as  far  as  Junk  Ceylon,  (about  8°  N.  L.)  but 
did  not  meet  with  it  further  south. 

Iu  voice,  food,  flight,  &c,  it  resembles  the  other  members  of 
the  genus. — W.  D.] 

129.— Halcyon  smyrnensis,  Lin.  (17). 

(TongJioo,  Rams.)  Palipoon  ;  Myawadee ;  Kaukaryit  Houngt.hraw  R.  ; 
Thatone  ;  Moulmein  ;  Meetan  ;  Karope  ;  Amherst ;  Tavoy  ;  Mergui ;  Pukchan. 

Common  throughout  the  less-elevated  portions  of  the  pro- 
vince. 

[I  found  this  species  everywhere  moderately  abundant,  occur- 
ring alike  on  the  sea  coast,  along  the  banks  of  streams,  in 
marshy  land,  in  gardens,  clearings,  both  cultivated  and  aban- 
doned, and  even  occasionally  in  thin  tree  jungle.  If  it  does 
give  any  preference  to  any  of  these  localities,  it  is  perhaps  to 
moderately-wooded  cultivated  land.  It  never,  that  I  am  aware, 
plunges  into  the  water  after  its  food,  but  picks  it  off  the 
ground. 

To  the  southward  it  extends  quite  to  the  south  of  the  Malay 
Peninsula,    as  at  Singapore  and  Johore. 

The  skins  of  this  species  are  collected  and  exported  to  China. 
I  have  seen  at  Moulmein  and  Singapore  shops  kept  by  China- 
men, which  contained  many  hundred  flat  skins  of  this  bird  ; 
each  skin  is  said  to  be  worth  four  annas.  The  skius  of  the 
other  species,  though  as  brightly  colored,  are  not  valued.— 
W.  D.] 

130.— Halcyon  pileata,  Bodd.  (38). 

Thatone  ;  Karope ;  Amherst ;  Tavoy  ;  Pabjin  ;  Mergui  j  Tenasserim  Town ; 
Pabyin  ;  Pakchan  ;  Bankasoon. 

Confined  to  the  central  and  southern  portions  of  the 
province. 

[I  did  not  notice  this  species  in  the  most  northern  portion 
of  Tenasserim  that  I  visited,  but  to  the  south  I  found  it  in 
some  places  very  common,  at  others  rare,  and  in  the  same 
places  too  the  numbers  varied  according-  to  the  season.  For 
instance,  in  January  and  February  I  found  it  excessively 
numerous  along  the  higher  portions  of  the  Pakchan,  60  or   70 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  75 

miles  beyond  the  influence  of  the  tide  ;  but  on  going  over  the 
same  part  of  the  river  in  May,  not  a  single  bird  was  to  be  seen. 

Like  H.  smyrnensis,  this  species  is  found  in  gardens,  &c,  but 
unlike  smyrnensis  it  appears  never  to  wander  from  the  vicinity 
of  water.  I  have  seen  and  shot  it  at  many  places  along  the 
sea-coast  at  Mergui  and  to  the  south,  but  I  have  found  it  most 
numerous  along-  the  higher  portions  of  the  Pakchan  river, 
Malewoon  and  Bankasoon  creeks.  It  is  not  at  all  exclusively  a 
sea-water  Kingfisher  like  amauroptera.  I  have  shot  it  far  inland 
as  at  the  head  waters  of  the  Pakchan,  and  again  at  Kuroo,  32 
miles  inland  from  Malacca. — W.  D.] 

The  following  ai*e  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh: — 

Males. — Length,  11*5  to  12-0;  expanse,  18*25  to  1925  ;  tail 
from  vent,  35  to  3*75  ;  wing,  5*0  to  5*3  ;  tarsus,  0'5  ;  bill  from 
gape,  2*75  to  2*82  ;  weight,  2*5  to  3  ozs. 

Females.— Length,  11*62  to  11*82  ;  expanse,  18*25  to  20-75  ; 
tail  from  vent,  3*35  to  3'82  ;  wing,  5*05  to  5*55  :  tarsus,  0*5  to 
0*62 ;  bill  from  gape,  275  to  2-95 ;  weight,  3  to  4  ozs. 

The  legs  and  feet  varied  from  orange  red,  dirty  red,  to  ver- 
milion red  ;  the  bill  bright  coral  or  vermilion  red  ;  irides  dark 
brown. 

131.— Halcyon  coromanda,  Lath.  (9). 

(Tonghoo,  Lloyd  )  Thatone  ;  Amherst  ;  Meeta  Myo  5  Tavoy. 

Sparsely  distributed  throughout  the  province,  but  perhaps 
in  most  places  more  as  an  occasional  straggler  than  as  a  per- 
manent resident. 

[Though  by  no  means  a  common  species  anywhere,  this 
Kingfisher  occurs  most  plentifully  along  the  coast,  and  about 
the  creeks  where  there  is  a  good  growth  of  Dhuny  {Nipa  fru- 
ticans)  or  other  heavy  cover,  but  it  also  occasionally  occurs 
along  the  banks  of  inland  streams  where  these  are  well-wooded. 
I  shot  one  specimen  at  Meeta  Myo,  about  40  miles  north  of 
Tavoy.  1  have  a  note  of  having  seen  another  on  a  small  forest 
stream,  many  miles  away  from  the  sea-coast,  and  Mr.  A.  L. 
Hough,  while  Assistant  Commissioner  at  Malewoon,  procured 
a  specimen  in  the  fresh  water  portion  of  the    Malewoon    creek. 

This  species  is  very  shy  and  courts  concealment.  I  found  it 
common  at  Amherst. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions,  fee.,  of  a  series  of  both 
sexes  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males. — Length,  10  to  10'5;  expanse,  1562  to  15*8;  tail  from 
vent,  2-62  to  275  ;  wing,  4*12  to  4*25  •  tarsus,  0*62  •  bill  from 
gape,    2*45  to  2*5;  weight,  2'5  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  10'25  to  10'35  ;  expanse,  15*75  to  16-5  ; 
tail  from  vent,  2*62  to  2*75  ;  wing,  43  to  4*5  ;  tarsus,  0*62  to 
0*75  ;   bill  from  gape,  2*5;  weight,  2*75  ozs. 


76  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

A  young  male  measured  : — 

Length,  7'5  ;  expanse,  13-75  j  tail  from  vent,  112  ;  wing,  3'5  ; 
tarsus,,  0'62 ;  bill  from  gape,  175  ;  weight,  2  ozs. 

In  this  the  irides  were  bluish  grey ;  the  legs  and  feet  dark 
red  brown  ;  soles  pale* red ;  bill  dark  brown,  except  at  the  extreme 
tip  of  lower  mandible  for  about  025  from  tip  ;  the  sides  and 
angle  of  gonys,  the  gape,  and  one-third  of  upper  mandible 
from  tip  gradually  coming  to  a  point  on  ridge  of  culrnen, 
which  were  a  very  pale  yellowish  orange. 

131  bis.— Halcyon*  concreta,  Tem.  (7). 

Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Confined  in  Tenasserim  to  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of 
the  estuary  and  river  which  form  its  southern  boundary. 

[I  only  saw  and  obtained  this  species  in  the  extreme  south 
of  Tenasserim  at  Malewoon  and  Bankasoon.  The  first  speci- 
men I  obtained  was  given  to  me  by  Mr.  Hough,  who  shot  it  in 
the  forest  at  Malewoon.  Subsequently  I  myself  shot  a  couple 
more,  both  females,  in  the  heart  of  the  dense  forest  at  Banka- 
soon, and  on  two  occasions  I  saw,  but  did  not  secui'e  it,  and 
subsequently  I  obtained  four  more  all  in  deep  forest.  The  species 
is  evidently  rare,  and  the  Pakchan  seems  to  be  its  northern 
limit.  This  is  not  a  water  Kingfisher  at  all,  but  feeds  on  the 
ground,  almost  exclusively  on  lizards  and  the  large  wood-lice 
so  common  in  these  damp  woods.  It  is  shy  and  difficult  of 
approach,  and  when  disturbed  it  flies  off  with  a  sort  of  low 
chuckle.— W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c.,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 
Male. — Length,  9'4  ;   expanse,  16'3 ;  tail  from  vent,  2*4  ;  wing, 
4-4;   tarsus,  0*75;  bill  from  gape,  2*4;  weight,  3  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  9"62  to9'82;  expanse,  16  to  17;  tail,  2'62to 
2-75  ;  wing,  4*62  to  5  ;  tarsus,  0'65  to  0"7  ;  bill  from  gape,  23 
to  2*4  ;  weight,  3  to  3*5  ozs. 

Legs,  feet,  and  claws,  chrome  yellow,  sometimes  with  a  dingy 
greenish  tinge ;  irides  deep  brown  ;  lower  mandible,  gape, 
and  a  narrower  or  broader  stripe  on  the  upper  mandible  paral- 
lel to  commissure  from  base  to  point,  bright  yellow  to  orange 
chrome  yellow ;  eyelids  of  the  same  color ;  rest  of  upper  man- 
dible, dull  black. 

My  friend,  Mr.  Sharpe,  was  not  correctly  informed  about  this 
species,  and  was  apparently  not  aware  that  the  adults  of  the 
two  sexes  differed,  as  indeed  do  the  young.  The  young  male 
being  very  like  the  old  one,  and  the  young  female  close  to  the 
old  females. 

*  I  rather  doubt  whether  the  small  sub-group  to  which  this  species  belongs,  should 
not  be  generically  separated.    If  so  it  would  stand  as  Actenoides,  Hombr.  and  Jacq. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  77 

The  perfect  adult  male  has  a  broad  ferruginous  buff  stripe, 
beginning  at  the  nostrils  and  running  over  the  lores  to  the  top 
of  the  eye  where  it  almost  disappears,  and  just  re-appearing 
again  over  the  posterior  half  of  the  eye  and  a  little  beyond, 
and  there  slightly  mixed  with  green  ;  the  forehead,  crown,  oc- 
ciput, and  nape,  rather  dingy  green,  margined  along  the  sides  of 
the  crown  and  occiput  bluish,  and  with  the  tips  of  the  hinder- 
most  feathers  pure  pale  blue,  forming  a  distinct  line  across  the 
nape,  intervening  between  the  dull  green,  and  die  black  collar 
which,  beginning  in  the  lores,  narrowly  encircling  the  eyes,  runs 
backward  from  the  posterior  angles  of  the  latter  to  and  round 
the  nape.  From  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible  a  broad  stripe 
of  ultramarine  blue  runs  down  the  sides  of  the  neck  to  a  little 
beyond  the  tips  of  the  ear-coverts.  The  chin  is  white,  tinged 
buffy  ;  the  throat  between  these  stripes  more  decidedly,  and 
the  breast  below  still  more  decidedly  orange  buff. 

Between  these  stripes  and  the  black  band  posterior  to  the 
eye  the  feathers  from  the  gape  backward,  are  pale  orange 
buff,  the  same  color  as  the  middle  of  the  throat ;  just  where 
the  blue  mandibular  patches  cease,  this  pale  stripe  joins 
the  broad  bright  ferruginous  buff  collar  which  succeeds  the 
blue  and  black  lines  already  referred  to  ;  this  collar  joining 
on  either  side  the  somewhat  less  ferruginous  color  of  the  breast 
just  below  the  ends  of  the  blue  mandibular  patches.  This 
bright  ferruginous  buff  collar  again  is  bounded  by  a  broad  black 
band  which  begins  on  the  sides  of  the  breast.  The  inter- 
scapular region,  scapulars,  coverts,  (except  the  primary  greater 
ones,)  outer  webs  of  secondaries,  visible  portion  of  tertiaries, 
upper  tail-coverts,  except  just  the  central  ones,  and  the  tail  (which, 
however,  is  rather  paler  and  duller)  deep  ultramarine  blue. 

Middle  of  back  and  rump  and  central  shorter  upper  tail- 
coverts  intense  silvery  smalt ;  sides  of  rump  and  back  blackish ; 
primaries  and  their  greater  coverts  and  inner  webs  of  second- 
aries rather  pale  hair  brown  ;  first  primary  margined  on  the 
outer  web  towards  the  base  with  bright  buff;  edge  of  wing, 
sides,  wing-lining,  much  like  the  breast ;  middle  of  abdomen, 
vent,  and  lower  tail-coverts  creamy  white. 

A  quite  young  male  that  we  obtained,  bill  entirely  blackish 
horny,  yellowish  white  just  at  the  tips  of  both  mandibles  ;  the 
bill  only  l-6  long  at  front  from  forehead  to  point,  against 
fully  21  in  an  adult,  is  precisely  similar  to  the  old  bird,  except 
that  the  color  of  the  head  is  duller ;  the  blue  nape  line  almost 
entirely  wanting ;  the  buff  gape  stripe,  abdomen,  sides,  and 
flanks,  narrowly  barred  with  black  hair  lines.  There  is  not  a 
trace  of  spotting  on  the  wing  anywhere.  The  changes  that 
occur  between  the  just  flown  nestling  male  now  described,  and 
the  perfect  adult  male  first  described,  require  elucidation. 


78  BIRDS   OP   TENASSERIM. 

Another  young  male  which  is  precisely  like  the  adult,  (except 
that  the  blue  nape  line  is  little  developed,  and  that  there  is  just 
a  trace  of  black  barring  on  the  gape  stripe,)  has  a  tiny  pale  buff 
speck  or  spot  just  at  the  tips  of  all  the  wing-coverts.  While 
again  another,  in  every  other  respect  perfect  adult  male,  has 
the  coverts  hair  brown  instead  of  deep  ultramarine,  margined 
everywhere  with  a  rather  brighter  ultramarine, '  tinged  just 
inside  this  greenish,  and  in  the  middle  of  this  tinge  a  small 
buff-colored  spot. 

These  birds  were  severally  sexed  by  dissection,  and  it  seems 
rather  inexplicable  now,  that  beginning  as  the  nestling  male  does 
almost  precisely  like  the  adult,  there  should  be  an  intermediate 
stage,  in  which  the  wings  are  slightly  spotted,  recalling  the 
female  garb. 

The  adult  female  is  like  the  male,  except  that  the  inter- 
scapulary  region  coverts,  (except  the  primary  greater  ones,) 
outer  portions  of  secondaries,  visible  portions  of  tertiaries 
and  scapulars,  are  all  green,  all  the  feathers  of  the  coverts  and 
scapulars,  with  a  conspicuous  buffy  white  sub-terminal  spot,  and 
that  the  smalt  of  the  middle  of  the  rump  is  decidedly  less  silvery. 

There  is  no  doubt,  I  believe,  that  this  is  the  plumage  of  the 
adult  female ;  all  the  five  females  we  obtained  were  in  this  plu- 
mage, the  younger  ones  only  differing  in  the  somewhat  duller 
colors ;  the  larger  size  of  the  spots  and  traces  of  transverse 
dusky  hair  line  barring  on  the  upper  abdomen,  sides,  and  flanks. 

132.— Halcyon  chloris,  Bodd.  (22). 

Tbatone  creek  ;  Amherst  ;  Yea ;  Mergui. 

Confined  apparently  to  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of  the 
sea-coast  and  to  the  southern  half  of  the  province. 

[About  the  creeks  and  sea  shore  at  Amherst  and  southwards, 
I  found  this  species  not  uncommon.  It  was  perhaps  most 
numerous  about  Mergui.  In  December,  when  I  was  in  Mergui, 
I  found  that  this  species  kept  entirely  to  the  sea-coast  and 
banks  of  the  creeks,  but  in  June,  after  the  rains  had  commenced, 
they  became  very  numerous  about  the  gardens,  and  even  in  the 
town  itself,  and  I  noticed  them  often  seated  on  the  house-tops, 
they  wTere  then  pairing  and  were  excessively  noisy,  chasing  one 
another  from  tree  to  tree  with  their  harsh  laughing  call. 

Like  H.  occipitalis,  this  species  also  nests  in  deserted  ants' 
nests.  I  found  a  nest  in  such  a  situation  at  Mergui,  but  failed 
to  secure  the  eggs,  as  the  nest  was  also  tenanted  by  a  swarm  of 
Hornets,  who  resented  my  interference,  and  whom  the  owner  of 
the  garden  in  which  the  nest  was  refused  to  allow  me  to  smoke 
out  on  the  absurd  grounds  that  they  would  probably  bother 
him  after  I  had  left.— W.  D.] 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM.  79 

132  ter.— Carcineutes  pulchellus,  Horsf.  (17). 

Meetan  ;  Amherst ;  Mergui ;  Palaw-ton-ton  ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Not  uncommon  in  the  southern  half  of  the  province,  but  not 
as  yet  observed  in  the  northern. 

[I  did  not  meet  with  this  species  to  the  north  of  Amhei'st, 
but  there  and  to  the  southward  it  occurred  sparingly.  Of 
course,  as  is  well  known,  this  species  is  not  a  water  Kingfisher. 
It  frequents  the  forest,  avoiding  the  denser  parts.  I  have  killed 
a  good  number  both  in  Tenasserim  and  the  Straits,  but  I  have 
not,  as  described  by  Mr.  Wallace  (Sharpe,  Mon.  Alcd.,  p,  251), 
met  with  them,  specially  frequenting  thickets  near  streams. 
I  have  found  them  in  all  kinds  of  localities  in  the  forest,  some- 
times it  is  true  near  streams,  sometimes  many  miles  away  from 
any  water.  Their  food  I  found  consisted  chiefly  of  small  lizards 
and  various  insects,  such  as  wood-lice,  &c. — W.  D.] 

Having  now  preserved  a  very  lai'ge  series  of  this  species  from 
all  parts  of  Tenasserim,  south  of  Amherst  and  Meetan,  say  the 
16°  N.  Lat.,  and  also  in  the  Malayan  Peninsula,  1  entertain 
no  doubt  that  my  Carcineutes  amabilis,  S.  F.,  1873,  474,  is,  as 
asserted  by  Mr.  Sharpe,  S.  F.,  1874,  484,  identical  with  the 
present  species. 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  and  colors  of  the  soft  parts 
recorded  from  numerous  Tenasserim  specimens  : — 

Males.— Length,  8'5  to  9-0  ;  expanse,  11*75  to  12*5  ;  tail,  2*82 
to  3*12  ;  wing,  3-33  to  3-45  ;  tarsus,  0-55  to  0  62 ;  bill  from  gape, 
1-8  to  1-85 ;  weight,  1-8  to  2ozs. 

Legs  and  feet  dull  pale  green  ;  claws  black ;  bill  vermilion 
red ;  base  of  lower  mandible  brownish  red ;  gape  generally  yel- 
lowish white ;  irides  purplish  grey. 

Females.— Length,  812  to  8'8;  expanse,  11-8  to  12-5  ;  tail, 
3*  to  342  ;  wing-,  3"3  to  3'45  ;  tarsus,  0-5  to  062  ;  bill  from 
gape,  1-7  to  1-95  ;  weight,  175  to  2*25  ozs. 

Colors  of  the  soft  parts  as  in  the  male. 

In  the  quite  young  bird  the  bills  are  dark  horny  brown, 
with  extreme  tips  pale  orange  brown  ;  later  the  lower  mandible 
becomes  orange,  the  upper  mandible  gets  a  redder  tinge,  and  so 
the  bill  passes  gradually  to  the  brilliant  vermilion  of  the  adult. 

In  the  male,  the  forehead  and  anterior  half  of  the  crown, 
lores,  cheeks,  ear-coverts,  and  sides  of  the  neck  dark  chestnut ; 
chin  and  throat  pure  white ;  posterior  half  of  crown,  occiput, 
and  nape  pure  smalt  blue,  in  very  perfect  specimens  absolutely 
unbroken,  but  this  blue  is  merely  a  broad  tipping  to  the  feathers, 
which  inside  are  grey,  banded  with  white  and  black  towards  the 
tips,  and  a  good  deal  of  this  white  and  black  often  shows  through 
amongst  the  blue  of  the  crest.  The  color  of  the  blue  of  the 
head  varies  according  to  the  time  that  has  elapsed  since  the 


80  BIKDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

bird  has  moulted ;  in  freshly  moulted  specimens  it  is  more 
violet,    in    more    or   less    weathered  specimens    it  is    greener. 

The  entire  mantle  is  closely  barred,  the  feathers  being  tipped 
blue,  preceded  by  a  broad  black  band,  which  again  is  preceded 
by  a  rather  narrower  white  band ;  the  blue  tippings  also 
vary  much  in  shade.  The  primaries  and  winglet  are  deep 
hair  brown  ;  the  secondaries  similar,  becoming  almost  black 
towards  the  tertiaries,  and  conspicuously  margined  at  the  tips 
with  white  and  with  three  imperfect  white  bars  on  both  webs; 
the  coverts,  mostly  black,  tipped  blue  like  the  back  ;  the  tail 
black,  with  about  seven  transverse,  somewhat  slaty,  blue  bars, 
(which  bars  become  more  or  less  white  on  the  inner  webs,)  and 
tipped  with  the  same  color  as  the  bars. 

The  breast,  abdomen,  and  vent  sullied  white ;  the  sides  fulvous 
buff;  the  edge  of  the  wing  at  the  carpal  joint  rather  brighter 
fulvous  buff ;  the  rest  of  the  edge  of  the  wing  and  the  wing- 
lining  white,  with  more  or  less  of  a  creamy  tinge  ;  the  lower 
surface  of  the  tail  is  rather  pale  hair  brown,  with  numerous, 
more  or  less  imperfect,  greyish  white  bands. 

In  most  adults  the  red  of  the  sides  of  the  neck  is  continued 
as  a  collar  round  the  back  of  the  neck,  but  in  some  specimens  — 
and  one  of  these  formed  the  type  of  my  amabilis — not  the 
smallest  trace  of  this  exists,  and  in  a  good  many  specimens 
this  collar  is  very  much  reduced  in  size.  After  carefully  con- 
sidering our  large  series,  I  believe  these  differences  to  be 
individual  and  quite  independent  of  age,  as  we  have  both 
young  and  old  birds  of  both  types. 

The  female  has  the  entire  upper  surface  and  the  entire  sides 
of  the  head  and  neck  a  rich  buff,  in  some  more  golden,  in  some 
more  ferruginous,  everywhere  regularly  and  closely  barred 
with  black  ;  the  width  of  the  bars  and  their  distance  apart 
varying  a  great  deal  in  different  specimens,  but  always  being 
narrowest  and  closest  on  the  head  and  neck,  broadest  on  the 
body  and  wings,  and  usually  furthest  apart  on  the  tail  ;  the 
primaries,  their  greater  coverts  and  winglet  are  plain  blackish 
hair  brown  ;  the  secondaries  similar,  but  with  imperfect  buffy 
bars,  corresponding  with  those  of  the  back  ;  chin,  threat,  and 
entire  lower  parts,  including  wing-lining,  white,  only  across  the 
breast  and  on  the  sides  and  flanks,  traces  of  narrow  transverse 
dusky  bars.  In  younger  birds  these  are  very  strongly  marked 
on  the  breast,  but  as  the  birds  grow  older  these  bars  almost  en- 
tirely disappear  from  the  breast ;  still,  out  of  thirty  specimens, 
there  is  not  one  that  is  entirely  free  from  these  markings. 

133.— Ceyx  tridactyla,  Pall.  (25). 

Karope  ;  Yea  ;  Meeta  Myo  ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Not  uncommon  in  the  southern  half  of  Tenasserim. 


BIRDS    OP   TENASSERIM.  81 

[I  found  this  lovely  little  Kingfisher  not  at  all  uncommon  in 
the  evergreen  forests  of  the  southern  portion  of  Tenasserim, 
especially  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Malewoon.  Though  not  un- 
common, they  are  difficult  to  procure,  as  they  remain  perfectly 
still  till  one  is  within  a  few  feet  of  them,  when  they  dart  away 
with  great  rapidity,  uttering  a  sharp  Kingfisher- like  note,  very 
similar  to  that  of  A.  bengalensis,  hut  much  more  shrill. 

Though  often  found  along  forest  streams,  it  by  no  means 
confines  itself  to  these,  but  is  just  as  often  met  with  in  the 
forest  away  from  water;  usually  it  is  found  singly,  though 
sometimes  in  pairs.  It  never,  that  I  am  aware,  leaves  the  forest 
and  goes  into  the  open,  nor  does  it  occur  apparently  in  any 
but  the  heavy  evergreen  forests.  I  have  shot  it  as  far  south  as 
Malacca.     I  never  found  it  on  the  sea  coast.— W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males. — Length,  5"25  to  5'5  ;  expanse,  8'0  to  8'3  ;  tail  from 
vent,  0-8  to  1/12;  wing,  2-2  to  2'35  ;  tarsus,  0*3  to  0*4  ;  bill 
from  gape,  1*5  to  1*6  ;  weight,  0'62  oz. 

Females. — Length,  5-25  to  5'62  ;  expanse,  8*25  to  8"G  ;  tail 
from  vent,  1*0  to  \'%%  wing,  2*12  to  2'25;  tarsus,  0*3  to  36 ; 
bill  from  gape,  1'5  to  1-62  ;  weight,  06  oz. 

Bill,  legs,  and  feet  bright  vermilion  red ;  irides  brown. 

134.— Alcedo  bengalensis,  Gm.  (30). 

(Tonghoo,  Karennee,     Rams.)  Paliehoung  ;  Kollidoo  ;  Kyouknyat  ;   Dargwin  ; 

Piihpoon  ;    Thatone ;  Tounzaleen    Creek;    Moulmein  ;  Pabyouk  ;    Paraduba  ; 

Meetan  ;    Amherst;    Yea  ;  Tavoy  ;  Pabyin  ;      Mergui ;  Pakckan  ;  Bankasoon  ; 
Malewoon. 

Common  throughout  the  province,  but  not  ascending  to 
quite  the  summits  of  the  highest  hills. 

[This  species  frequents  alike  the  sea  shore,  creeks,  inland 
streams  and  tanks,  paddy  fields,  &c. 

It  extends  quite  to  the  south  of  the  Malayan  Peninsula  and 
Singapore  Island,  and  is  equally  common  everywhere. 
I  have  noticed  that,  on  the  streams  flowing  through  the  dense 
virgin  forest  of  the  southernmost  portion  of  the  province, 
this  species,  though  occasionally  met  with,  is  comparatively 
rare  ;  it  seems  to  prefer  keeping  to  the  open  or  thinly  wood- 
ed portions  of  the  country. — W.  D.] 

135  bis.—  Alcedo  nigricans,   Ely.   (5).  J.  A.   S.  B., 
XVI.,  1180,  1847. 

Thoungsheyen  Sakan ;  Bankasoon. 

Rare  in  Tenasserim ;  confined  apparently  to  the  neighbour- 
hood of  the  bases  of  the  main  range  of  hills,  and  to  the  southern 
half  of  the  province. 

11 


82  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

[The  note  of  this  bird  is  similar  to  that  of  A.  bengalensis,  and 
it  also  resembles  that  species  to  a  certain  extent  in  habits,  but 
it  keeps  entirely  to  those  streams  whose  banks  are  covered 
with  forest.  When  disturbed,  it  leaves  the  stream  and  betakes 
itself  to  the  forest ;  it  is  exceedingly  shy.  I  have  usually  seen 
it  in  pairs,  and  at  the  outside  I  may  have  met  with  a  dozen 
pairs  from  first  to  last.  This  is  eminently  a  Water  Kingfisher, 
and  lives,  I  believe,  entirely  on  fish. — W.  D.] 

I  retain  for  the  present  Blytlr's  name  for  the  species  which 
is  not  very  uncommon  in  the  southern  part  of  the  Tenasserim 
provinces,  and  even  extends  along  the  foot  of  the  hills  as  far 
north  at  any  rate  as  Mooleyit. 

We  preserved  three  males  and  two  females,  all  adults  ap- 
parently, as  one  pair  of  them  were  constructing  their  nest-hole 
in  the  banks  of  the  Bankasoon  Creek  when  shot,  and  the  others 
are  similar  to  this  pair. 

Mr.  Oates'  men  obtained  a  sixth  specimen,  a  male,  similar 
to  our  males. 

Either  Professor  Schlegel's  and  Mr.  Sharpe's  descriptions  and 
plates  of  A.  euryzona,  Tern.,  are  more  or  less  erroneous,  or  else 
our  bird,  which  is  unquestionably  Blytlr's  nigricans,  is  distinct. 

In  the  first  place,  the  birds  described  as  the  young  by  both 
these  authorities,  appear  to  be  females.  At  any  rate  the  adult 
females  wear  a  garb  very  similar  to  what  they  describe  as  the 
dress  of  the  young. 

In  the  absence  of  specimens  of  the  true  euryzona  to  compare, 
it  is  impossible  to  be  certain  that  our  birds  are  distinct ;  but 
they  agree  so  imperfectly  with  the  descriptions  referred  to, 
which  are  those  of  the  greatest  living  authorities  in  regard  to 
this  group,  that  I  prefer  to  retain  Blytlr's  name,  although  the 
dimensions  agree  well  enough. 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  recorded  in  the  flesh,  colors 
of  the  soft  parts,  and  description  of  an  adult  pair : — 

Male. — Length,  8'0 ;  expanse,  12"6;  tail,  1*6;  wing,  34 ; 
tarsus,  0'5  ;  bill  from  gape,  2"4  ;  from  margin  of  feathers,  V7  ; 
weight,  1*75  oz. 

Upper  mandible  black  ;  lower  mandible  very  dark  brown, 
almost  black,  paler  at  base ;  iris  deep  brown ;  legs  and  feet 
vermilion. 

Female. — Length,  7*9;  expanse,  12*5;  tail,  1'65  ;  wing, 
3'52  ;  tarsus,  045  ;  bill  from  gape,  2"3 ;  bill  from  margin  of 
feathers,  1*68;  weight,  1'75  oz. 

Upper  mandible  black ;  lower  mandible  pale  red  ;  iris  very 
dark  brown  ;  legs  and  feet  pale  vermilion  ;  claws  pale 
orange. 

The  upper  surfaces  of  the  two  sexes  are  precisely  similar, 
namely  the  whole  upper  parts  (except  the  back  and  upper  tail- 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  83 

Coverts,  and  an  imperfect  nuchal  collar  wanting-  on  the  middle 
of  the  nape  for  about  three-quarters  of  an  inch)  sooty  black; 
the  whole  of  the  feathers  of  the  head  and  nape  very  narrowly 
margined  at  the  tips  with  pale  dingy  greenish  blue,  resulting 
in  a  regular  banding  of  these  parts,  the  bands  being  about  0"1 
apart. 

All  the  coverts,  except  the  lesser  ones,  and  the  quills  very 
narrowly  margined  with  dull  greenish  blue,  rather  brighter 
colored  on  the  median  coverts,  which  are  margined  at  the  tips 
also,  and  which  exhibit  exactly  at  the  tips  a  rather  brighter 
spot  of  blue  in  the  middle  of  the  dull  blue  margin. 

The  tail  rather  purer  black  and  faintly  shaded  with  a  deep 
blue. 

The  imperfect  collar  above  referred  to  bright  ferruginous  ; 
the  back  and  rump  silvery  blue. 

The  upper  tail-coverts  deep  blue — a  point  specially  referred  to 
by  Blyth,  but  not  noticed  by  either  Sharpe  or  Schlegel. 

The  greater  part  of  the  lores  ferruginous  buff.  In  the  female 
a  small  streak  of  the  same  color  at  the  gape  just  below  the  eye. 

The  ear-coverts  and  cheeks  dusky  greenish  blue,  the  dusky 
bases  of  the  feathers  shewing  through  more  or  less  in  different 
specimens. 

The  chin  and  throat  white,  more  or  less  tinged  with  fulvous 
buff. 

On  either  side  of  the  breast  a  blackish  dusky  patch. 

In  the  male  the  whole  of  the  rest  of  the  breast  dusky  blue, 
mottled  with  white,  the  bases  of  the  feathers  only  being  white, 
the  terminal  portion  blue. 

Middle  of  abdomen,  vent,  tibial  plumes,  lower  tail-coverts, 
wing-lining  and  axillaries  varying  in  different  specimens  from 
nearly  pure  white  to  pure  buff  ;  flanks  and  sides  similar,  but 
broadly  streaked  with  blackish  dusky. 

In  the  female  the  breast,  abdomen,  vent,  lower  tail-coverts, 
sides,  flanks,  wing-lining  are  a  bright  ferruginous  buff,  most 
ferruginous  on  the  breast,  sides  and  edge,  of  the  wing.  There 
is  no  dusky  streaking  on  the  sides   and  flanks  of  the  female. 

All  six  specimens  examined,  two  of  which  were  actually 
breeding  when  shot,  are  precisely  similar. 

135  ter . — Alcedo  meninting,  Horsf.  (6). 

Bankasoon. 

Confined  to  the  extreme  south  of  the  province. 

[I  have  only  met  with  this  species  in  the  extreme  south  of 
the  province,  and  even  there  it  is  decidedly  rare.  It  prefers 
to  keep  along  the  smaller  forest  streams ;  in  habits,  voice, 
&c,  it  much  resembles  A.  bengalensis. — W.  D.] 


84  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

This  species  is  very  close  to,  and  runs  into,  Alcedo  beavani, 
Wald.,  described  under  the  name  of  asiatica,  S.  F.,  II.,  p.  174. 

If  we  compare  Andaman  specimens  of  the  one,  and  Singa- 
pore and  Malaccan  specimens  of  the  other,  we  shall  find  that 
the  birds  do  not  differ  in  size,  but  the  Andaman  males  differ 
in  having  the  blue  bars  of  the  head  somewhat  paler  and 
greener,  in  having  the  blue  of  the  back,  rump,  and  upper  tail- 
coverts,  a  clear  smalt  blue  instead  of  a  deep  violet  blue  as  in 
meninting,  and  in  having  the  abdomen,  breast,  and  lower  tail- 
coverts  a  deeper  and  more  intense  chestnut.  In  addition 
to  this  the  female  of  beavani  differs  further  from  the 
female  of  ineninting  in  having  less  of  the  bill  red,  and  in 
having  the  cheeks  and  ear-coverts  like  the  crown,  instead  of 
chestnut,  as  in  the  Straits'  birds. 

Out  of  the  Andamans  I  do  not  think  that  quite  typical 
beavani  occurs.  I  have  already,  S.  F.,  IV.,  383,  explained  how 
the  Continental  form  of  beavani  varies — none  of  the  females 
having  the  entire  cheeks  blue,  and  birds  from  Sikkim  and 
Northern  Tenasserim  exhibiting  a  depth  of  color  not  far  short 
of  what  is  observed  in  typical  meninting.  Under  the  present 
species  I  have  only  entered  those  specimens  which  are  in- 
separable in  depth  of  color  from  Straits'  specimens  ;  they  have 
the  same  deep  purple  blue  of  the  entire  upper  surface,  but 
though  much  nearer  meninting  than  beavani,  they  are  not  typi- 
cal specimens  of  the  former,  because,  in  several  of  them,  the 
ferruginous  chestnut  of  the  under-surface  is  as  intense  as  in 
any  beavani,  and  the  females  show  more  or  less  violet  blue 
mingled  with  the  red  of  the-  cheeks  and  ear-coverts.  Still,  as 
they  are  manifestly  much  closer  to  meninting,  I  have  entered 
them  accordingly.  All  these  specimens  were  procured  at  Banka- 
soon  in  the  extreme  south  of  Tenasserim. 

135  quat.-- Alcedo  beavani,  Wald.  (14).  Descr.  S.  F., 
11,494;  IV,  287,383. 

Sinzaway,-  Moulmein  ;  Amherst ;  Yea  ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Occurs  sparingly  throughout  the  whole  province. 

[In  its  habits  this  species  is  inseparable  from  meninting. — > 
W.  D.] 

From  Bankasoon  and  from  all  other  localities  north- 
wards of  this,  to  near  Pahpoon,  we  have  numerous  specimens, 
which,  though  far  removed  from  typical  Andaman  specimens, 
yet  show  so  much  more  of  a  greenish  tinge  in  the  blue  barring 
of  the  head  that  I  think  they  must  be  considered  to  be  on  the 
whole  closer  to  the  present  than  to  the  preceding  species. 
One  of  these,  au  adult  female  from  Bankasoon,  with  the  whole 
of  the  lower  mandible  and   the   base  of  the  upper  mandible 


BIEDS    OF   TENASSERIM.  85 

dull  red,  lias  the  entire  cheeks  and  ear-coverts  blue;  but  as  a 
rule  the  females  have  the  cheeks  and  ear-coverts  red,  traversed 
by  a  broader  or  narrower  blue  band,  I  have  unfortunately 
only  a  comparatively  small  series  from  the  Straits,  but  my 
impression  is,  that  with  a  series  from  Singapore  to  Penang, 
such  as  I  possess,  from  Burmah,  India  and  the  Andamans,  it 
would  be  easy  to  show  a  perfectly  unbroken  series  of  forms, 
both  as  regards  color  of  upper  parts  and  color  of  the  cheeks 
and  ear-coverts  in  the  females.  I  am,  therefore,  inclined  to 
doubt  the  validity  of  beavani  as  a  species. 

136. — Ceryle  rudis,  Lin.  (14). 

(Tonghoo,  Earns.)  Sittang  River  ;  Khyketo  ;  Theinzeik  ;  Megaloon  ;  Moulmeiu  ; 
Attaran  River  ;  Yea-boo  ;  Amherst. 

Pretty  common  in  the  northern  and  upper  central  portions 
of  the  province,  (?)  on  fresh  water  only;  not  observed  on  the 
sea  coast. 

[This  species  apparently  does  not  occur  much  to  the  south 
of  Amherst.  It  is  found  on  the  Sittang  and  Salween  rivers 
and  on  inland  tanks,  &c.  I  found  it  very  numerous  on  a  large 
tank,  a  short  distance  from  the  hot  springs  of  Yea-boo  on  the 
Attaran,  and  again  on  the  fisheries  on  the  fiat  country  between 
the  Salween  and  Sittang  rivers.  I  also  noticed  a  few  at  a  small 
tank  at  Pahpoou. — W.  D.] 

Whatever  the  habits  of  this  species  in  Tenasserim,  it  is  in 
other  places  by  no  means  confined  to  fresh  water. 

137.  -Ceryle  guttata,  Vig.  (2). 

Kollidoo. 

Only  observed  in  the  hill  streams  of  the  higher  hills  of 
the  northern  and  central  portions  of  the  province. 

[This  species  occurs  in  the  hills  to  the  north  of  Pahpoon. 
I  obtained  two  specimens,  male  and  female,  on  a  stream  below  the 
stockade  of  Kollidoo,  and  saw  it  on  two  or  three  other  occasions 
in  the  Pahchoung  Creek  and  on  the  higher  portion  of  the 
Younzaleen.  I  also  met  with  it  in  the  hill  streams  about 
Mooleyit.     The  bird  is  rare  even  where  it  does  occur. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  of  a  fiue  adult  male  : — 

Length,*  16-5;  expanse,  25-9;  tail  from  vent,  5'0;  wing,  75  ; 
tarsus,  05;  bill  from  gape,  3*4;  weight,  9  ozs, 

*  This  is  quite  as  large  as  a  Japanese  male  with  which  I  have  compared  it,  and 
yet  not  a  bit  larger  then  several  Himalayan  males,  and  is  smaller  than  one  of  these 
latter.  Of  course  I  have  also  several  Himalayan  males  that  are  smaller;  like  all  birds, 
the  adults  vary  somewhat  in  size.  As  to  the  supposed  greater  compression  of  the 
beak  in  the  Japanese  bird,  the  single  specimen  of  the  latter,   which  I  have  examined, 


8Q  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

237  bis.— Calyptomena  viridis,  Baffl.  (31). 

Amherst ;  Laynuh  ;  Palaw-ton-ton ;  Bankasoon  ;  Mnlewoon. 

Confined  to  the  southern  and  lower  central  portions  of 
the  province  ;  rare  in  the  latter ;  common  enough  in  the 
former. 

[This  lovely  bird  occurs  in  Tenasserim  from  Amherst  south- 
wards. It  keeps  to  the  forest,  perferring  moderately  thin 
tree  jungle,  and  frequents  the  tops  of  the  trees,  singly,  in  pairs, 
or  in  small  parties;  feeding,  so  far  as  I  have  observed,  and  I 
have  dissected  mumbers,  enthely  on  fruit.  The  note  is  a  soft 
sort  of  whistle. 

It  is  only  in  the  morning  or  evening  that  they  seem  at 
all  active.  During  the  day  they  remain  seated  quietly  about 
the  tops  of  the  trees,  and  are  excessively  difficult  to  detect. 
They  are  not  at  all  shy,  but  at  the  same  time  not  stupid,  like 
the  Broadbills,  with  which  I  may  remark  that  they  have  no- 
thing in  common,  neither  habits,  food  nor  note. 

When  feeding  they  hop  about  on  the  branches,  picking  off 
berries  and  figs,  just  like  other  fruit-eating  birds,  or  like  many 
of  the  omnivorous  species,  like  Irena,  Calomis,  when  feeding  on 
fruits,  which  they  generally  do  when  they  can. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  of 
this   species  : — 

Males. — Length,  7*25  to  7-82  ;  expanse,  1375  to  14*  5  ;  tail, 
1-82  to  212;  wing,  412  to  43  ;  tarsus,  075  to  0'82;  bill 
from  gape,  l'O  to  1*12  ;  weight,  2  to  nearly  3  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  8  to  8*12  ;  expanse,  14*5  to  14*62  ;  tail,  2  to 
2*12;  wing,  4-37  to  445  ;  tarsus,  0'82  ;  bill  from  gape,  105  to 
1*1  ;   weight,  2*8  to  32  ozs. 

The  legs  and  feet  vary,  but  are  generally  pale  dirty 
or  horny  green,  sometimes  with  a  bluish  tinge,  sometimes  a 
pinkish  grey  tinge ;  the  irides  are  very  dark  bi'own,  appear- 
ing black  at  times ;  the  gape  is  always  more  or  less  orange; 
the  tip  of  the  upper  mandible  and  the  lower  mandible  are 
light  reddish  horny,  or  brownish  orange,  or  fleshy,  shaded 
with  orange  towards  the  gape ;  the  upper  mandible,  except 
the  tips,  varies  from  pale  horny  to  brown,  dark  horny  brown, 
and    black,  or  almost  black. 

had  not  the  bill  a  bit  more  compressed  than  some  of  my  Himalayan  specimens.    I   have 
myself  no  doubt  that  lugubris  is  not  a  good  species. 

I  take  this  opportunity  of  pointing  out,  as  I  have  not,  I  think,  before  done  so  in 
Sxbat  Feathers,  that  contrary  to  what  has  been  said  (Sharpe,  Monogr.  Alced.  et  auct.) 
the  sexes  are  not  alike.  In  the  adult  male  the  under  wiDg-coverts  axe  always  white; 
in  the  female,  the  greater  portion  of  these  are  pale  cinnamon.  Besides  this,  many 
males  have  a  great  deal  of  rusty  cinnamon  patching  or  blotching  about  the  sides  of  the 
throat  and  breast,  whereas  it  is  very  rare  to  meet  with  a  trace  even  of  this,  in  the 
females.  The  colour  of  the  under  wing-coverts  is  an  absolute  sexual  diagnosis  in 
adults. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSBRIM.  87 

The  adult  male  is  an  intense  glittering  green,  paling  and 
losing  much  of  its  gloss  on  the  abdomen;  the  lower  tail- 
coverts,  which  extend  almost  to  the  tip  of  the  tail,  delicately 
tinged  with  green  ;  the  lores  and  almost  the  entire  surface 
of  the  upper  mandible  are  covered  with  dense  tufts  of  feathers, 
unicolorous  with  the  back  ;  inside  these  tufts  the  bases  of  the 
frontal  feathers  on  either  side  are  velvet  black,  and  form  a 
large  black  spot,  very  conspicuons  in  life,  but  hardly  seen  in 
many  skins;  from  above  the  eye  to  this  black  spot  runs  a  nar- 
row bright  yellow  line,  also  imperfectly  visible  in  most  skins; 
the  longest  ear-coverts  velvet  black,  forming  an  imperfect 
black  half  moon  on  the  side  of  the  neck ;  wing-coverts,  except 
primary  greater  coverts,  velvet  black,  broadly  tipped  with  bright- 
green  and  green  at  their  bases  ;  primary  greater  coverts  almost 
entirely  green,  margined  brighter;  quills  black;  second  and  suc- 
ceeding primaries  margined  for  a  greater  and  greater  length 
successively  on  their  outer  webs  with  green,  brightest  at  the 
extreme  margin  ;  secondaries,  with  nearly  the  whole  of  the  outer 
webs,  and  tertiaries  with  nearly  the  whole  of  both  webs  green; 
tail  dark  green,  unicolorous  with  the  tertiaries,  blackish  brown 
on  the  inner  webs  of  the  laterals  ;  lower  surface  of  the  tail 
blue  or  greenish  blue ;  lower  surface  of  the  outer  margins  of 
quills  blue  generally  ;  lower  surface  of  all  the  green  feathers 
blue  or  greenish  blue — any  turned  feathers  thus  producing 
a  blue  mottling;  axillaries  and  wing-lining;  except  at  the 
carpal  joint,  intense  black. 

Adult  female;  the  whole  upper  surface  a  nearly  uniform 
green,  duller  than,  and  wanting  the  gloss  of  that  of  the 
male  ;  the  loral  tufts  much  duller  colored  ;  no  black  frontal 
patch,  only  a  yellowish  green  indication  of  the  yellow  line 
of  the  male  ;  feathers  round  the  eye  a  rather  brighter  and 
yellower  green;  no  black  spot  on  the  sides  of  the  neck, 
no  black  on  the  coverts  ;  portions  of  the  quills  not  green, 
pale  hair  brown,  and  not  black  ;  axillaries  and  wing-lining 
very  pale  fawn  color,  slightly  tinged  with  green  ;  visible 
portion  of  under  surface  of  quills  grey  brown,  with  pale  fawn 
color  or  creamy  margins  to  inner  webs.  (In  the  male  the 
entire  visible  portions  of  the  under  surface  of  the  quills  is 
black,  though  not  the  intense  black  of  the  axillaries  and 
wing-lining.)  Chin,  throat,  and  breast  dull,  rather  pale  green,  a 
little  mingled  with  whitey  brown,  owing  to  the  bases  of  the  fea- 
thers showing  through  somewhat ;  abdomen,  vent,  and  lower  tail- 
coverts  pale  greyish  white,  tinged  and  overlaid  with  pale  green  ; 
under  surface  of  the  tail  blue  or  greenish  blue,  as  in  the  male. 

The  old  female  in  full  plumage  sometimes  has  a  very  faint 
trace  of  the  same  gloss  on  the  upper  plumage  that  the  male 
exhibits. 


88  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

The  quite  young-  birds  of  both  sexes  are  like  the  female 
above,  but  duller  colored  ;  have  only  very  thin  loral  tufts  ;  the 
chin  and  throat  very  scantily  feathered  with  greyish  white 
feathers  ;  the  breast  very  pale  green,  and  the  rest  of  the 
lower  parts  except  the  tips  of  the  lower  tail-coverts,  greyish 
white,  with   faint  green  tinges  here  and  there. 

Later,  in  the  males  the  black  ear-coverts  begin  to  appear  ; 
the  loral  plumes  increase  in  size  ;  then  the  black  spots  begin 
to  appear  on  the  coverts  ;  the  yellow  eye  line  appears,  and  at 
the  same  time  the  black  frontal  patches  ;  the  gloss  developes 
more  and  more,  first  on  the  upper,  and  then  on  the  upper  and 
lower  surfaces,  and  last  of  all  the  wing -lining  and  the  quills 
become  black. 

138.— Psarisomus  dalhousise,  Jamieson.  (11). 

(Karen,  Hills,  at  BfiOOft.,  Rams.)     Moolejit ;  Meetan. 

Only  observed  in  Tenasserim  proper  in  the  low  hills  around, 
and  on  Mooleyit  itself,  to  an  elevation  of  6,000  feet,  but  re- 
appearing further  north  in  the  continuation  of  the  same 
range. 

[In  habits  this  species  greatly  resembles  the  other  Broad- 
bills,  going  about,  however,  usually  in  pairs.  They  feed  en- 
tirely on  insects,  specially  the  green  tree  grasshoppers.  They 
continually  seize  insects  on  the  wing,  bat  do  not,  as  a  rule, 
return  to  the  same  perch  to  devour  their  prey.  They  don't 
seem  to  move  about  the  branches;  they  make  short  flights,  and 
where  they  alight,  there  they,  as  it  were,  squat  with  their  heads 
tucked  in. 

Unlike  most  of  the  other  Broadbills,  which  are  found  in 
thin  tree  jungle,  gardens,  and  even  in  bamboo  jungle,  1  have 
always  met  with  these  exclusively  in  the  thick  forest,  often  in 
dark  ravines.  Though  by  no  means  shy,  they  are  rather  more 
alert  to  danger  than  the  other  Broadbills. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions  and  colors  of  soft  parts  record- 
ed from  the  fresh  bird.  The  sexes  do  not  appear  to  vary  in 
size  : — 

Length,  106  to  109;  expanse,  12-8  to  13-5  ;  tail  from  vent, 
4-9  to  5-35  ;  wing,  4'05  to  4:15;  tarsus,  TO  to  1-12;  bill  from 
gape,  1-2  to  1-3;  weight,  2*2  to  2'5  oz. 

The  legs  and  feet  are  pale  green  or  bluish  green ;  claws  black. 
In  the  male  the  upper  mandible  is  pale  green,  bluish  at  tip  and 
edges  ;  the  lower  mandible  is  greenish  or  orange  yellow,  bluish 
at  tip  :  the  irides  are  salmon  pink,  darkening  to  deep  grey  on  the 
outer  edge,  sometimes  pinkish  grey,  darker  on  the  outer  edge. 

In  the  female,  the  bill  was  greenish  yellow  ;  both  mandibles 
bluish  at  tip  and  base. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  ~    89 

139  bis.— Serilophus  lunatus,  Gould.    (25).    Descr. 
S.  F.,  III.,  54. 

(Karen  Hills,  30  miles  north  of  Tonghoo,  Lloyd  ;  Karennee  at  3,000  to  4,000 
ft.,  Rams.)      Paplioon  ;    Then^'anee    Sakan  ;    Thonngya    Snkun  ;  Tlioungslieyen    "73ty~ry  T^W 
Sakan  ;    Kaukaryifc,  Houngthraw  R. ;    Assoon  ;    Mooleyit ;    Meetan  ;    Amherst ; 
Om-a-gweu. 

Confined  to  the  northern  and  central  portions  of  the  pro- 
vince ;  not  rare  there  in  suitable  localties. 

[This  little  Broadbill  I  found  from  Pahpoon  to  Om-a-gwen, 
a  village  three  days'  march  south  of  Ye  ;  but  I  did  not^meet 
with  it  anywhere  further  south.  The  only  places  where  I 
found  it  very  common  was  at  Pahpoon,  and  all  about  the 
forests  going  up  to  Mooleyit. 

The  Broadbills,  I  think,  might  well  be  designated  a  stupid 
set  of  birds,  but  this  species  is  the  most  stupid  of  the  lot. 
They  usually  move  about  in  small  parties,  and  when  one  meets 
with  a  party,  every  bird  of  which  it  consists  can,  without 
difficulty,  be  secured,  as  the  birds  take  no  notice  of  their  com- 
panions being  shot,  and  do  not  appear  to  be  at  all  alarmed 
at  the  report  of  the  gun,  seldom  moving  further  than  the  next 
branch,  sometimes  not  moving  at  all,  when  the  gun  is  fired. 

Their  call  consists  of  a  single  chir-r-r-r.  They  never  walk 
or  hop  about  the  branches,  though  they  will  fly  from  branch  to 
branch.  They  feed  chiefly  on  insects,  many  of  which  they 
seize  on  the  wing. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  from/ 
a  very  large  series  : — 

Males.— Length,  6-8  to  7-35;  expanse,  11-0  to  11-5  ;  tail 
from  vent,  2-75  to  2-82  ;  wing,  3-37  to  3-5  ;  tarsus,  075  to  0'85; 
bill  from  gape,  0'82  to  0-9;  weight,  1*12  to  1*25  oz. 

Females. — Length,  6*9  to  7-0  ;  expanse,  1075  to  11*0  ;  tail 
from  vent>  275  to  2-9  ;  wing,  3-37  to  3-45  ;  tarsus,  07  to  075  ; 
bill  from  gape,  08  to  0'9  ;  weight,  Tl  to  1*2  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  are  pale  green  ;  the  claws  pale  or  whitish  blue  ; 
the  upper  mandible,  as  far  as  nostril,  and  lower  mandible, 
to  angle  of  gonys,  orange  yellow ;  rest  of  bill  bright  smalt  blue  ; 
the  edges  of  both  mandibles  along  commissure  very  pale, 
almost  white,  tinged  greenish  towards  basal  portion  ;  irides 
from  deep  brown  to  deep  claret  red,  always  shot,  and  powder- 
ed with  gold. 

139  ter.— Eurylaemus  javanicus,  Eorsf.  (19). 

{Tonglwo  Hills,  Lloyd.)  Meetan  ;  Amherst  ;  Lemyne  ;  Tea  ;  Om-a-gwen  ; 
Zadee  ;   Bankasoon. 

Confined  in  Tenasserim  proper  to  the  southern  and  southern 
central  portions  of  the  province,  but  re-appearing,  it  would 
seem,  again  in  the  hills  in  the  extreme  north. 

12 


90  BIRDS    OF   TBNASSERIM. 

[This  species  occurs  throughout  the  southern  half  of  the 
province,  sparingly  about  Ye,  more  common  further  to  the  south. 
It  feeds  on  insects  and  small  reptiles.  One  that  I  shot  had 
swallowed,  head  foremost,  a  small  green  lizard,  over  four  inches 
in  length.  When  I  picked  the  bird  up  nearly  the  whole  of  the 
lizard's  tail  was  hanging  out  on  one  side  of  the  bird's  mouth. 
The  lizard  had  apparently  only  just  been  swallowed,  but  was 
quite  dead. 

Both  this  and  the  next  two  species  have  a  very  peculiar  note, 
not  easy  to  express  in  words,  but  once  heard  not  soon  forgot- 
ten. It  consists  of  a  few  single  notes  uttered  at  short  intervals, 
and  ending  in  a  sort  of  rolling,  metallic  sounding  chir-r-r-r. 
Though  the  note  of  all  three  species  is  of  precisely  the  same 
type,  yet  they  are  notably  distinct. 

One  commences,  then  another  takes  it  up,  and  then  another, 
till  you  have  a  dozen  calling  in  the  woods  'around,  and  the 
note  is  one  that  can  be  heard  a  long  distance.  This  species 
frequents  forests  and  shady  gardens,  coming  less  into  the  open 
than  Cymborhynchus.  It  moves  about  pretty  well  all  day,  like 
the  other  Broadbills,  catching  much  of  its  food  on  the  wing, 
and  never,  to  the  best  of  my  belief,  touching  fruit.  This,  too, 
never  walks  or  hops  about  the  branches  like  Barbets  or  Calyp- 
tomena,  but  sits  and  squats  or  flies. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  eolors  of  soft  parts,  &c, 
recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males.— Length,  8'82  to  972  ;  expanse,  14  to  14-9  ;  tail,  275 
to  3*25 ;  wing,  43  to  4*5  ;  tarsus,  TO  to  l'l  ;  bill  from  gape, 
1-5  to  1-62;  weight,  2-25  to  3-5  oz. 

Females. — Length,  8'32  to  8'5;  expanse,  13*72  to  14-25;  tail, 
2-62  to  3-2;  wing,  4-12  to  4'37 ;  tarsus,  1-05  to  l'l;  bill  from 
gape,  1*52  to  1-6;  weight,  2-75  to  3  ozs. 

Upper  mandible  bright  blue  to  within  one-third  of  tip  ;  rest  of 
upper  mandible  pale  sea  green  ;  lower  mandible  pale  greenish 
blue  ;  both  mandibles  edged  and  tipped  with  brownish  red;  irides 
bright  blue  ;  legs  and  feet  fleshy ;  claws  brown. 

The  adult  male  has  the  lores  and  the  feathers  immediately 
around  the  eye,  and  sometimes  the  extreme  bases  of  the 
frontal  feathers,  blackish  or  black;  forehead,  crown,  occiput, 
and  nape,  a  dull  dusky  vinous  purple  ;  ear-coverts,  sides  of  the 
neck,  and  an  ill-defined  narrow  band  on  the  nape,  a  purer  redder 
vinous  purple ;  a  narrow  line  of  white  feathers  immediately 
below  the  eye,  often  not  visible  in  skins ;  chin  and  throat 
something  the  same  color  as  the  head,  but  paler,  and  with  a 
greyish  shade;  a  narrow  black  collar  at  the  base  of  the  throat; 
a  broad  ill-defined  brownish  band  on  the  sides  of  the  neck  and 
the  upper  back ;  feathers  of  the  breast  immediately  below 
the  black  line,  grey   or    brownish   grey,  or  brown ;   rest  of  the 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM.  91 

breast  and  abdomen  dull  reddish  vinous  purple  ;  tibial  plumes 
blackish  dusky  ;  feathers  of  the  flanks  fringed  yellowish  or 
brownish  orange  ;  lower  tail-coverts  pale  brownish  vinous,  more 
or  less  fringed  with  yellow — in  some  specimens  much  suffused 
with  this  color ;  edge  of  the  wing,  axillaries,  and  the  greater 
part  of  the  wing-lining,  pale  bright  yellow;  greater  and  median 
primary  lower  coverts  black  or  blackish ;  inner  margins  of 
quills  towards  their  bases  white  or  fulvous  white;  wings,  back, 
rump,  tail,  upper  tail-coverts,  (except  terminal  portions  of  pri- 
maries, which  are  hair  brown)  mingled  black  and  bright  yellow; 
the  middle  of  the  back  and  rump,  and  the  tips  of  the  tail- 
coverts,  and  the  longer  and  outer  scapulars,  and  a  broad  patch 
on  the  outer  webs  of  all  the  secondaries  and  tertiaries  being 
of  this  latter  color.  All  the  feathers  of  the  tail,  except  the 
central  ones,  with  a  broad  white  or  yellowish  or  fulvous  white 
subterrninal  patch,  largest  and  extending  over  the  whole  of 
both  webs  in  the  outermost  feathers,  smallest  and  confined 
to  the  inner  web  on  the  feathers  next  the  centre.  Some 
specimens,  I  believe  younger  ones,  have  the  abdomen  a  great 
deal  mottled  with    a  dull  reddish  orange. 

The  female  only  differs  from  the  male  in  wanting  the  black 
pectoral  band — a  curious  fact,  seeing  that  in  Serilophus  lunatus 
it  is  the  females  that  have  the  pectoral  band,  the  males  want 
it  {vide  S.  F.,  III.,  p.  53.)  We  have  not  yet  obtained  nestlings. 

139  ter  A.— Eurylsemus  ochromelas,  Baffl.  (19). 

Yea  ;  Laynali ;  Pakchan ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Confined  to  the  southern  half  of  the  province. 

[This  species  is  comparatively  rare  in  Tenasserim.  It  occurs 
apparently  only  from  just  north  of  Yea  to  the  Pakchan,  but  is 
nowhere  common.  In  habits  it  resembles  the  other  Broadbills, 
and  like  the  rest  is  chiefly  insectivorous.  I  have  often 
shot  these  birds,  while  catching  insects  on  the  wing,  exactly 
after  the  manner  of  a  Drongo  or  Flycatcher.  Its  note  is  like 
that  oijavanicus,  but  shriller  and  finer  drawn.  They  are  like 
the  rest  easy  to  shoot  when  you  can  see  them,  but  I  have  often 
sat  several  minutes  under  a  tree  on  which  one  was  calling 
without  being  able  to  detect  it. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males.— Length,  6'25  to  7  ;  expanse,  10-12  to  11 ;  tail,  2"25 
to  2-37;  wing,  3'1  to  3-35  ;  tarsus,  0'7  to  0'83  ;  bill  from  gape, 
0-95  to  1-12;  weight,  1*25  to  1-61. 

Females. — Length,  6*25  to  6-75 ;  expanse,  10  to  10*75  ;  tail, 
2-12  to  2-9  ;  wing,  3*12  to  337  ;  tarsus,  0'76  to  0-8  ;  bill  from 
gape,  1*05  to  1*2. 

Legs  and  feet  dark  but  fleshy  pink;  claws  brown  ;  irides  bright 
yellow;  lower  mandible  and   upper   mandible   to   025  beyond 


92  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

nostril,  bright  smalt  blue  ;  rest  of  upper  mandible  bright  green  ; 
edge  of  both  mandibles  along  commissure  black.  Of  course  the 
blue  and  green  shade  into  each  other;  sometimes  the  terminal 
portion  of  the  lower  mandible  is  also  green. 

The  adult  male  has  the  whole  of  the  upper  part  of  the  head 
and  whole  upper  plumage,  (except  the  white  collar)  where  not 
yellow,  (except  also  the  primaries,  which  are  hair  brown)  the 
chin,  cheeks,  lores,  and  upper  half  of  throat  and  a  broad  pec- 
toral band,  black;  a  fine  line  under  the  eyes,  the  basal  portion 
of  the  throat,  the  sides  of  the  neck  including  the  terminal  por- 
tion of  the  ear-coverts,  aud  a  narrow  nuchal  collar,  white  ;  the 
middle  of  the  back,  rump,  and  upper  tail-coverts,  the  outer 
and  longer  scapulars,  and  a  patch  on  the  outer  webs  of  all  the 
secondaries  and  tertiaries,  lower  tail-coverts,  flanks,  and  vent 
feathers,  bright  pale  yellow  ;  breast  pale  vinous  pink  ;  abdomen 
rather  darker  colored,  mingled  with  yellow  towards  the  flanks 
and  vent;  tibial  plumes  black;  wing.lining,  except  some  of  the 
primary  lower  coverts,  pale  yellow.  All  the  feathers  of  the 
tail  with  a  white  or  yellowish  white  sub  terminal  spot  on  the 
inner  web,  extending*  on  the  outer  tail  feathers  over  both 
webs. 

The  female  only  differs  in  the  pectoral  band  being1  wanting 
in  the  middle  of  the  breast. 

The  nestling  has  the  black  replaced  by  sooty  brown ;  the 
yellow  as  in  the  adult,  but  much  paler,  and  with  the  median 
coverts  tipped  with  yellow,  as  are  the  frontal  feathers,  and  a 
narrow  pale  yellow  supercilium  from  the  nostrils  over 
lores  and  anterior  two-thirds  of  eyes ;  the  lores  alone  are  jet 
black ;  there  is  no  pectoral  band  ;  the  chin  and  throat  are 
white,  only  a  blackish  patch  at  each  side  of  the  throat  below 
the  eyes  ;  the  breast  and  sides  are  brownish  grey,  a  little 
streaked  with  greyish  white;  the  feathers  faintly  tipped  yellowish 
whitish,  the  tippings  preceded  by  a  slightly  darker  hair  line  ; 
the  abdomen  and  flanks  are  greyish  white,  white,  and  very  pale 
yellow  streakily  intermingled. 

139  quint.— Oymborhynchus  macrorhynchus,   Gm. 
(39). 

Lemyne ;  Yea  ;  Om-a-gwen  ;  Tavoy  ;  Mergui ;  Tenasserim  Town  ;  Choulai 
Creek;  Bopyin;  Pakchan  ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Confined  to  the  southern  half  of  the  province. 

[The  Common  Rouge-et-noir  Bird  is  not  uncommon  between 
Yea  and  Tavoy,  and  is  excessively  abundant  further  south.  In 
its  habits,  food,  &c,  it  resembles  the  two  foregoing  species,  but 
unlike  them  is  constantly  found  in  gardens,  and  even  in  trees 
growing  in  aud  about  villages.   I  found  it  especially   abundant 


BIRDS    OF  ^TENASSERIM.  93 

in  the  gardens  and  Durian  and  other  fruit  plantations  in  the 
island  of  Mergui,  and  I  have  also  seen  aud  shot  it  on  the  trees 
growing  in  the  town  of  Mergui. 

This,  too,  to  the  best  of  my  belief,  never  touches  fruit ;  insects 
are  their  food,  and  often  great  big  ones  too ;  I  have  seen  one 
devouring  a  huge  locust.  Very  likely  they  also  at  times  eat 
small  lizards,  but  I  have  had  no  proof  of  this.  The  note  is 
similar  to  that  of  the  two  previous  species,  but  yet 
distinguishable  at  the  first  sound  by  a  practised  ear.  South  of 
Tenasserim  I  found  this  common  everywhere  to  the  southern- 
most point  of  the  Peninsula. — W.  D.] 

Count  Salvadori,  Atti  R.,  Ac.  8c,  Tor.  IX,  425,  1874,  separ- 
ates the  Malayan  Rouge-et-noir*  Bird  under  the  name  of  malac- 
censis  from  the  Bornean,  on  the  grounds  that  the  Bornean  adults 
have  the  outer  tail  feathers  devoid  of  white  markings,  while 
the  Malayan  have  more  or  less  of  white  markings  on  the 
inner  webs  of  the  three  outer  pairs  of  rectrices. 

It  appears  that  three  specimens  of  Doria's  collection  from 
Sarawak  have  the  tails  entirely  black  ;  that  two  from  Labuan 
and  one  from  Bangermassingin  the  Marquis  of  Tweeddale's 
collection  are  similar ;  that  two  others  from  Labuan  from  the 
same  collection  have  a  certain  amount  of  white  on  the  exterior 
pair  of  tail  feathers.  (Salvad.  U.  di  B.,  110).  Mr.  Sharpe 
also  informs  us  (Ibis,  1876,  p.  48)  that  of  two  specimens 
collected  by  Mr.  Everett  in  Borneo,  one  has  only  an  obscure 
oblique  spot  of  white  on  the  outer  tail  feathers,  while  the  other 
has  the  two  outer  tail  feathers  spotted  ;  also  that  of  two  other 
Bornean  specimens  in  the  British  Museum  one  has  an  uniform 
tail  with  nothing  but  a  faint  white  shade  near  the  apex  of  the 
inner  web  of  the  outermost  rectrix,  and  the  other  has  a  decided 
spot  on  the  outer  tail  feather  and  a  faint  one  on  the  penul- 
timate one.  He  also  notes  a  Sumatran  specimen  with  the  two 
outer  tail  feathers  marked  ;  Malaccan  specimens  with  two  and 
three  pairs  thus  marked  ;  Tenasserim  with  five  and  four  pairs 
thus  marked  ;  Siam  with  five  pairs  thus  marked  ;  and  Cambodia 
and  Saigon  specimens  with  three  pairs  thus  marked. 

Lord  Tweeddale,  Ibis,  1877,  p.  317,  notices  six  Sumatran 
specimens,  all  with  the  three  outer  pairs  more  or  less  marked 
with  white. 

We,  I  find,  have  shot  and  preserved  89  specimens  from 
various  parts  of  Tenasserim  and  the  Malay  Peninsula,  aud  an 
examination  of  80  of  these  and  purchased  specimens  in  which 
the  tails  are  sufficiently  perfect  (a  large  number  are  imperfect) 
to  enable  me  to  ascertain  certainly  the  number  of  rectrices 
bearing   white  marks,   gives   the  following  results.  Note  that 


*  These  are  not  To&ys,  neither  are  they  true  Broadbills. 


94  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

■wherever  there  is  a  clear  white  spot,  no  matter  how  small, 
I  have  entered  that  feather  as  white  marked ;  when,  instead 
of  a  clear  white  spot,  there  is  merely  an  albescent  patch,  I 
have  entered  it  as  u  a  trace  ": — 

Number  of  pairs  of  white  marked  rectrices  in  tails  of  fol- 
lowing specimens  : — 

Two  days'  march  north  of  Lemyne.  —  Female  5. 

Lemyne. — Male  5  ;  bands  on  first  four  very  broad ;  abdomen 
and  lower  tail-coverts  profusely  mottled  with  bright  orange. 

Om-a-gwen. — Male  3. 

Tavoy. — Male  4 ;  female  5  ;  male  3 ;  male  1 . 

Mergai. — Male  5  ;  male  5-4* ;  male  3,  trace  on  fourth  ; 
male  4;  female  4;  female  3;  male  5;  female  4;  female  5; 
female  2,  trace  on  third ;  female  5  ;  female  4  ;  female  4. 

Tenasserim  Town. — Female  3  ;  male  3-4. 

Coast  80  miles  south  of  Mergui. — Female  5. 

Bopyin. — Female  5. 

Malewoon. — Female  4  ;  female  4. 

Banhasoon. — Male  3  ;  female  3  ;  male  4  ;  female  4 ;  male  5  ; 
female  4-5  ;  female  4 ;  male  5. 

Pakchan. — Female  4. 

Malacca.— t?  2;  ?  2;  female  3;  ?  3;  ?  4;  ?  3;  ?  3; 
?  2  ;  ?  2;  ?  3  ;  ?  2,  trace  on  third  ;  ?  3  ;  ?  4>,  trace  on  fifth ; 
?  4,  and  3  middle  pairs  on  one  side  white  tipped  ;  ?  3,  and 
trace  on  fourth. 

Nealys. — Female  4;  male  2;  male  3;  female  2-3;  male 
3-4 ;  male  4. 

Pulo  Seban. — Female  2  ;  ?  4 ;  male  2  ;  male  2  ;  female  4  ; 
male  4 ;  female  3 ;  female  3  ;  male  3 ;  male  3 ;  male  3 ; 
female  4  ;  female  3  ;  female  4. 

Kurroo. — Female  4;  male  4  ;  female  2-3  ;  male  3. 

Chochong. — Male  1 ;  female  3  ;  male  3  ;  female  2,  trace  on 
third  ;  male  4  ;  male  3. 

Singapore. — Female  2,   trace  on  third. 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  number  of  pairs  of  rectrices, 
more  or  less  marked  with  white,  varies  in  Tenasserim  from 
one  to  five,  and  in  the  southern  portion  of  the  Malay  Peninsula 
from  one  to  four.  Moreover  the  amount  or  breadth  of  the 
white  varies  extremely.  In  some  specimens  the  marks  are  all 
great  broad  bands,  in  others  all  small  spots,  most  generally 
the  markings  are  largest  on  the  outermost,  and  decrease  on 
each  succeeding  rectrix.  Not  only  this,  but  in  several  speci- 
mens more  feathers  are  white  spotted  on  one  side  than  the 
other,  and  this  in  quite  perfect  tails. 


*  i.e.,  five  feathers  white  marked  on  one  side  of  the  tail ;  four  only  on  the  other. 
f  Specimens  not  sexed  were  purchased. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  95 

Taking  all  the  facts  of  the  case,  I  entirely  agree  with  Mr. 
Sharpe  that  no  separation  of  the  Bornean  bird,  simply  on  the 
strength  of  the  absence  of  white  on  the  tail  feathers,  can  be 
accepted.  Two  specimens  from  Borneo  in  the  Marquis  of 
Tweeddale's  collection,  and  considered  by  him  adults,  have 
white  on  the  outermost  pair  of  tail  feathers,  and  a  really 
large  series  from  Borneo  would,  doubtless,  show  many  more  such, 
and  probably  some  few  at  any  rate,  with  spotting  on  the  two, 
or  perhaps  even  the  three,  outermost  pairs. 

AH  we  can  predicate,  as  Mr.  Sharpe  says,  is  that  as  the  bird' 
extends  northwards,  so  the  average  amount  of  white  on  the 
tail  increases. 

As  far  as  we  know  this  species  does  not  extend  quite  as  far 
north  as  Amherst.  Then  comes  a  break  in  which  no  species 
of  this  genus  occurs  ;  and  then  on  the  other  side  of  the  Gulf 
of  Martaban  in  the  Arracan  Hills,  straying  at  times  into  the 
low  country,  is  another  species,  affinis,  in  which  there  appears 
to  be  not  only  invariably  a  white  patch  on  all  five  lateral  pairs, 
but  in  which  the  white  on  the  first  three  extends  on  to  the 
outer  webs  also,  thus  carrying-  out  the  view  that  the  further 
north  we  get  the  more  white  is  developed  on  the  tail. 

The  other  differences  between  affinis  and  the  present  species 
have  been  pointed  out  clearly  by  Mr.  Oates,  8.  F.,  III.,  336. 

I  note  that,  even  admitting  the  distinctness  of  the  Bornean 
race,  I  am  unable  to  agree  with  Count  Salvadori  that  to  it 
should  attach  Gmelin's  name  macrorhgnclms,  founded  on 
Latham's  Great-billed  Tody. 

Latham's  type  is  still  in  the  Vienna  Museum,  but  no  louger 
possesses  its  own  tail. 

It  is  impossible  now  to  determine  independently  to  which 
race  Latham's  original  Great-billed  Tody  pertained,  because 
he  himself  tells  us,  Gen  Hist.,  IV.,  95,  that  the  specimen  he 
so  described  had  an  imperfect  tail  not  rounded,  as  he  had 
found  it  to  be  in  more  perfect  specimens  subsequently  exa- 
mined. In  all  probability,  the  bird  even  when  Latham  saw 
it  had  not  its  own  tail,  or  if  it  had,  the  lateral  tail  feathers, 
which  would  have  borne  the  white  marks  (if  it  had  any),  were 
wanting.  Failing  independent  evidence,  we  necessarily  fall 
back  on  what  Latham  himself  understood  by  his  Great-billed 
Tody.  This  he  shows  us  apparently  loc.  cit.,  when  he  specifies 
the  white  on  the  two  outer  pairs  of  tail  feathers,  though  it  must 
be  confessed  that  his  statement  of  the  white  being  on  the 
outer  webs,  his  white  edge  to  the  wing,  excessively  short  tail, 
and  above  all  whole  lower  half  of  the  back  red,  somewhat 
complicates  the  identification. 

Anyhow  Latham's  macrorhynchus,  as  identified  by  himself, 
is  not  the  Bornean  race ;  and,  if  the  latter  were    separated,   it 


96  BIRDS    OF   TENASSEEIM. 

would  be  this  and  not  the  Malayan  form  in  my  opinion  that 
would  require  a  new  name. 

The  following  are  dimensions  and  colors  of  the  soft  parts 
recorded  in  the  flesh  from  a  number  of  Tenasserim  speci- 
mens : — 

Males.— Length,  9'0  to  975  ;  expanse,  12-82  to  13-25;  tail, 
3-25  to  3-82;  wing,  4  to  4*1;  tarsus,  0-9  to  1;0:  bill  from 
gape,  1*2  to  1*25  ;  weight,  2-25  to  2"5  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  8-5  to  8-82  ;  expanse,  12*4  to  12-82  ;  tail, 
3-5  to  4 ;  wing,  375  to  4  ;  tarsus,  0-85  to  0'95  ;  bill  from  gape, 
1-12  to  1-2;  weight,  1-75  to  2  ozs. 

The  colors  of  soft  parts  and  plumage  of  the  two  sexes  are 
absolutely  similar  ;  they  only  differ  in  size. 

The  legs  and  feet  vary  from  bright  smalt  to  dark  purplish 
blue  ;  the  claws  are  brown  ;  the  irides  vary  from  deep  green 
to  bright  green  shot  with  gold,  and  this  latter  is  the  usual  color; 
eyelids  black ;  inside  of  mouth  bright  blue  ;  upper  mandible 
and  edges  of  lower  mandible  bright  smalt  blue  ;  the  rest  of 
lower  mandible  bright  chrome  yellow,  shading  a  little  to  green 
towards  gape  ;  the  upper  mandible  is  often  tinged  greenish  to- 
wards the  tip ;  the  lower  mandible  is  quite  wrongly  coloured 
in  Mr.  Gould's  B.  of  As.,  Pt.  V.,  PI.  7. 

Except  in  the  particular  points  dwelt  on  by  Mr.  Oates  (S.  F., 
III.,  p.  336)  the  adults  of  this  species,  though  larger,  so  exactly 
resemble  those  of  C.  affinis,  fully  described  loc.  cit.,  that  no  sepa- 
rate description  is  here  required ;  but  I  note  that  in  fine  speci- 
mens the  tips  of  the  longest  ear-coverts  are  delicately  tipped 
with  a  hair  line  of  silver. 

Of  the  young  birds  it  may  be  useful  to  remark  that  the 
youngest  specimens  we  have  obtained  have  the  entire  wings, 
except  the  smallest  row  of  coverts  along  the  ulna,  a  rather 
pale  hair  brown  instead  of  black,  both  median  and  greater 
coverts  with  round  or  triangular  white  spots  just  at  the  tip, 
which  spots  however  in  some  specimens  are  buffy  instead  of 
white.  These  spots  disappear  first  from  the  greater  coverts. 
In  the  quite  young  birds — I  mean  the  youngest  we  have 
obtained — the  rump  is  strongly  mottled  with  black  as  is  the 
broad  red  throat  patch ;  the  feathers  of  the  chin  and  upper 
throat  are  whitey  brown,  fringed  and  tipped  with  sooty  black  ; 
the  white  scapulars  are  very  little  developed. 

The  edge  of  the  wing,  however,  is  bright  yellow,  as  in  the 
adult,  and  the  abdomen  is  very  much  mottled  with  orange  and 
a  little  with  dusky.  This  orange  mottling,  however,  is  not  con- 
fined to  the  young.  One  magnificent  specimen,  a  male  from  Le- 
myne,  has  the  whole  of  the  abdomen,  vent,  and  lower  tail-coverts, 
thickly  mottled  with  bright  orange ;  and,  though  traces  of 
the    same   are   observable  in  many  adults,  this  is  the  only  one 


BIRDS  OF  TENASSERIM.  97 

out  of  about  a  hundred  which  I   have   examined  in  which   it 
occurs  to  this  extent. 

139  septus.— Corydon  sumatranus,  Eaffl.  (20). 

(Karen  Sills,  Earns.)    Pahpoon  ;  Younzaleen  Creek  ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon* 

Generally  diffused  throughout  the  province,  except  in  the 
drier,  more  open,  deciduous-leaved  tree  tracts,  but  nowhere 
common. 

[This  species  is  spread  throughout  Tenasserim,  but  is  no- 
where abundant,  being  found  in  pairs  or  small  parties,  usually 
in.  moderately  thin  forest,  but  it  occurs  also  in  dense  forest. 
During  the  day  it  is  sluggish,  and  a  party  will,  like  S.  lunatus, 
allow  themselves  to  be  shot  one  after  the  other  without  any 
attempt  to  escape. 

They  have  an  oft-repeated  mellow,  rather  musical  note,  quite 
different  from,  and  not  at  all  of  the  same  class  as,  that  of  the 
three  preceding  species,  and  also  a  clear  whistle  which  they  utter 
when  flying  from  tree  to  tree. 

It  does  not  ascend  the  higher  hills,  nor  indeed  do  any  of 
the  three  preceding  species.  Not  only  is  their  note  entirely 
different,  but  they  are  far  more  sluggish  than  the  rest  of  the 
Broadbills,  feeding  almost  exclusively  morning  and  evening-, 
and  sitting  for  hours  motionless  on  a  branch,  sometimes  high 
up  and  sometimes  low  down,  in  a  slouching  attitude,  with  their 
necks  drawn  in  and  their  bills  pointing  upwards.  They  are 
not  at  all  shy,  and  by  no  means  curious  about  what  is  passing 
round  them  ;  but  one  day,  wben  I  was  waiting  by  a  clear  pool 
watching  for  Alcedo  nigricans,  one  came  and  sat  on  a  branch 
about  ten  feet  distant.  He  clearly  thought  me  a  very  strange 
animal,  for,  though  he  did  not  attempt  to  go  away,  he  kept 
craning  out  his  neck  and  peering  down  at  me  in  a  stupid 
inquisitive  fashion.  Thus  we  remained  for  about  two  hours, 
when  A.  nigricans  not  appearing,  I  shot  my  stupid  neighbour.— 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males.— Length,  109  to  11-0;  expanse,  17-25  to  17-75;  tail, 
4  to  4-5  ;  wing,  5'25  to  5"62 ;  tarsus,  1  to  1-12  ;  bill  from  gape, 
1-5  to  1-62;  weight,  4-25  to  5ozs. 

Female.— Length,  10-5  to  11-25;  expanse,  17-75  to  18-25  ;  tail, 
4-12  to  4-4 ;  wing,  5-4  to  5'62  ;  tarsus,  1-12  to  1-15  ;  bill  from 
gape,  1-5  to  1-7 ;  weight,  4-5  to  5  ozs. 

Legs,  feet,  and  claws  black  ;  irides  deep  brown  ;  upper  man- 
dible in  some  dark  reddish  brown,  in  others  dark  fleshy  pink  to 
pale  horny  brown,  whitish  at  tip,  and  shading  to  fleshy  pink  at 
base  ;  orbital  skin,  gape,  and  a  streak  about  middle  of  lower 
mandible  dark  fleshy  pink  ;  rest  of  lower   mandible  pale  fleshy, 

13 


98  BIRDS    OF  TENASSERIM* 

whitish  at  tip.  Sometimes  the  whole  of  both  mandibles  are 
pale  fleshy  pink,  bluish  towards  the  tip.  In  one  specimen  part 
of  the  skiu  of  the  upper  mandible  had  peeled  off  from  some 
natural  cause,  showing  below  a  dull  horny  blue. 

The  sexes  do  not  differ,  that  I  can  discover,  in  plumage. 
The  entire  chin,  throat,  and  upper  breast  is  a  dull  fulvous 
or  rusty  white,  some  of  the  feathers  often  more  or  less 
margined  with  ferruginous,  or  occasionally  in  the  case  of 
some  few  feathers  with  dull  crimson.  A  patch  in  the 
middle  of  the  back  (not  seen  when  the  bird  is  at  rest) 
of  varying  size,  and  varying  in  color  from  a  pale  rosy 
orange  to  orange  crimson ;  a  broad  white  band  at  the  base 
of  the  first  eight  quills  on  both  webs ;  a  white  mark,  some- 
times a  band  across  both  webs,  sometimes  a  spot  on  both  webs, 
sometimes  on  one  web  only,  on  from  the  five  to  the  one  exte- 
rior pair  of  tail  feathers.  Most  commonly,  I  think,  the  three 
outer  pairs  have  it;  but  it  varies,  as  above,  from  a  broad  band 
on  all  five  to  a  small  spot  on  the  outer  web  of  the  external 
feathers  only,  and  this  is  instructive  as  indicating  the  weight 
that  should  be  given  to  similar  differences  in  the  white  mark- 
ings of  the  tail  of  Cymborhynchus  macrorhynchus.  The  whole  of 
the  rest  of  the  plumage  of  the  bird  is  dull  black,  but  with,  in  fine 
adults,  a  decided  greenish  tinge  on  rump  and  upper  tail-coverts. 

The  youngest  bird  that  we  have  obtained,  shot  on  the  1st 
of  May,  soon  after  leaving  the  nest,  was  everywhere  a  dull 
sooty  black,  wanted  the  red  patch  on  the  back,  and  had  only 
a  yellowish  patch  in  the  middle  of  the  throat.  The  white 
on  the  primaries  was  as  in  the   adult. 

140.— Diclioceroscavatus,*S7to.  (21).  S.  F.,  IV.,  384. 

{Tonghoo,  very  common,  Rams.)  Kollidoo  ;  Pahpoon  ;  Yea ;  Pakchan ;  Banka- 
soon  ;  Malewoon. 

Occurs  throughout  Tenasserim,  except  in  the  more  elevated 
portions  of  the  higher  hills,  but  is  especially  abundant  in  the 
evergreen  forests  of  the  south. 

*  Mr.  Elliot  maintains,  Ibis,  1877,  p.  416,  that  the  Linnsean  name  bicomis  ought  to 
be  retained  for  this  species.    I  consider  that  it  ought  to  be  rejected  altogether. 

The  case  stands  thus  : — 

Linnaeus  himself  described  the  plumage  of  affinis  or  albirostris,  and  a  bead  and 
casque,  most  probably  of  cavatus.     He  gave  references. 

Pet.  Gas.  43,  t.  28,  /,  6  and  t.  31,  /.  1. 

To  this  work  I  have  not  access. 

Will.  Orn.  t. 17,  /.  1. 

This  Mr.  Elliot  says  is  the  head  of  cavatus. 

Edw.  Av.  2,  p.  151,  *.  281,  /.  D. 

This  is  unmistakeably  the  head  of  convexus. 

Briss.  Av.,  p.  668. 

Here  the  head  of  cavatus  and  a  plumage  nearest  approaching  to  that  of  convexus 
are  described. 

Now  I  submit  that  no  name  based  on  such  heterogenous  foundations  can  stand  for 
aDy  species,  ami  I  reject  it  altogether, 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSEMM.  99 

[This  species  is  usually  found  singly  or  in  pairs,  occasional- 
ly in  parties,  but  this  is  not  very  often,  except  in  the 
mornings  and  evenings,  when  they,  in  common  with  other 
species  of  birds,  frequent  certain  fruit-bearing  trees  to  feed. 
As  far  as  I  can  judge  this  species  eats  nothing  but  fruit ;  nothing 
but  fruit  was  ever  found  in  the  stomachs  of  any  of  my  numer- 
ous specimens. 

Their  note  is  a  hoarse  sort  of  bark,  which  can  be  heard  at 
a  great  distance  ;  their  flight  consists  of  alternate  flappings 
and   sailings,  the  wings  producing  a  loud  noise. 

As  already  noticed  (S.  F.,  III.,  p.  414,)  the  irides  of  the  two 
sexes  differ  in  color,  that  of  the  female  being  opalescent 
white,  and  that  of  the  male,  deep  red. — W.  D.] 

The  skins  of  all  Hornbills,  but  especially  of  these  large 
ones,  are  everywhere  separated  from  the  muscles  of  the  body 
by  a  deep  stratum  of  air  cells,  so  much  so  that  the  body  of  the 
bird  comes  out  of  the  skin  almost  as  easily  as  the  fruit  portion 
does  out  of  the  riud  in  a  loose-skinned  orange. 

At  Malewoon  Davison  shot  a  specimen  of  this  present 
species  from  the  top  of  a  ravine,  at  the  bottom  of  which  ran 
a  shallow  stream  ;  the  bird  falling  from  a  height  of  about  80 
yards  flat  on  its  breast  on  to  the  surface  of  the  water,  the  entire 
skin  was  split  from  the  base  of  the  throat  to  near  the  vent — 
a  thing  which  could  only  have  happened  in  a  loose-skinned 
bird  like  this. 

Davison  measured  a  number  of  specimens  in  the  flesh,  chiefly 
from  the  southern  extremity  of  the  province,  and  it  is 
notable  that  these  southern  birds  do  seem  to  run  smaller  than 
Himalayan  examples,  and  even  than  those  from  the  extreme 
south  of  India.     (See  further  S.  F.,  IV.,  pp.  385-6.) 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh : — 
Males.—  Length,  45  to  4-7-0;  expanse,  63  to   66'Ojtail   from 
vent,  15-5  to  1675  j    wing,  18-25   to  19-0;   tarsus,  273  to  3-0; 
bill  from  gape,  975  to  106  ;  weight,  6*25  to  7-Olbs. 

Females. — Length,  41-75  to  44;  expanse,  54  to  59-28;  tail 
from  vent,  14-5  to  17-75  ;  wing,  17-25  to  18-25  ;  tarsus,  245  to 
2-75  ;  bill  from  gape,  8'25  to  9'0 ;  weight,  4*5  to  575  lbs. 

The  legs  and  feet  are  dull  greenish  plumbeous,  or  pale  dingy 
glaucous  green ;  claws  dark  greenish  horny. 

In  the  male  the  irides  are  blood  red ;  in  the  female  pearly  or 
opalescent  white ;  the  orbital  region  dark  fleshy  pink ;  the 
eye-lids  black. 

The  general  color  of  the  bill  and  casque  is  yellow,  always 
paler  on  the  lower  mandible,  but  varying  very  much  in  depth 
of  color. 

The  upper  mandible  is  always  more  or  less  tinted  with  red 
at  the  tip  and  with  orange  in   the  medial  portion.     The  sides 


100  BIRDS   OF   TENASSEMM. 

of  the  casque  Lave  generally  an  orange  tinge,  and  the  fiat  or 
rather  curved  upper  portion  of  the  casque  is  generally  tinged 
with  orange,  intermingled  with  red. 

In  some  specimens  the  coloration  is  very  bright  ;  in  others 
the  whole  bill  and  casque  is  duller  and  paler.  As  to  the  bright- 
ness or  the  reverse  of  the  yellow  of  the  bill  this  probably 
depends  upon  whether  the  latter  has  or  has  not  recently  had  a 
fresh  coat  of  paint.  This  the  bird  undoubtedly  lays  on  from 
the  uropygial  glands ;  you  may  see  them  sitting  rubbing  all 
parts  of  the  bill  against  the  glands,  and  then  a  little  later  rub- 
bing the  bill  against  the  bases  of  all  the  quills,  whence  the 
yellow  tinge,  so  generally  noticeable  there  and  in  other  parts 
of  the  body,  and  all  transferred  there  by  the  bill  from 
the  gland. 

In  the  male  the  posterior  portion  of  the  casque,  a  triangular 
patch  on  each  side  of  the  casque  in  front,  and  the  truncated 
portion  of  the  culmen  from  three  to  five  inches  downwards 
from  the  anterior  margin  of  the  casque,  are  black. 

In  the  female  the  posterior  portion  of  the  casque  is  red  , 
there  is  no  patch  on  the  side  of  the  casque,  and  the  truncated 
portion  of  the  culmen  in  front  of  the  casque  or  more  is 
less  red. 

142.— Hydrocissa  albirostris,*  Shaw.  (24). 

(Tonghoo,  Karen  Bills,  Earns.)  f  ahpoon  ;  Salween  E. ;  Thatone  ;  Assoon  ; 
Meetau  ;  Karope  ;  Amherst ;  Yea  ;  Zadee  ;  Meeta  Myo  ;  Tavoy  ;  Mergui  ; 
Tenasserim  Town  ;  Pakeliau  ;  Bankasoon. 

Common  throughout  the  less  densely  wooded  portions  of  the 
province. 

*  The  name  malaharicus,  Gmel.,  often  applied  to  this  species,  cannot  possibly 
stand  for  it. 

Gmelin's  own  description,  though  extremely  brief,  sufficiently  indicates  either  affinis  or 
albirostris,  but  his  dimensions  (length  2£  to  3  feet  French,  or  33  to  39|  inches  English) 
at  once  show  that  he  had  affinis  in  view.  The  references  he  gives  certainly  do  not 
much  help  to  fix  the  species.  He  refers  to  Edward's  Gleanings,  t.  281,  fig.  D., 
which  is  a  head  of  convexus  ;  to  BufFon's  Calao  de  Malabar,  P.  E.  873,  which  is  corona- 
tus ;  and  to  Latham's  Pied  Hornbill,  Syn.  I,  1,  349,  w.  6,  t.  11,  which,  with  a  length 
of  35  inches  including  bill,  is  clearly  affinis. 

If,  therefore,  Gmelin's  name  is  used  at  all,  it  must  be  applied  to  affinis  ;  but  con- 
sidering not  merely  that  the  bird  never  occurs  in  Malabar,  but  that  the  name  is  taken 
directly  from  BufFon's  name,  which  applied  to  a  totally  different  species,  it  may  be 
doubtful  whether  Gmelin's  name  should  not  be  wholly  rejected. 

As  to  the  name  that  the  smaller  race  should  bear,  it  may  be  that  albicomis,  Wilkes, 
Encyi  Lond.,  Ill,  479,  1808  (a  work  to  which  I  have  not  access,  and  the  authorship 
of  the  ornithological  part  of  which  is  said  to  be  unknown)  may  apply,  and  if  so  it 
will  have  precedence,  otherwise  Shaw's  albirostris,  founded  on  Le  Vaill,  "  Calao  a 
bee  blanc"  must  stand.  Although  Le  Vaillant  says  the  bird  was  killed  at  Chandanagore, 
he  clearly  refers  to  the  smaller  form.  His  figure  is  particularly  good  (for  him)  and 
his  dimensions,  length  from  the  top  of  the  head  to  end  of  tail  20  French  (21-9  English) 
inches,  and  bill  4'65,  English,  suit  admirably,  a  rather  small  specimen  of  the  Indo- 
Burmese  Pied  Hornbill,  with  a  casque  at  the  stage  represented  in  the  figure.  As 
Shaw's  name  is  based  simply  on  a  translation  of  Le  Vaillant's  description,  we  may 
unhesitatingly  accept  it, 


BIRDS   OF  TBNASSEBIM.  101 

[This  species  ranges  throughout  Tenasserun.  It  is  very  abun- 
dant, indeed,  in  those  portions  of  the  country  that  are  covered 
with  moderately  thin  jungle  or  deciduous  trees,  or  secondary 
scrub.  It  is  very  partial  to  detached  groves  and  small  clumps 
of  trees  growing  in  cultivated  tracts,  and  is  not  uncommonly 
met  with  in  gardens  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  houses,  and 
is  almost  always  to  be  met  with  on  the  banks  of  rivers  where 
these  are  not  too  heavily  wooded. 

In  the  teak  forests  about  Pahpoon,  where  the  trees  are  scat- 
tered and  there  is  comparatively  little  undergrowth,  all  along 
the  banks  of  the  Salween,  where  these  are  moderately  wooded, 
all  about  Moulmein,  in  the  sparsely  wooded  portions  of  the 
country  lying  between  the  Sittang  and  Salween,  in  the  thin  dry 
deciduous  jungle  between  Moulmein  and  Tavoy,  and  all  about 
Tavoy  and  southwards  in  suitable  localities,  it  is  excessively 
numerous ;  but  in  the  heavy  evergreen  virgin  forests  of  the 
south  of  the  province  it  is  hardly  ever  met  with.  In  the  island 
of  Mergui,  on  which  nearly  all  the  original  forest  has  been  felled 
and  replaced  by  gardens  and  secondary  scrub,  it  is  also  common, 
and  it  is  not  unfrequently  met  with  along  the  banks  of  the 
Pakckan  where  the  country  is  open  or  cultivated. 

It  is  an  excessively  noisy  bird,  going  about  in  parties  of 
from  5  to  15  or  more,  uttering  in  chorus  at  short  intervals,  a 
series  of  discordant  cackling  notes. 

It  feeds  on  different  kinds  of  fruit,  especially  wild  figs.* 

Its  flight,  for  a  Hornbill  comparatively  noiseless,  is  per- 
formed with  alternate  flapping  and  sailing. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions  of  numerous  specimens  recorded 
in  the  flesh : — 

Males—  Length,  27*5  to  29*5;  expanse,  35*75  to  37 ;  tail,  10*5 
to  1T5  ;  wing,  10*5  to  11*12 ;  tarsus,  2  to  2- 12 ;  bill  from  gape, 
straight  to  point,  4'9  to  5*4  •  weight"  1*5  to  l*751bs. 
•  Females.— Length,  26*25  to  27  ;  expanse,  33  to  35*25  ;  tail, 
95  to  10-5  ;  wing,  95  to  10'5  ;  tarsus,  2  to  2-12;  bill  from  gape, 
4  to  4-7  ;  weight,  1*25  to  l-51bs. 

The  measurements  of  bill  and  casque  of  our  finest  speci- 
mens of  each  sex  are  as  follows  : — 

Male. — Length  of  casque  at  top  along  curve,  5*75  ;  height  of 
casque,  1 '3;  bill  from  gape  straight  to  point,  5*4;  greatest 
depth  of  the  two  mandibles  exclusive   of  casque,  1*5. 

Female. — Length  of  casque  at  top  along  curve,  3*8  ;  height 
of  casque,  0-9 ;  bill  from  gape  straight  to  point,  4*7 ;  greatest 
depth  of  the  two  mandibles  exclusive  of  casque,  1*4. 

In  both  sexes  the  legs  and  feet  vary  from  plumbeous  to 
dirty  greenish  horny ;  the  bills,  except  in  the  blackish  or  black- 

*  "  Extremely  partial  to  dead  snakes,"  Wardlaw  Ramsay.  As  to  its  fish-eating 
propensities,  see  S,  F,,  V.,  p.  20. 


102  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

ish  brown  portions,  are  pale  yellowish  white;  the  irides  in 
the  adult  are  deep  red,  darkest  towards  the  pupil,  but  one 
female  was  recorded  as  having  the  irides  wood  brown,  and 
one  young  male  had  it  pale  hazel  brown,  while  another 
possibly  older  had  it  lake. 

The  orbital  skin  and  wide  patch  at  base  of  lower  mandible 
is  skim  milk  blue ;  in  a  younger  bird  pale  pinkish,  with  a  bluish 
tinge ;  the  eyelids  black. 

Dr.  Jerdon,  in  speaking  of  this  species  which  he  calls  the 
Bengal  Pied  Hornbill,  and  the  nearly  allied  affinis,  Hutton, 
which  he  calls  the  Dehra  Dhoon  Hornbill,  remarks  of  the 
former  :  ci  This  Hornbill  takes  the  place  of  coronata  in  Nor- 
thern India.  It  is  found  in  the  Midnapoor  jungles,  in  Raj- 
mahal  and  Monghyr  and  at  the  base  of  the  Himalayas,  and  it 
spreads  eastward  to  Assam,  Sylhet,  and  Burmah." 

Of  the  .latter  he  says  :  "  Has  hitherto  been  found  only  in 
the  Dehra  Doon." 

This,  however,  is  not  strictly  correct.  Our  specimens  show 
that  it  is  affinis  which  is  found  alike  in  the  Dhoon,  the  Rohil- 
kund  Terai,  the  submontane  districts  of  Oudh,  the  Darjeeling 
Terai,  Dacca,  Midnapoor  and  the  Khasia  Hills.  From  Cachar*, 
however,  we  have  the  present  species,  which  should  stand  as 
the  Indo-Burmese  Pied  Hornbill,  affinis  standing  as  the 
Indian  Pied  Hornbill. 

Both  species  are  precisely  similar  in  every  respect,  but  they 
differ  so  conspicuously  in  size  that,  in  the  absence  of  specimens 
of  intermediate  size,  I  think  they  may  be  fairly  maintained  as 
distinct. f 


*  Jerdon,  Ibis,  1872,  p.  5,  wrongly  says :  "  This  is  the  CacJiar  bird  noted  by 
Major  Godwin-Austen  in  his  list  of  birds  (J.  A.  S.  B.,  1870,  p.  95)  as  coronata." 
Elliot,  without  verifying  the  reference,  reproduces  this  error  in  his  synonymy 
(Monogr.  Hornbills).  The  fact  is  the  reference  should  be  J.  A.  S.  B.,  1870,  266,  and 
the  specimens  were  obtained  not  in  Cachar,  (which  is  low  lands)  but  in  the  West 
Khasia  Hills. 

f  My  friend  Mr.  Elliot  bas  been  misinformed,  when  in  his  monograph  of  the 
JBuceroiida  (only  received  when  this  was  going  to  press)  he  states  tliat  as  small  birds 
are  found  amongst  Dehra  Dhoon,  examples  as  are  met  with  from  other  localities.  I 
have  given  above  the  dimensions  in  the  flesh  of  over  30  specimens  of  affinis  and  over 
20  of  malabzrica,  and  my  readers  can  judge  whether  differences  like  these  in  dimen- 
sions, where  no  intermediate  forms  occur  (and  I  have  met  as  yet  with  none  such), 
warrant  specific  separation.  This  is  a  mere  matter  of  opinion ;  but  the  non-occurrence 
of  the  smaller  form  in  the  Dhoon  is,  I  think,  a  matter  of  fact.  I  must  have  examined 
fully  100  adults  from  the  Dhoon.  I  have  shot  numbers  there  myself.  Dr.  King  alone 
sent  me  40  specimens;  Captain  Hutton  at  least  20;  Colonel  Thelwall  had  a  con- 
siderable series.  In  none  of  these  very  numerous  adults  did  the  dimensions  fall  short 
of  those  given  above.  Of  course  there  were  plenty  of  small  young  birds,  but  these 
were  to  be  recognised  at  once  by  the  shape  and  size  of  casque. 

On  the  other  hand  I  have  more  than  50  of  the  smaller  form  from  Tenasserim,  other 
parts  of  Uurmah,  &c,  and  in  none  of  these  do  the  dimensions  exceed  the  maxima 
given  above  for  the  smaller  race. 

If  adult  birds  of  the  same  sex  be  compared,  the  difference  in  size  is  very  great  and 
constant.  The  heaviest  male  of  the  smaller  form  that  we  met  with  weighed  1  75  lbs. 
The  only  two  Dehra  Dhoon  specimens  (mules),  whose  weight  I  have  recorded,  weighed 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSER1M.  103 

This  will  be  seen  from  the  following  dimensions,  taken  from 
some  thirty  odd  specimens  of  afjlnis  from  the  various  localities 
above  enumerated. 

Males. — Length,  33  to  38  ;  expanse,  38  to  45'5  ;  tail  13  to 
14-5;  wing,  11-8  to  13. 

Females. — Length,  29'5  to  33  ;  expanse,  38*5  to  39#5 ;  tail,  11*5 
to  13*8;  wing,  11  to  12. 

The  measurements  of  bill  and  casque  of  fine  specimens  are 
as  follows  : — ■ 

Male. — Length  of  casque  at  top  along  curve,  7  ;  height  of 
casque,  1*75  ;  bill  from  gape  straight  to  point,  6*25  ;  greatest 
depth  of  the  two  mandibles,  exclusive  of  casque,  1*75. 

Female. — Length  of  casque  at  top  along  curve,  4*75  ; 
height  of  casque,  1*5  ;  bill  from  gape  straight  to  point,  5  ;  great- 
est depth  of  the  two  mandibles,  exclusive  of  casque,  1*5. 

In  both  species  it  will  be  observed  that  the  males  are 
larger  and.  have  much  larger  bills  and  casques  than  the 
females,  but  there  is  another  difference  between  the  two  sexes 
which  is  overlooked  by  Dr.  Jerdon,  and  which  I  have  never  yet 
seen  pointed  out,  although  this  doubtless  may  have  been  done. 

In  both  sexes  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible  is  black ;  in 
the  female  this  is  followed  by  a  deep  red  brown  patch  which  is 
wanting  in  the  male.  In  the  male  there  is  a  narrow  black 
band  along  the  commissure  not  extending  to  the  tip  ;  in  the 
female  this  is  broader,  extends  quite  to  the  tip,  and  thence 
spreads  upwards  along  the  culmen  (leaving  only  a  narrow  line 
of  yellow  on  the  forward  half  of  the  upper  mandible  uncolored,) 
and  over  the  whole  anterior  half  of  the  casque,  and  very 
often  a  considerable  portion  of  the  tip  of  the  lower  mandible 
also  is  black.  In  the  male,  the  whole  of  the  culmen  beyond 
the  casque  is  white  ;  a  black  patch  begins  at  the  anterior 
point  of  the  casque  and  slopes  down  obliquely  backwards,  ex- 
tending for  a  short  distance  on  to  the  upper  mandible. 

144  bis.— Ocyceros  tickelli,  Blyth.  (2). 

Thoungyen  R. ;  Tkoungsheyen  Sakan. 

Confined  apparently  to  the  dense  forests  about  the  base  of 
Mooleyit  and  the  adjacent  ranges. 

2*62  and  2*87  lbs — both  no  doubt  very  fine  birds. 
The  following  is  according  to  my  views,  the  synonymy  of  the  two  species  :— 
142. — Hydbocissa  albibostbis,  Shaw. 
Gen.  Zoo!.,  VIII.,  13,  1811 ;  ex  Le  Taill,  H.  K  d'Ois. 
Nouv.  and  Bares,  39,  t.  14,  1811. 
?  albicornis,  Wilkes,  Enc.  Lond.  Ill,  479, 1808. 
leuccgaster,  Blyth,  J.  A.  S.  B.,  X,  922,  1841 ;  XII,  177,  1843. 
143. — Hydbocissa  affinis,  Sutton. 
3.  A.  S  B.,  XVIII,  802,  1849. 
?  malabaricus,  Gm.,  S.  N.  I.,  359,  1788. 
nigralbus,  Bodgs.  Gr.  Zool.  Miscl.,  1844,  85,  sine  desCE. 
coronatus,  God-Ami,,  J.  A.  S.  B-,  XXXIX,  266,  1870,  uec,  Bodd. 


104 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 


[This  species  is  exceedingly  shy  and  difficult  to  approach, 
as  much  so  in  fact  as  Rhinoplax  vigil  or  A.  galeritus.  It  goes 
about  in  small  parties  of  from  5  to  15  or  even  more,  keeping 
to  the  tops  of  the  higher  forest  trees,  which  are  in  the  locali- 
ties, these  birds  affect,  from  50  to  even  70  yards  high.  Like 
H.  vnalabarica,  they  keep  continually  uttering  their  cackling 
note  alike  when  flying  or  sitting.  Like  malabarica,  they 
always  fly  in  strings.  One  starts  off  suddenly,  followed  by 
another  and  another,  each  as  it  were  taking  its  regular  turn 
till  all  have  left  ;  and  in  the  air  they  retain  the  positions  in 
which  they  started,  just  as  a  string  of  Urocissas  do.  They 
are  very  restless,  not  remaining  for  more  than  a  few  minutes 
on  the  same  tree,  but,  as  a  rule,  only  taking  short  flights.  Their 
note  is  like  that  of  malabarica  but  not  so  harsh.  Their  flight 
is  that  of  Bydrocissa,  a  few  rapid  flaps,  a  sail,  again  a  few  flaps. 
The  flight  is  a  comparatively  noiseless  one,  though  not  really 
noiseless  like  that  of  Berenicornis  comatus.  They  never,  I 
believe,  descend  to  the  ground.  The  stomach  of  the  only 
specimen  I  succeeded  in  shooting  (I  saw  at  least  fifty)  contain- 
ed nothing  but  fruit. — W.  D.] 

Davison  has  only  succeeded  as  yet  in  obtaining  one  specimen, 
a  female,  of  this  species,  which  is  as  unlike  as  it  can  possibly 
be  the  figure  of  this  species  in  the  Ihis~.  Probably  the  sexes 
differ  very  much  in  plumage ;  anyhow,  a  young  male  procured 
for  me  by  Capt.  Bingham  is  very  different. 

Davison's  specimen,  a  perfectly  adult  female,  in  perfectly 
fresh  plumage,  measured  : — 

Length,  27*75  ;  expanse,  38*75  j  tail,  11*5;  wing,  12-25; 
tarsus,  1*9  ;  bill  from  gape,  4*3  ;  weight,  l'621bs. 

The  legs  and  feet  were  dark  reddish  brown  ;  the  bill  black  ; 
base  of  lower  mandible  blue  ;  irides  wax  yellow  ;  facial  skin 
blue ;  gular  skin  bluish  pink. 

The  forehead,  crown,  occiput,  and  very  full  occipital  crest 
rather  dark  brownish  grey  with  a  faint  greenish  lustre,  most 
noticeable  on  the  crown ;  the  feathers  obscurely  tipped  with  a 
very  pale  slightly  rufescent  brown,  and  with  both  webs  greyish 
white  at  the  extreme  bases  of  the  barbs,  producing,  as  the 
feathers  are  rather  lax  and  the  barbs  far  apart,  the  appearance 
of  a  row  of  greyish  white  specks  on  either  side  of  the  shaft. 

Interscapulary  region,  lesser  and  most  of  the  median 
coverts,  back  and  rump,  grey  brown,  with  an  olive  green  lustre  ; 
the  feathers  firm  and  compact,  but  their  extreme  edges  every- 
where frayed  or  serrated  as  in  some  of  the  Owls,  thus  pro- 
ducing a  regularly   scaled  appearance  on  these  parts. 

Primaries  black  or  blackish  brown  ;  all  but  the  first  and  the 
two  hindermost  with  a  creamy  white  line  or  patch  on  the  outer 
webs  just  below  the  emarginatkms  ;  the  secondaries  dark  green, 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM*  105 

edged  paler,  and  as  they  recede  from  the  primaries,  with  more 
and  more  of  their  outer  webs  overlaid  with  pale  grey  or  brownish 
grey  ;  the  tertiaries,  almost  wholly  of  this  color,  only  showing 
the  green  towards  their  bases  at  the  centres  of  the  feathers  ; 
they  are,  however,  obscurely  tipped  browner.  The  primary- 
greater  coverts  dark  brown  with  a  faint  greenish  tinge, 
obscurely  edged  paler  or  greyer ;  their  lesser  coverts  and 
the  greater  coverts  of  the  secondaries  and  tertiaries  grey  or 
brownish  grey,  according  to  the  light  in  which  you  hold  the 
wing,  and  more  or  less  margined  at  the  tips  with  brown,  which 
has  a  dull  greenish  reflection. 

The  upper  tail-coverts  draby  brown,  with  a  trace  of  the 
greenish  gloss  that  pervades  the  back,  which  even  there  is  dull 
and  only  noticeable  in  certain  lights. 

The  central  tail  feathers  much  the  same  color  as  the  tertiaries, 
also  with  a  faint  greenish  gloss  in  certain  lights,  and  a  little 
freckled  at  the  tips  with  white. 

The  next  three  feathers  on  either  side  dark  green,  tipped  for 
about  three-quarters  of  an  inch  to  an  inch  with  white,  a  little 
freckled  with  brown ;  outer  tail  feathers  nearly  the  same  color 
as  the  central  ones,  tipped  like  the  preceding. 

The  tail  is  rounded  ;  the  four  central  feathers  are  nearly  of 
the  same  length  ;  the  next  0  2,  the  next  07,  and  the  outermost 
1*7  shorter. 

There  is  a  white  or  fulvous  white  patch  on  the  edge  of 
the  wing  at  the  base  of  the  primary  coverts ;  the  chin, 
throat,  cheeks,  ear-coverts,  breast,  and  sides  of  the  neck,  dull 
pale  brownish  ferruginous,  with  a  darkish  patch  under  the  orbit, 
and  another  at  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible,  and  a  trace 
of  the  same  from  the  chin  inside  the  rami  of  the  lower  mandi- 
ble, and  all  the  feathers  more  or  less  conspicuously  grey  centred, 
in  the  same  manner  as  the  feathers  of  the  head  ;  all  the  feathers 
of  the  breast,  abdomen,  vent,  lower  tail-coverts,  tibial  plumes, 
are  grey,  darker  on  the  two  latter  ;  each  feather  fringed  at  the 
margins,which  are  lax  and  disunited,  with  very  pale  rusty  fulvous, 
and  on  the  lower  abdomen,  and  about  the  vent,  these  fringes  are 
so  broad  that  the  grey  of  the  bases  is  not  seen;  wing-lining  grey. 

The  length  of  the  bill  measured  along  the  sharp  ridge  of 
the  casque,  from  the  back  of  the  casque  to  the  tip,  is  4-9.  The 
greatest  height  of  the  upper  mandible  and  casque,  from  the 
commissure  to  the  highest  point  of  the  casque,  is  1-8. 

There  is  a  slight  ferruginous  tinge  about  the  bases  of  the 
feathers  that  spring  from  the  posterior  margin  of  the  nostril. 

A  youno-  male  of  this  species  was  shot  by  Captain  Bingham 
on  the  12th  of  October  last,  on  the  banks  of  the  Thoungyen. 

The  specimen  is  manifestly  immature,  and  is  totally  unlike 
the  female   obtained   by    Davison.     It  more   resembles,  as  far 

14 


106  BIRDS    OP    TENASSERIM. 

as  I  can  remember,  the  figure  in  the  Ibis  which  I  have  not 
by  me  now  for  reference. 

The  following'  are  the  dimensions,  &c.,  recorded  in  the  flesh 
by  Captain  Bingham  : — 

Length,  294;  expanse,  40*0;  tail  from  vent,  12'0  ;  wing, 
12'6  ;  tarsus,  193  ;  bill  from  gape,  4'9. 

Bill  whitish,  tinged  greenish  yellow ;  bare  skin  of  chin 
and  behind  and  above  the  eyes,  purplish  pink ;  remainder  of 
bare  facial  skin,  fleshy  white  ;  irides  with  an  inner  circle  of 
brown  and  an  outer  circle  of  grey  ;  legs  and  feet  greenish 
plumbeous ;  claws  horny. 

Upper  plumage,  except  that  of  head  and  neck,  as  in  the 
adult  female ;  entire  lower  surface,  except  wings,  wing-lining 
and  tail,  a  warm  ruddy  buff,  palest  on  the  throat  ;  all  the 
feathers  of  the  throat  and  many  of  those  of  the  breast  and 
abdomen  centered  whitish  ;  under  surface  of  tail  and  wings 
and  wing-lining,  as  in  the  female  ;  forehead,  crown  and  occi- 
pital crest,  rather  dark  ferruginous  brown  ;  the  feathers,  espe- 
cially those  of  the  crest,  strongly  tinged  grey,  as  are  also  the 
feathers  of  the  tibiae. 

The  primary  greater  coverts,  the  outer  margins  of  the 
primaries,  and  some  of  the  secondaries  margined  whitish  buff ; 
tail  feathers,  winglet  and  primaries  tipped  white. 

145  ter.— Berenicornis  comatus,  Raffl.  (8). 

Bankasoon. 

Confined  to  the  forests  of  the  extreme  south  of  the  province. 

[This  species  was  only  obtained  in  the  forests  of  Bankasoon, 
and,  as  far  as  we  yet  know,  does  not  extend  further  northwards  ; 
it  also  occurs  in  the  forests  about  Malacca. 

It  keeps  in  small  parties  about  the  lower  trees  and  under- 
growth, but  is  very  shy. 

When  disturbed  one  or  more  utter  a  soft  "  hoo,"  when  the 
whole  party  fly  off  at  once,  seldom  reseating  themselves 
until  they  have  flown  to  some  considerable  distance ;  they 
almost  always  perch  low,  avoiding  the  high  and  more  ex- 
posed branches.  When  feeding  or  moving  about  the  forest 
they  give  utterance  to  a  peculiar  cry  which  might  be  syllabized 
hoo-hoo-hoo-hoo,  repeated  twelve  or  fourteen  times  in  rapid 
succession,  one  commencing  and  several  more  of  the  party 
taking  up  the  cry. 

They  do  not  live  entirely  on  fruit,  but  eat  freely  lizards 
and  small  birds.  In  the  stomachs  of  the  specimens  I  examined 
(seven  in  number)  I  found  in  five  the  remains  of  lizards  as  well 
as  a  quantity  of  fruit,  and  in  two,  fruit,  a  quantity  of  feathers, 
and  small  bones  of  birds  and  half-digested  lizards. 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 


107 


They  probably  obtain  these  lizards  on  the  ground,  to  which, 
they  constantly  resort.  Hydrocissa  nigrirostris  of  Malacca  is 
another  species  that  often  descends  to  the  ground. 

The  present  species  (B.  comatus)  has  a  remarkably  soft  flight 
for  a  Hornbill ;  it  progresses  by  an  almost  noiseless  but  rapid 
flapping  of  the  wings  without  the  intermediate  sailing  periods 
characteristic  of  the  flight  of  Hydrocissa,  Dichoceros,  &c. 

It  keeps  entirely  to  the  denser  portion  of  the  forests  it  in- 
habits, never  coming  into  the  open  or  thinly-wooded  places. — 
W.  D.J 

In  this  species  the  bill  and  casque  are  devoid  of  rugations 
or  plications.  The  casque  is  of  moderate  size,  merely  a  more 
or  less  elevated  and  compressed  ridge  extending  along  about 
three-fifths  of  the  culmen.  There  is  a  bare  orbital  space,  and 
the  base  of  the  lower  mandible  is  also  bare.  The  chin  and 
throat  are  sparsely  feathered.  There  is  no  conspicuous  angula- 
tion at  the  gonys. 

The  tail  is  much  rounded,  the  central  pair,  however,  being 
considerably  more  than  proportionally  developed.  The  central 
pair  exceed  the  next  by  fuHy  three  inches  ;  these  latter  only 
exceed  the  exterior  pair  by  the  same  distance. 

The  leading  characteristic  of  this  species  is  the  huge  and 
peculiar  crest.  Immediately  behind  the  nostrils  and  between 
these  and  the  eyes  is  a  large  tuft  of  stiff  white  erect  feathers, 
the  webs  entirely  disintegrated  (the  longest  of  which  measure 
45  inches  in  the  adult  male)  which  are  spread  out  into  a  com- 
plete fan,  the  front  part  of  which  reaches  down  on  to  the 
casque,  quite  concealing  its  posterior  portion,  and  the  hinder 
portion  of  which  is  blended  with  the  long  stiff  also  disintegrat- 
ed webbed  feathers  of  the  forehead,  crown,  and  occiput,  which 
set  out  fully  2*5  inches  from  the  skull,  giving  an  appearance  of 
great  size  to  the  bird's  head. 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  recorded  in  the  flesh  of 
several  specimens  : — - 


j?5 

B  « 

?8  ® 

, 

2    a 

a 

a  =*  . 

a  a 

a* 

"3 

as 

ft 

e  S"3 
I 1° 

ft  °  -B 
ft      .2 

£  a 

ft  « 

ftm 

> 

be 

2  M  T3 

"5 

6 

a 

a 

a*,  * 

o  fl 

"o-b 

■g 

a 

C3 

o 

5*1 

bi 

§ 

o 

2    ;g 

,«  o 

bo 

ft 

M 

m 

'3 

is 

EH 

s 

Bill 
gin 
ric 
po 

M2a 

fS 

Male,  old  adult     ... 

42-0 

50-0 

20  5 

150 

2-45 

6  82 

8-0 

1-6 

0-7 

„    nearly  adult .. 

395 

48-0 

18  5 

15-25 

2-5 

5-9 

6-5 

1-7 

0-8 

2-751bs. 

„    young 

38-0 

47'0 

18-0 

14-5 

235 

6-2 

55 

1-43 

2-51bs. 

„    rather  younger 

38-0 

45-75 

17-75 

14-25 

2  45 

5-05 

55 

1-5 

2  25lbs. 

Female,  old  adult ... 

40'0 

48-0 

20-75 

14-0 

2-55 

575 

6  5 

15 

3-25lbs. 

,,         nearly  adult 

36-5 

47  0 

165 

1375 

25 

5  82 

6  75 

16 

31bs. 

108  BIRDS    Of    TENASSBBIM. 

The  legs,  feet,  and  claws  are  black,  apparently  at  all  ages;  the 
irides  iu  the  adults  are  wax  yellow,  but  oil  yellow  in  the 
younger  birds.  In  the  old  adults  the  facial  skin  and  the  base 
of  the  lower  mandible  are  a  deep,  but  rather  dull  blue ;  in  some- 
what younger  birds  it  is  a  paler  blue  ;  in  the  next  stage,  pink, 
tinged  with  blue,  and  in  the  youngest  bird  pink. 

In  the  oldest  adult  the  bill  is  perfectly  black,  except  the  ridge 
of  the  casque,  and  a  slight  mottling  of  a  pale  dull  green  at  the 
bases  of  both  mandibles. 

In  the  youngest  birds  almost  the  whole  of  both  mandibles 
are  of  this  dull  horny  green  color  ;  only  on  the  upper  mandible 
there  is  a  large  patch  of  horny  black  on  either  side  just  in  front 
of  the  casque,  and  behind  this  the  sides  of  the  upper  mandible 
and   casque   are   a  duskier  horny  green  than  elsewhere. 

It  is  only,  as  far  as  I  can  judge,  in  the  old  adult  males  that 
there  is  any  clear  separation  between  the  casque  and  the  upper 
mandible  ;  in  these  there  is  a  groove  running  away  from  the 
nostrils  which  serves  to  divide  casque  and  mandible.  But  this 
seems  to  be  wanting  in  the  younger  males  and  even  in  an 
apparently  very  old  female  ;  similarily  it  is  only  in  the  oldest 
males  that  there  is  any  marked  step  on  the  culmen 
indicating  the  termination  of  the  casque  ;  in  the  old 
female,  casque  and  culmen  run  together  in  one  unbroken 
curve. 

The  adult  male  has  the  whole  of  the  head,  neck  all  round, 
breast,  upper  and  middle  abdomen,  and  a  few  of  the  vent  feathers, 
a  patch  on  the  under  side  of  the  wing  just  below  the  wing- 
let,  broad  tippings  to  primaries  and  secondaries  (except  the 
first  two  primaries)  and  the  entire  tail,  white — the  feathers 
of  the  head  having  a  creamy  tinge  ;  the  rest  of  the  bird  dull 
black,  with  greenish  reflections  on  the  feathers  of  the  wings  ; 
there  is  just  a  trace  of  a  white  tipping  to  some  of  the  primary 
greater  coverts. 

A  somewhat  younger  male  differs  only  in  having  a  black 
line  along  either  side  of  the  shafts  of  the  two  central  tail 
feathers  on  their  basal  halves,  in  wanting  the  white  patch  at 
the  carpal  j oint,  in  having  the  white  tippings  of  the  primary 
greater  coverts  a  little  better  marked,  and  in  having  the  middle 
and  upper  abdomen  mottled  with  black. 

Younger  birds  have  the  whole  breast  and  neck  all  round 
more  or  less  mottled  with  black,  have  some  of  the  feathers  of  the 
crest  tuft  black  shafted,  the  tippings  to  the  primary  greater 
coverts  much  larger,  and  the  whole  of  the  tail  feathei's  black, 
broadly  tipped  with  white. 

In  the  youngest  of  all,  the  rump,  the  whole  of  the  greater 
and  median  wing-coverts,  and  the  winglet  a  rich  warm  auburn 
brown  ;  the   outer  webs  of  most    of  the  quills  and  the   lateral 


BIRDS   OP   TENASSERIM.  109 

portions  of  the   four   central   tail-feathers   towards    their   tips 
suffused   with  the   same    color. 

The  adult  female  has  the  point  of  the  chin,  the  patch  below 
the  carpal  joint,  the  tips  of  the  quills  and  the  entire  tail  white  ; 
the  entire  crest,  including-  the  eye  tuft,  feathers  of  the  forehead, 
crown,  and  occiput,  creamy  white  ;  all  the  feathers  conspicu- 
ously black  shafted  ;  the  rest  of  the  plumage  black  ;  wings 
and  scapulars  with  a  faint  greenish  gloss,  and  feathers  of  the 
neck  all  round  with  something  of  the  same  over  their  central 
portion. 

145  quat.— Anorrhinus  galeritus,  Tem.  (1 ). 

Bankasoon. 

Confined  to  the  extreme  south  of  the  province. 

[Though  this  species  was  not  uncommon  in  the  forests  around 
Malewoon  and  Bankasoon,  yet  it  was  so  very  wary  and  difficult 
of  approach  that  only  one  specimen,  a  male,  was  procured.  We 
found  them  in  small  parties  of  five  or  six,  keeping  to  the  most 
dense  portions  of  the  forest,  and  always  about  the  tops  of  the 
higher  trees.  They  have  a  note  very  similar  to  that  of  Hydro- 
cissa  malabarica,  and  like  them  keep  uttering  it  at  short  intervals. 

In  Tenasserim  we  did  not  notice  this  species  anywhere 
except  in  the  evergreen  forests  at  Malewoon  and  Bankasoon  ; 
they  are  perhaps  more  numerous  further  south  in  the  Malayan 
Peninsula. 

The  stomach  of  the  specimen    obtained  contained  only  fruit. 

It  is  strictly  arboreal  in  its  habits,  never  descending  to  the 
ground  as  B.  comatus  does,  as  also  the  small  Black-billed  Hydro- 
cissa  nigrirostriSf  Blyth,  of  the  Malayan  Peninsula. —  W.  D.] 

In  the  present  species  the  casque  is  only  about  the  same 
height  as  the  upper  mandible  ;  sharply  carinated  above,  extend- 
ing for  about  two-thirds  the  length  of  the  bill.  It  is  not  a 
well-marked  casque,  looks  very  much  as  if  the  culmen  of  the 
bill  had  been  pinched  into  a  sharp  ridge. 

There  is  a  large  bare  orbital  space  extending  for  nearly  an 
inch  backward  from  the  eye  ;  the  chin  and  throat  as  far  back 
as  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible  are  also  bare. 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  and  a  description  of  our 
male,  a  fine  adult  : — 

Male. — Length,  33*0;  expanse,  46*74;  tail  from  vent,  13'0; 
wing,  14*25  ;  tarsus,  2  ;  bill  from  gape,  5*75  ;  from  posterior 
margin  of  casque  along  ridge  and  culmen  to  tip,  675  ;  of  casque, 
only  4>  ;  height  of  upper  mandible  and  casque,  at  centre  of  casque, 
1*46;  of  upper  mandible  only  at  the  same  place,  0*79  ;  weight, 
2-5B&S. 

In  the  adult  male  the  legs,  feet,  and  claws  are  black  ;  the 
irides  lake  red  ;  the  gular  and  orbital  skin  pale  blue,  darker   at 


110  BIRDS    OF    TENASSERIM. 

anterior  angle  of  the  eye  ;  angle  of  the  gonys  and  base  of 
throat,  and  eyelids  mottled  black  and  white. 

Dr.  Cautor,  no  doubt,  describes  the  same  parts  of  the  Malaccan 
bird  as  being  black.  Possibly  he  described  from  a  female  and 
the  colors  not  improbably  differ  in  the  sexes,  or  he  may  have 
described  from  a  dried  skin,  in  which  the  parts  do  become  black ; 
and  as  alike  in  Tenasserim  and  the  Malay  Peninsula  these 
birds  are  extremely  shy  and  difficult  to  shoot,  Dr.  Cantor  is 
not  likely  to  have  shot  one  himself,  and  in  that  climate  the 
colors  of  the  soft  parts  change  very  rapidly  after  death. 

The  feathers  of  the  occiput  and  sides  of  the  head  elongated 
so  as  to  form  an  excessively  full  crest,  extending  backwards 
5*25  inches  from  the  posterior  margiu  of  the  casque  ;  the  fore- 
head, entire  top,  back,  and  sides  of  the  head  and  neck,  crest, 
and  entire  upper  parts,  dark  brown,  with  a  strong  metallic  green 
reflection  ;  ear-coverts  rather  darker  and  wanting  this  reflection ; 
feathered  portion  of  throat,  breast,  abdomen,  a  dull  chocolate 
brown,  somewhat  paler  in  the  middle  of  the  abdomen  ;  the 
feathers  somewhat  glossy,  but  almost  entirely  wanting  the  mark- 
ed green  reflections  of  the  upper  surface  ;  tibial  plumes  simi- 
lar but  darker,  and  exhibiting  more  of  these  reflections ;  vent 
paler  and  drabby  ;  lower  tail-coverts  a  somewhat  pale  drab 
brown,  fringed  paler. 

Wing,  as  usual,  much  rounded  ;  fifth,  sixth,  and  seventh  quills 
equal  and  longest;  tail  somewhat  rounded  ;  external  feathers 
1*5  shorter  than  central  ones. 

Tail  with  about  the  basal  three-fifths  greyish  drab  ;  terminal 
two- fifths  black  or  nearly  so,  glossed  with  green,  as  the  rest  of 
the  upper  parts. 

The/quills  have  a  barely  perceptible  pale  brownish  margin 
to  the  outer  webs. 

Temminck's  figure,  PI.  Col.,  520,  which  is  extravagantly  ill- 
colored,  clearly  represents  a  not  perfectly  adult  bird  ;  the  white 
patches  on  the  beak  and  the  conspicuous  pale  margins  to  the 
quills  being,  as  we  know,  from  young  specimens  obtained  in  the 
Straits,  signs  of  immaturity  ;  in  the  young  bird,  besides  these 
points  of  difference,  the  crest  is  much  less  developed,  the  colors 
are  everywhere  duller,  the  basal  portion  of  the  tail  is  browner 
and  less  of  a  greyish  drab,  and  the  entire  lower  breast  and 
abdomen  is  much  paler  and  more  of  an  earthy  brown.  In  the 
adult  in  good  plumage  the  lower  surface  of  the  basal  portion 
of  the  tail  is  pure  grey. 

146. — Aceros  nipalensis,  Hodgs. 

Colonel  Tickell  recorded  this  from  the  Tenasserim  Hills,  and 
Davison   saw  it  repeatedly   at   Mooleyit,  and   near  enough   to 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM.  Ill 

identify  it,  he  says,  with  perfect  certainty,  though  he  failed   to 
procure  any  specimen. 

146  Ms. — Rhyticeros  undulatus,  Shaw.  (38). 

Zadee ;  Mergui  ;  Ckoungtkanoung  ;  Pakckan  i  Bankasoon  ;  Victoria  Point. 

Confined  entirely  apparently  to  those  portions  of  the  province 
south  of  Amherst,and  only  abundant  in  the  southern  half  of  these. 

[This  is  the  common  species  of  South  Tenasserim.  It  is  very 
numerous  in  the  forests  about  the  Pakchan,  and  on  the  islands 
of  the  Mergui  Archipelago  ;  it  becomes  much  less  numerous  as 
one  proceeds  north,  the  nearly-allied  subruflcollis  taking  its  place. 
All  that  I  have  said  about  the  habits,  voice,  and  food  of  R. 
subruficollis  will  apply  equally  well  to  this. — W.  D.] 

I  may,  however,  here  perhaps  repeat  that,  besides  the  differ- 
ence in  size  which  distinguishes  the  present  species,  and  the  very 
nearly  allied  subruficollis,  there  is  another  mark  of  distinction 
which  appears  to  be  quite  constant.  In.  plicatus,  in  both  sexes, 
the  naked  gular  skin  has  a  dark  band  about  half  an  inch  wide, 
broken  in  the  middle,  stretching  across  it  just  below  the  base  of 
the  lower  mandible ;  this  band  appears  to  be  always  wanting-  in 
subruficollis.  Moreover,  there  is  a  very  marked  difference  in  the 
shape  of  the  wings,  the  primaries  in  the  closed  wing  being 
equalled  or  very  nearly  so*  in  length,  in  all  specimens  of 'undula- 
tus from  the  extreme  south  of  the  Tenasserim  provinces,  by  the 
longest  tertiaries  and  secondaries,  whereas  in  subruficollis  they 
exceed  these  latter  by  fully  three  inches. 

It  is  worthy  of  note  that  specimens  of  undulatus  from  Cachar 
and  Sylhet  have  larger  bills  that  the  largest  of  our  extensive 
South  Tenasserim  series,  and  are  altogether  somewhat  larger 
birds, — a  fine  male  having  the  wing  20'8  against  19'5  in  the 
largest  of  our  South  Tenasserim  specimens.  Moreover,  in  the 
Cachar  specimens  the  primaries  exceed  the  secondaries  and 
tertiaries  almost  as  much  as  in  subruficollis.  It  is  curious,  and 
may  be  accidental,  that  our  solitary  specimen  from  Zadee 
Central  Tenasserim  has  a  larger  bill  than  any  of  the  South 
Tenasserim  specimens ;  in  fact  almost  the  same  size  as  those 
from  Cachar,  while  in  this  bird  also  the  longest  primaries 
exceed  the  longest  secondaries  and  tertiaries  in  the  closed  wing 
by  some  two  inches. 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  of  fine  adults  of  South 
Tenasserim  specimens  :— 

Males. — Length,  39-0  to  41*5;  expanse,  58'0  to  64'75  ;  tail, 
12  to  13-0  ;  wing,  18-75  to  195  ;  tarsus,  2*38  to  2-62 ;  bill  from 

*  la  two  out  of  thirty-seven  .South  Tenasserim  specimens  the  longest  primaries 
exceed  the  longest  secondaries  and  tertiaries  by  about  1  inch  ;  in  all  the  rest  they  only 
equal  them.  In  one  single  Central  Tenasserim  specimen,  they  exceed  them  by 
nearly  2    inches. 


112  BIRDS    OP   TENASSERIM. 

gape,  straight  to  point,  7 '6  to  8*5  ;  bill  from  posterior  margin 
of  casque  along  casque  and  culmen  to  point,  8'5  to  9"4 ;  height 
of  upper  mandible  and  casque,  at  middle  of  casque,  1*75  to 
2*05  ;  weight,  5  to  6  lbs. 

Females. — Length,  33-0  to  36*5  ;  expanse,  54'0  to  570;  tail, 
10-2  to  12-0  ;  wing,  16-0  to  17'6  ;  tarsus,  2-05  to  2-36  ;  bill  from 
gape,  straight  to  point,  5*8  to  6-85  ;  from  posterior  margin  of 
casque  along  casque  and  culmen  to  point,  625  to  7*2  ;  height 
of  upper  mandible  and  casque  at  middle  of  casque,  1-51  to 
1-81 ;  weight,  375  to  4-4  lbs. 

The  legs  and  feet  dusky  plumbeous  blue  to  blackish  ;  the 
i rides  pale  red.  In  one  specimen,  a  middle-aged  female, 
the  irides  were  orange  yellow ;  the  orbital  skin  pink ;  the 
gular  skin  in  the  male  bright  saffron  yellow,  in  the  female 
smalt  blue,  sometimes  more  or  less  mottled  with  yellow, 
and  both  sexes  with  the  imperfect  blackish  transverse 
baud  already  referred  to.  The  bills  are  precisely  similar  as 
regards  general  color  and  plications  to  those  of  subruficollis, 
but  the  adults  have  at  the  sides  of  both  the  upper  and  lower 
mandibles  towards  their  base,  several,  at  times  as  many  as  seven, 
narrow  wrinkle-like  ridges,  and  the  whole  space  over  which 
these  wrinkles  extend  is  more  or  less  tinged  with  brownish  red. 
In  the  youngest  birds,  with  only  two  plaits  to  the  casque,  there 
is  only  one  such  wrinkle  on  the  sides  of  the  mandibles,  with 
traces  of  a  second.  None  of  our  numerous  specimens  exhibit 
more  than  seven  plaits  on  the  casque. 

The  plumage  precisely  resembles  that  of  subruficollis,  and 
need  not  be  particularly  described ;  but  I  would  notice  that  two 
of  the  females  of  the  present  species  exhibit  large  irregular 
black  patches  on  the  exterior  tail  feathers ;  these  are  not 
young  birds,  as  one  has  six,  and  the  other  five,  plaits  on  the 
casque. 

146  ter.— Rhyticeros  subruficollis,  Blyth.  (8). 

(TongTioo,  Rams.)  Karope ;  Amherst;  Yea;  Oin-a-gwen  ;  Meeta  Myo  ;  Banka- 
soon. 

Practically  confined  to  the  central  portions  of  Tenasserim 
proper,  but  re-appearing  in  Tonghoo. 

From  Moulmein  to  Tavoy,  and  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
these  places,  this  species  is  common ;  south  of  this  only  a  sin- 
gle straggler  was  obtained.  Among  some  forty  specimens  of 
Plaitbill  Hornbills,  shot  about  Bankasoon  and  the  Pakchan, 
but  one  belonged  to  the  present  species,  while  all  those  shot  to 
the  north  of  Tavoy  belonged,  with  one  single  exception  (already 
noticed),  to  the  present  species.  At  the  same  time  the  present 
species  does  not,  so  far  as  I  know,  extend  further  north  than 
Arracan  and  Pegu,  while  undulatus  occurs  in  Sylhet  and  Oachar. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  113 

[This  species  usually  occurs   in  parties  varying  from  half-a- 
dozen  to  twenty  or  more,  and  on  one   occasion  I  saw  a  flock  of 
33  flying  over  the  town  of  Moulmein.     This  and  the  preceding 
species  are  remarkably  strong  on  the   wing,  and  morning  and 
evening,  where  they  occur,  numbers  may  be  seen  flving  far  over- 
head, sometimes  at  such  a  height  that  they  look  not  bigger  than 
crows.     The    strokes    of  their   wings     are   accompanied    by    a 
peculiar   metallic  or  resonant   swish  which   can   be   heard  at 
an  incredible  distance.     One  is  often  made  aware  of  these  birds 
flying  far  overhead  by  the  sound  of  their  wings,  and  on  looking 
up,  the  birds  are  seen  at  such  an  immense  height  as  to  be  only 
just  distinguishable.   While  flying  they  give  utterance  occasion- 
ally to  a  short  hoarse   bark ;  this  bark   they   also   utter   when 
seated  or  feeding. 

They  are  entirely  frugivorous,  and  appear  occasionally  to    o-0 
long  distances  to  feed.  rt 

During  the  day  they  usually  rest  on  the  large  branches  of  the 
highest  forest  trees,  but  even  then  are  not  very  easily  approached. 
A  young  male   of  this   species  that  I  had  tame,  and  which 
was  said  to  be  nine  months'  old  when  I  obtained  it,  although  it 
had  the  head  and  neck  colored  as  in  the  adult  male,  had  the  gular 
skm  blue  like  the  adult  female.     This  young   bird  used  always 
to   catch   any  morsel  of  plantain   or   other  fruit   thrown  to  it 
between  the  points  of  its  bill,  toss  it  up  in  the  air,  and  catch  it  in 
its  mouth.     It  did  not,  however,  immediately  swallow  it ;  on  the 
contrary  it  would  cram  the  upper  part   of  the  throat  as  full  as 
possible  with  food,  and  then  sitting  quite  still  would,  from  time 
to  time,  press   its   pouch   against   its  breast   so  as  to  force  one 
morsel  up   into   the   mouth ;  it  would  then  throw  its  head  back 
and  swallow  that  particular  morsel.     A  few  minutes  afterwards 
it  would   so   dispose  of  another  piece,  and  so  on,  until,  in  the 
course  of  half  an  hour  or  so,  it  had  swallowed  the  whole  meal. 
It  never  drank  or  seemed  to   want  to   drink   though  it  sat  for 
hours,  at  a  time,  on  the  gunwale   of  the   low  boat   close  to  the 
water :    when  it   slept  it   slouched  its   body,   so  that  its  chest 
rested  on  its  perch,  dropped  its  wings  slightly,  and  tucked  its 
head  under  one  of  them.    It  did  not,  as  has  been  asserted  in  the 
case  of  some  Hornbills,  sleep  with  its  tail  over  its  back ;  on  the 
contrary  when  asleep  its   tail   hung  down  almost  perpendicu- 
larly.—W.  D.] 

In  this  species,  as  in  undulatus,  ruficollis,  and  narcondami,  the 
casque  merely  consists  of  a  broad  obtusely  convex  plate  with 
numerous  transverse,  laterally  obliquely-sloping  ridges  and 
furrows,  covering  the  basal  two-fifths  to  nearly  one-half  of  the 
culmen. 

In  the  youngest  bird  there  is  no  trace  of  this  plication 
on  the  basal   portion   of  the   culmen.     After   one  year  of  age 

15 


114  BrliDS    OF   TENASSEKIM. 

one  fold  is  said  to  form  on  the  bill,  to  which  another  is  added 
the  second  year,  another  the  third,  and  so  on  until  six,  or  possi- 
bly seven,  may  be  counted,  but  the  seventh  appears  to  be  always 
imperfect,  and  it  is  quite  clear  from  our  specimens  that,  after 
six  or  seven  plications  have  been  formed,  the  number  never 
increases — the  ones  nearest  the  point  of  the  beak  dropping  off 
as  fresh  ones  are  formed  posteriorly.  Our  specimens  seem 
to  show  this  very  clearly. 

Typically  the  basal  portion  of  the  sides  of  both  mandibles 
in  this  species  are  smooth,  but  some  specimens  show  faint  traces 
of  wrinkles  just  at  the  base,  but  this  is  very  different  from  the 
conspicuous  ridges  observable  on  the  bases  of  the  bill  of 
undulatus,  in  which  species  even  in  the  youngest  specimen  that 
we  have  obtained,  one  very  distinct  wrinkle,  at  any  rate,  is 
apparent. 

The  following  are  dimensions  and  a  description  of  this 
species  : — 

Male.— Length,  34  to  35'25  ;  expanse,  53  to  56  ;  tail,  10-75  to 
12  ;  wing,  15'8  to  17  ;  tarsus,  2-2  to  2'3  ;  bill  from  gape,  7*0  ;  bill 
from  posterior  margin  of  casque  along  culmen  to  point,  7*5  to 
8-0 ;  height  of  upper  mandible  and  casque,  at  middle  of  cas- 
que, 1*75  ;  weight,  3'75  lbs. 

Female  (a  rather  small  bird.) — Length,  30*0;  expanse,  48,0; 
tail,  9'0  ;  wing,  14'5  ;  tarsus,  2*1  ;  bill  from  gape,  5"62  ;  from 
posterior  margin  of  casque,  along  culmen  to  point,  6*4. 

In  both  sexes  the  legs,  feet,  and  claws  are  black  ;  the  irides 
light  red  ;  eyelids  fleshy  pink  ;  in  both  sexes  the  chin,  the  bases 
of  the  lower  mandible,  and  the  throat  are  bare ;  in  the  male 
this  gular  skin  is  a  vivid  turmeric  yellow;  in  the  female  a 
clear  pale  blue  ;  both  sexes  want  the  imperfect  black  band 
across  these  parts  that  characterize  the  similar  parts  in 
undulatus.  The  bills  are  a  very  pale  yellowish  white,  generally 
strongly  tinged  with  brownish  red  on  the  sides  of  both  mandi- 
bles at  their  bases  ;  the  posterior  plait  of  the  casque  is  also 
generally  tinged  with  the  same  color  ;  the  ridges  of  the  casque 
are  rather  yellower  than  the  rest  of  the  bill,  and  the  furrows 
are  a  dirty  brownish  black,  as  if  filled   with  dirt. 

The  female  has  the  tail  white  ;  the  whole  of  the  rest  of  the 
plumage  black  ;  the  upper  surface  strongly  glossed  with  green 
(in  some  specimens  somewhat  purplish)  reflections. 

The  feathers  of  the  occiput  somewhat  disintegrated  and 
developed  into  a  full  crest. 

The  male  differs  in  having  a  line  from  the  nostrils  round 
the  posterior  margin  of  the  casque,  a  broad  line  across  the 
crown,  and  the  occipital  and  nuchal  crest  a  deep  maroon 
brown  ;  the  rest  of  the  forehead  and  crown,  ear-coverts,  sides 
and  front  of  the  neck,  a  pale  fulvous    or  golden  yellow,  with 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSEIUM.  115 

more  of  a  golden  tinge  on  the  head  and  paler  on   the   front  of 
the  neck. 

R.  narcondami,  nobis,  Stray  Feathers,  I.,  411,  is  in  many 
respects  a  miniature  of  this  species  ;  in  fact,  the  female  is 
an  exact  miniature,  and  weighs  one  lb.  against  three  lbs.,  in 
subruficollis. 

The  male  is,  however,  more  exactly  a  miniature  of  the  true 
ruficollis  from  New  Guinea,  having  the  head  and  neck  a  bright 
chestnut,  but  it  differs  from  this  latter  species  not  only  in 
its  much  smaller  size,  but  also  in  the  fact  that  the  bare  gular 
skin  does  not  extend  over  the  throat  even  as  far  down  as  a  line 
joining  the  ends  of  the  lower  mandible. 

146  quint.—  Rhinoplax  vigil,  Forst.  (1). 

Bankasooru 

Confined  to  the  southernmost  extremity  of  the  province. 

[The  only  place  where  the  Solid-billed  Hornbill  was  met 
with  was  in  the  evergreen  forests  at  Malewoon  and  Bankasoon  ; 
and,  although  they  were  seen  and  heard  on  several  occasions, 
it  was  only  after  a  week  or  ten  days'  hard  work,  tramping 
through «the  forests  over  hill  and  dale  the  greater  part  of  each 
day,  that  I  succeeded  in  securing  a  single  specimen.  The  birds 
are  so  excessively  shy  that  it  is  next  to  impossible  to  get  near 
them,  and  this  is  not  to  be  wondered  at,  for  when  one  by  chance 
appears  anywhere  near  a  village,  everyone  who  can  shoot  or 
can  get  hold  of  a  gun  is  sure  to  try  and  shoot  it,  for  the  heads 
are  in  great  demand,  bringing,  it  is  said,  as  much  as  fifty  rupees. 
They  are  carved  in  relief  in  the  most  outrageously  indecent  man- 
ner, and  are  considered  most  potent  love  charms — the  happy- 
possessor,  it  is  said,  being  able  to  work  his  wicked  will  with 
the  most  virtuous  and  modest. 

As  has  already  been  remarked,  the  birds  are  excessively  shy 
and  rare,  and  they  confine  themselves  almost  exclusively  to 
the  evergreen  forests,  where  they  frequent  the  very  highest 
trees.  Their  note  is  very  peculiar,  and  can  be  heard  at  the 
distance  of  a  mile  or  more.  It  commences  with  a  series  of 
whoops,  uttered  at  intervals  of  about  half  a  minute  for  five  or 
ten  minutes ;  then  the  interval  between  each  whoop  grows 
shorter  and  shorter,  till  the  whoop,  whoop,  whoop,  is  repeated 
very  quickly  ten  or  a  dozen  times — the  bird  ending  up  by 
going  off  into  a  harsh  quacking  laugh.  There  is  then  a  pause 
of  ten  minutes  or  a  quarter  of  an  hour  or  more,  and  then  it 
recommences.  It  chiefly  utters  this  call  in  the  morning 
and  evening,  but  occasionally  also  during  the  day.  I  heard  and 
saw  this  species  also  more  than  once  in  the  Malay  Peninsula. 

The  specimen  shot  had  eaten  only  a  quantity  of  fruit  ;  no 
specimen  was  ever  seen  to  descend  to  the  ground. — W.  D.] 


116  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

This  well-known  species  differs  in  many  particulars,  essen- 
tially from  all  other  known  species  of  the  family.  The  casque, 
which  extends  over  half  or  more  of  the  upper  mandible,  forms 
as  it  were  one  piece  with  the  upper  mandible — a  section 
through  both  being  a  somewhat  elongated  horse  shoe.  The 
casque  is  only  divided  off  from  the  upper  mandible  by  a  nar- 
row projecting  ridge  beginning  at  the  top  of  the  orbital  cavity  ; 
the  front  of  the  casque  is  abruptly  truncated  ;  the  whole  of 
the  sides,  the  top  of  the  casque,  and  the  sides  of  both  upper 
and  lower  mandible  as  far  as  the  casque  extends,  are  deep 
crimson  ;  the  truncated  front  of  the  casque  and  the  whole 
of  the  upper  mandible  beyond  the  casque  are  a  bright  orange 
yellow  ;  the  effect  produced  is  precisely  as  if  the  casque  and 
the  upper  half  of  the  upper  mandible  had  been  filed  away, 
and  a  diminutive  false  anterior  portion  of  the  upper  mandible 
thus  formed.  In  the  lower  mandible,  however,  the  red  shades 
gradually  into  the  orange,  and  looks  natural,  but  no  one  I 
think  can  examine  a  head  of  this  species  for  the  first  time 
without  a  conviction  that  the  anterior  portion  of  the  casque 
and  upper  mandible  have  been  artificially  manipulated. 

The  casque  and  the  upper  portion  of  the  upper  mandible  are 
apparently  quite  solid,  and  of  a  texture  as  close  as  that  of 
vegetable  ivory. 

Then  the  bird  has  the  whole  of  the  chin  and  throat  and 
neck  all  round,  and  a  long  triangular  patch  from  the  back 
of  the  neck  nearly  to  the  rump,  some  two  inches  broad  at  top, 
and  narrowing  as  it  recedes  downwards,  bare,  and  of  a  dull 
dirty  brick-red  color.  Even  under  the  feathers,  all  over  the 
bird,  the  skin  is  of  this  same  nasty  dull-red  color  ;  the  tail  is 
much  rounded,  and  the  central  tail  feathers  project  in  some 
specimens  that  I  have  seen  fully  eighteen  inches  beyond  the 
other  tail  feathers,  though  in  the  particular  specimen  we 
obtained  they  project  only  about  eight  inches.  Altogether  it 
is  a  perfect  nightmare  of  a  bird. 

They  always,  Davison  tells  me,  go  about  in  pairs,  and  the 
female  appeared  only  to  differ  in  the  somewhat  smaller  size 
and  shorter  tail,  but  we  only  obtained  a  male. 

The  following  were  its  dimensions  : — 

Length  to  end  of  ordinary  tail  feathers,  43'5  ;  expanse,  64'5  ; 
tail  to  end  of  ordinary  tail  feathers,  18*0  ;  to  end  of  central  tail 
feathers  (which  are  not  yet  fully  developed  and  in  parchment  at 
the  base),  26-0 ;  wing,  19*25  ;  tarsus,  3*0 ;  bill  from  gape  straight 
to  point,  6*75;  length  of  casque  along  its  upper  ridge,  30; 
height  of  upper  mandible  and  casque,  3*5  ;  weight,  6'75  lbs. 

The  irides  were  dark  litharge  red  ;  legs  and  feet  dirty  orange 
brown  ;  skin  of  eyelids  the  same  dirty  red  as  the  other  bare 
portions. 


BIRDS  OF  TENASSERIM.  117 

The  feathers  rouud  the  eye,  the  ear-coverts,  gape,  and  im- 
mediately behind  the  ear  are  deep  ferruginous,  more  or  less 
streaked  with  blackish  brown  ;  the  rest  of  the  feathers  of  the 
top,  back,  and  sides  of  the  neck,  including  a  rather  full  but 
short  occipital  crest,  blackish  brown. 

The  feathered  portion  of  the  interscapulary  region  and  the 
breast  blackish  brown,  almost  black  ;  the  wings  and  scapulars 
a  somewhat  paler  brown  ;  rump  paler  and  more  drabby  brown  • 
shorter  upper  tail-coverts  drab  colored,  longer  ones  white  ; 
two  central  tail  feathers  drab  or  greyish  drab,  with  a  three- 
inch  white  tipping,  and  a  two-and-a-half  penultimate  black 
band  ;  rest  of  the  tail  feathers  white,  with  a  three-inch  black 
transverse  band  about  a  «5  inches  from  their  tip;  primaries 
and  secondaries  broadly  tipped  with  white ;  abdomen,  flanks, 
vent,  lower  tail-coverts,  pure  white. 

What  little  wing-lining  there  is,  is  white. 

147  bis—  Palseornis  magnirostris,  Ball.  (20).  Descr. 
S.  E.,  I.,  60;  II.,  176. 

(TongTioc ^  Earns.)  Salween  R. ;  Theinzeik  ;  Thatone  j  Wimpong ;  Moulmein  ; 
rabyouk  ;  Yea-boo  ;  Amherst. 

Confined  to  the  central  and  northern  plains  portions  of 
the  province. 

[The  range  of  this  species  in  Tenasserim  is  limited. 
I  only  observed  it  about  Moulmein,  up  the  Attaran  and 
Salween  rivers  to  a  certain  distance,  but  not  far,  and  in  the 
country  lying  between  the  Salween  and  Sittang  rivers.  I 
did  not  observe  it  as  far  north  as  Pahpoon,  nor  to  the 
south  did  I  see  it  for  any  distance  south  of  Moulmein. 
Where  it  does  occur  it  is  common,  but  not  so  common  as' 
melanorhynclms  or  cyanocephalus,  and  unlike  them  it  is 
seldom  seen  in  large  flocks,  being  usually  met  with  in 
pairs  or  small  parties.  It  avoids  hilly  and  densely-wooded 
country,  and  is  most  plentiful  in  dry  plains  dotted  about  with 
deciduous  leaved  trees, — W.  D.] 

I  retain  all  our  Tenasserim  birds  under  this  name,  because, 
although,  as  the  Marquis  of  Tweeddale  remarks,  J.  A.  S.  B., 
1875,  extra  No.  55  N.,  the  bills  of  Andamanese  specimens 
do  run  constantly  larger  than  those  of  our  bird,  yet  our  birds 
are  nearer  to  the  Andamanese  than  to  any  of  the  Conti- 
nental Indian  species. 

The  Insular  Singalese  P.  eupatrius  differs  from  all  the 
Continental  races  by  its  much  smaller  size,  and  it  need  not 
be  further  referred  to  here.  We  have  then  three  species 
not  very  dissimilar  in  size— sivalensis,  Hutton  ;  nipalensis, 
Hodgson;  magnirostris,  Ball. 


118  BIRDS    OF    TENASSERIM. 

I  say  not  very  dissimilar  in  size,  but  at  the  same  time 
neither  nipalensis  nor  sivalensis  ever  have  quite  such  long 
tails  as  the  Andamanese  and  Burmese  birds  have.  I  have  for 
years  now  been  specially  collecting  this  group,  and  have  over 
a  hundred  fine  specimens  from  different  parts  of  the  British 
Indian  Empire.  I  have  taken  every  opportunity  of  shooting' 
them  and  getting  them  shot.  I  have  never  met  with 
a  specimen  of  sivalensis  or  nipalensis  exceeding  21  inches 
in  length ;  the  majority  of  the  finest  adult  males  do  not 
exceed  20,  but  both  Andamanese  and  Burmese  birds  run 
to  23. 

The  adult  males  of  the  three  species  may  be  at  once  simply 

diagnosed : — 

Nape  and  Sides  Mandibular  Base  of 

of  Head.  Stripes.  Throat. 

P.  sivalensis  Suffused  with  Very  broad.  Like  breast. 

glaucous  grey. 
P.  nipalensis        Like  top  of  head.         Broad.  Like  breast. 

P.  magniroslrls  Like  top  of  head.  Narrow.  Pale  yellow. 
Now  the  Burmese  birds,  no  doubt  the  finest  of  them, 
have  smaller  bills  than  either  of  these  three,  but  they  agree 
with  magnirostris  in  the  very  narrow  black,  mandibular 
stripe,  in  the  decided  yellow  of  the  base  of  the  throat, 
and  in  the  entire  absence  of  the  glaucous  grey  shade  on 
the  face  and  nape,  and  therefore  I  prefer  to  retain  them 
under  Mr.  Ball's  name. 

148. — Palseornis  torquatus,  JBodd. 

Blyth  remarks,  talking  of  Burmah  as  a  whole :  u  Resorts 
to  open  country  as  elsewhere,  and  is  therefore  chiefly  met  with 
in  the  interior,  beyond  the  maritime  belt  of  forest.  Dr.  Cantor 
procured  it  so  far  southward  as  in  Wellesley  Province." 

I  have  every  reason  to  believe  that  it  never  occurs  in 
Tenasserim  proper.  As  for  Dr.  Cantor  procuring  it  in  Wellesley 
Province,  if  he  did  so,  it  was  probably,  as  he  must  have 
procured  P.  caniceps,  i.e.,  in  a  cage  or  as  a  skin.  I  have 
the  strongest  grounds  for  believing  that  it  never  occurs  in 
the  Malay  Peninsula  or  in  any  part  of  Tenasserim,  except 
in  the  extreme  north  which  I  have  not  yet  had  worked. 

Lieutenant  Ramsay,  who  has  worked  these  parts,  tells  us 
that  he  only  once  met  with  this  Parakeet,  and  then  on  the  lower 
slopes  of  the  Karen  Hills. 

149  bis.— Palseornis    cyanocephalus,     Lin.      (64). 
Descr.  S.  E.,  V.,  16. 

Kyouk-nyat ;  Pahpoon ;  Theinzeik  ;  Thatone ;  Wiinpong ;  Megaloon ;  Moul- 
mein  ;  Kohbaing;  Amherst;  Tavoy;  Shymotee. 

Confined  to  the  northern  and  central  portions  of  the  province. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  119 

[From  Pahpoon  to  Tavoy  this  species  is  common,  especially 
so  towards  the  north,  but  it  confines  itself  principally  to 
the  low  country  not  ascending  the  hills  to  any  height. 
Like  magnirostris  it  always  avoids  dense  forest.  It  goes  about 
in  flocks,  sometimes  very  large,  and  feeds  a  good  deal  in  the 
rice-fields.  At  Mergui,  or  to  the  south  of  that  place,  T  have 
never  come  across  it.  I  do  not  think  that  it  ranges  much 
south  of  Tavoy  —  W.  D.] 

150. — Palceomis  schisliceps,  Hodgs. 

This  is  noted  from  Tonghoo  by  Lord  Tweeddale  (B.  of 
B.,  p.  55),  but  he  explains  that  the  specimens  belong  to  the 
next  species,  of  which  having  since  obtained  a  magnificent 
series  of  adults  from  further  south,  I  entertain  no  doubts 
of  the  entire  distinctness. 

150    Ms.— Palseornis  finschi,  Hume.    (20).    Descr. 
S.  F.,  II.,  509. 

(Tonglwo  Sills,  Rams.)  Kollidoo;  Ejouk-nyat;  Salween  R.  ;  Myawadee 
Lartkorgee ;  Topee;  E-poo. 

Confined  to  the  hills  of  the  main  Tenasserim  range, 
in  the  northern  and  central  portions  of  the  province,  but 
not  ascending  to  the  summits  of  the  higher  hills. 

[I  only  met  with  this  fine  species  in  the  hills  to  the  north 
of  Pahpoon,  and  from  Myawadee  to  the  foot  of  Mooleyit. 
Even  in  those  localities  it  is  by  no  means  abundant.  It  occurs 
in  small  parties,  frequenting  the  edges  and  thinner  portions  of 
the  forest  and  the  banks  of  streams.  Its  voice  is  very 
similar  to  that  of  P.  schisticeps  of  India. 

In  its  habits  it  much  resembles  other  Paroquets.  I  found 
it  feeding  on  the  large  red  flowers  of  a  silk  cotton  tree 
(Bombax—  ?)  north  of  Pahpoon,  and  about  Myawadee  on  the 
large  crimson  flowers  of  a  huge  creeper. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions,  &c,  of  a  fine  series  record- 
ed in  the  flesh  : — 

Males. — Length,  16-0  to  18-12;  expanse;  17  to  18;  tail 
from  vent,  90  to  12-25  ;  wing,  5-8  to  6-2 ;  tarsus,  0*5  to  0-7  ; 
bill  from  gape,  0*7  to  0'85  ;  weight,  3*0  to  375  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  14-0  to  14-4;  expanse,  1682  to  17'5  ; 
tail  from  vent,  8-25  to  8'4 ;  wing,  5*75  to  5'82  ;  tarsus,  0*6  to 
07;  bill  from  gape,  0"8 ;  weight,  3-25  ozs. 

The  legs  and  feet  are  a  pale  dirty  green  ;  upper  mandible 
orange  vermilion,  tipped  yellowish  ;  lower  mandible  pale 
yellow ;  the  irides  are  usually  creamy  white,  but  in  some 
specimens  grey,  with  a  fine  inner  ring  of  golden  yellow ;  in 
others  pale  brown,  with  an  outer  ring  of  white. 


120  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

152.— Palseornis    melanorhynchus,    Wagler.    (58). 
S.  P.,  V.,  21. 

(Tonghoo,  Earns.)  Pabpoon ;  Sal  ween  E.;  Thatone;  Wimpong;  Myawadee ; 
Tavoy  ;  Moulmein ;  Pabyouk  ;  Kohbaing ;  Yea-boo ;  Meetanj  Amherst:  Meeta 
Myo;  Tavoy;  Shyniotee  ;    Mergui ;  Choungtbapee. 

Generally  distributed  throughout  the  less  elevated  portions 
of  the  province. 

[The  most  common  and  widely  distributed  Paroquet  in 
Tenasserim,  extending  from  the  extreme  north  to  the  Pakckan, 
though  rare  in  the  extreme  south. 

Over  the  whole  country,  from  Pahpoon  to  Tavoy,  it  is  com- 
mon to  a  degree,  flying  about  in  small  parties  or  large  flocks. 
It  does  not,  that  I  am  aware,  ascend  the  hills  to  any  height; 
and  one  day's  march  north  of  Pahpoon  it  is  quite  lost  sight  of. 

It  avoids  the  dense  evergreen  forests,  and  is  consequently 
very  rare  in  the  extreme  south. — "W.  D.] 

153.— Loriculus  vernalis,  Sparrm.  (30). 

Kyouk-nyat;  Pahpoon;  Mnkaaa;  Moulmein;  Pabyouk;  Meetan ;  Amherst ; 
Lemyne;  Yea;  Zadee  ;  Thayetchoung ;  Mergui ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Common  everywhere  throughout  the  province,  alike  in  hills 
and  plains,  in  forest  and  in  open  country. 

[This  species  is  especially  fond  of  frequenting  tounyahs  or 
other  clearings  where  there  are  a  number  of  dead  trees  stand- 
ing.    They  feed  much  on  the  nectar  of  flowers. — W.  D.] 

153  ter.— Psittinus  incertus,  Shaw.  (13). 

Bankasoon ;  Malewoon. 

Only  a  seasonal  visitant  to  the  extreme  south  of  the 
province. 

[This  pretty  little  species  occurs  only  about  Malewoon  and 
its  neighbourhood.  It  frequents  principally  old  tounyahs  and 
other  places  where  there  is  a  dense  growth  of  secondary  scrub. 
It  feeds  chiefly  on  the  small  gummy  flowers  of  a  plant  that 
always  springs  up  where  forest  has  been  felled  and  burnt.  It 
goes  about  in  small  flocks  of  15  or  more,  and  is  not  at  all  shy 
or  wild. 

It  is  migratory  in  Tenasserim,  coming  in  just  before  the 
setting  in  of  the  rains,  about  April  and  May,  though  a  very  few 
do  arrive  earlier,  about  the  last  week  in  March.  In  June  and 
July,  I  am  told,    they  are  very  common  about  Malewoon. 

They  have  nothing  of  the  harsh  screaming  notes  of  the  Pa- 
roquets, their  usual  note  being  a  sharp  whistle  not  unlike  that 
of  Calornis;  they  have  also  a  series  of  pleasant  notes,  a  warble 
in  fact  which  they  chiefly  give  utterance  to  when  seated. 


BIRDS  OF  TENASSERIM.  121 

Though  collecting  vigorously  about  Malewoon  and  Banka- 
soon,  from  April  to  July  1877,  and  continually  about  the  loca- 
lities where  I  at  the  same  season  obtained  specimens  in  1875 
and  1876,  I  did  not  meet  with  a  single  bird. 

It  has  a  rapid  flight,  and  you  often  see  small  parties  of 
them  flike  Loriculus)  flying  about  round  and  round  over  the 
tops  of  the  trees  apparently  for  fun  or  exercise,  now  settling 
for  a  moment,  then  off  again,  whirling  round  and  round,  and 
all  the  time  whistling  at  the  tops  of  their  voices. — W.  D.] 

Davison  shot  andsexed  25  specimens  of  this  species,  young 
and  old,  in  Tenasserim  and  the  Malay  Peninsula,  and  I  can  state 
positively  that  in  the  adult  female  the  cap  is  vinaceous  or  pur- 
plish vinaceous ;  the  sides  of  the  head  and  lores  very  pale  brown, 
more  or  less  tinged  or  overlaid  with  this  color,  and  the  throat 
yellowish,  the  feathers  more  or  less  dark-shafted. 

Younger  females  have  the  top  and  sides  of  the  head  browner 
and  less  purple.  The  young  of  both  sexes  have  the  head  entire- 
ly green,  generally  with  a  tinge  of  blue  upon  the  forehead. 

It  is,  I  think,  absolutely  certain  that  the  females  do  not,  as 
supposed  possible  by  Dr.  Finsch  (Die  Papagein,  II.,  615),  ever 
assume  the  blue  head,  as  out  of  I'd  adults  with  blue  heads,  sexed 
by  dissection,*  not  one  was  a  female,  while  in  company  with  these 
were  shot  five  clearly  adult  birds  with  vinaceous  caps,  all  of 
which  were  females. 

In  the  young  females,  the  red  brown  begins  to  appear  on 
the  occiput.  Most  of  the  quite  young  birds  of  both  sexes 
entirely  want  the  red  wing  spot,  but  it  appears  very  soon,  and 
apparently  earlier  in  some  specimens  than  in  others. 

How  the  change  from  the  green  head  to  the  blue  is  effected 
in  the  male  I  cannot  yet  positively  say,  because  I  have 
one  nearly  perfectly  plumaged  male,  shot  on  the  24th  of 
December,  in  which  the  blue  of  the  head  is  still  a  good  deal  mot- 
tled with  green  feathers,  and  a  certain  amount  of  greenish  is  in- 
termingled with  the  dusky  of  the  back  ;  the  rest  of  the  plumage 
being  that  of  the  perfect  adult.  On  the  other  head,  I  have  ano- 
ther young  male,  killed  on  the  23rd  of  April,  entirely  in  the  green 
plumage  (except  of  course  the  blue  patch  on  the  lower  back), 
except  that  3  or  4  feathers  of  the  upper  back  have  assumed  a 
dusky  tinge,  and  that  vinaceous  brown  feathers  are  intermingled 
in  the  green  of  the  cap. 

I  cannot  at  present  reconcile  the  discordant  indications 
afforded  by  these  two  specimens. 

In  the  adult  males  the  upper  mandible  is  orange  vermilion  ; 
the  lower  mandible  is  dusky  or  dull  reddish  brown,  or  some- 
times pale  horny  streaked  with  dusky  ;  the  legs  and  feet  are  pale 

*  Some  shot  in  Tenasserim  and  some  further  south  in  the  Malay  Peninsula. 

16 


122  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

dirty  green ;   the  eyelids  and  cere  greenish,  brown    or    dusky 

green ;  the  irides  creamy  white. 

As  to  the  females  and  young  birds  our  records   of  colors  are 

so  discrepant  that  I  think  I  had  better  say  nothing  further  about 

them  for  the  present. 

Males. — Length,    7*25   to   7*75  ;   expanse,  14-8  to  15*5  ;  tail 

from  vent,  2-0  to  2-12;   wing,  4"82  to    5-26;    tarsus,   0-5  ;  bill 

from  gape,  0*65  to  0'8 ;    weight,  2*5  to  3*0  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  7"25  to  7  5 ;  expanse,  14*12  to  15'25  ;  tail 
from  vent,  1*75  to  21  •  wing,  4°8  to  5'0  ;  tarsus,  0°5  ;  bill 
from  gape,  0-75  ;  weight,  2*5  to  2 "75  ozs. 

The  adult  male  has  the  entire  cap  and  sides  of  the  head  pale 
lavender  blue,  often  much  mixed  with  palegreenish  on  the  cheeks  ; 
upper  back  and  the  entire  scapulary  region  brownish  dusky, 
often  a  good  deal  suffused  with  dark  green ;  the  lower  part  of  the 
middle  of  the  back,  rump,  and  all  but  the  longest  central  upper 
tail- coverts  a  bright  violet  blue;  longest  upper  tail-coverts  usually 
green  or  yellowish  green,  more  or  less  margined  and  tipped 
with  the  color  of  the  rump  ;  central  tail  feathers  grass  green ; 
all  the  lateral  ones  yellow,  more  or  less  margined,  and  a  little 
suffused  on  the  outer  webs  with  green  ;  wings  and  scapulars 
green ;  almost  the  whole  of  the  first  primary  and  more  or  less 
of  the  inner  webs  of  all  the  quills  deep  hair  brown;  primary 
greater  coverts  deep  dull  blue,  tinged  greenish  at  their  bases  ; 
some  of  the  winglet  feathers  also  usually  margined  bluish  ; 
primaries  margined  with  a  brighter  and  yellower  green  ;  lesser 
and  median  coverts,  and  secondary  greater  coverts  and  scapulars 
and  tertiaries  more  or  less  conspicuously  margined  with  more  or 
less  bright,  more  or  less  greenish,  yellow.  A  crimson  spot  near 
the  ulna  near  its  base,  varying  very  much  in  shade  and  size. 
Chin  and  upper  throat  dingy  yellowish  or  fulvous  or  sordid 
white  j  breast  pale  greyish,  often  somewhat  glaucous  green, 
some  of  the  feathers  often  darker  shafted  ;  the  feathers  not  un- 
frequently  obsoletely  fringed  at  the  tips  with  a  more  fulvescent 
shade  ;  abdomen  and  sides  similar  but  bluer,  often  strongly  over- 
laid with  lavender  blue ;  vent,  flanks,  and  lower  tail-coverts 
bright  yellowish  green,  the  feathers  more  or  less  fringed  at  the 
tips  with  pale  lavender  ;  edge  of  the  wing  just  above  the  base  of 
the  primaries,  yellow,  elsewhere  green  ;  wing-lining  just  inside 
the  edge  of  the  wing,  dark  greenish,  more  or  less  tinged  with 
blue ;  lower  primary  greater  coverts,  like  the  lower  surface  of 
the  quills,  glossy  grey  brown ;  the  whole  of  the  rest  of  the  wing- 
lining  and  axillaries  bright  crimson. 

The  adult  female  has  the  entire  cap  a  dull  pale  vinaceous  ;  the 
lores,  cheeks,  and  ear-coverts  very  pale  brownish  or  yellowish 
white,  dark-shafted,  and  more  or  less  overlaid  with  the  color  of 
the  cap ;  the  whole  upper  surface  green,  except  the  crimson  wing 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  123 

spot,  and  a  larger  or  smaller  patch  of  blue  on  the  middle  of  the 
back,  (sometimes  extending  to  the  rump,  wings,  and  tail  as  in  the 
male,)  and  all  the  feathers  of  the  upper  back  and  interscapular 
region  faintly,  and  of  the  rump  and  upper  tail-coverts  more 
distinctly,  fringed  at  the  tips  with  a  somewhat  paler  and 
yellower  shade  of  green  ;  the  chin  and  upper  part  of  the 
throat  pale  whitey  brown  ;  lower  part  of  the  throat  whitish  ; 
feathers  darker  shafted  and  tinged  towards  the  tips  with  pale 
yellow,  sometimes  a  little  shaded  with  green  ;  the  whole  of  the 
rest  of  the  lower  surface  a  comparatively  pure  yellowish  green 
rather  greyer  on  the  breast,  brighter  and  purer  on  the  flanks^ 
vent,  and  lower  tail-coverts.  In  some  females  the  vinaceous 
of  the  cap  extends  unbroken  and  almost  uniform  in  color  over 
the  whole  of  the  cheeks  and  ear-coverts  ;  some  have  the  upper 
breast  slightly  tinged  with  a  rufeseent  shade. 

157. — Picus  macei,  Vieill. 

Obtained  by  Ramsay  in  Karennee  at  4,000  feet,  and  in  the 
Karen  Hills  at  3,000  feet.  Not  met  with  as  yet  in  any  other 
part  of  Tenasserim. 

157  ter. — Pious  analis,  Horsf.  Descr.  S.  F.,  III.,  37. 

Met  with  nowhere  in  Tenasserim  by  us,  but  obtained  by 
Ramsay  in  Tonghoo  and  Karennee,  which  really  belong  to  a 
different  zoological  sub-division  to  the  rest  of  Tenasserim. 

157  quat. — Picus  atratus,  Blyth.  (6). 

(Karen  Hills,  3,000  to  4,000  feet,  Earns.)  Pine  forests,  Salween;  Paraduba  • 
Moolejit.  ' 

Confined  to  the  forests  of  the  northern  and  central  por- 
tions of  the  outer  Tenasserim  range,  and  not  occurring 
much,  if  at  all,  below  3,000  feet  elevation. 

[I  have  had  few  opportunities  of  observing  this.  Even  where 
it  occurs  it  is  extremely  rare;  but  I  should  say  that  its 
habits  were  precisely  those  of  the  Himalayan  P.  brunnei- 
from,  and  its  note  very  similar. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  :— 

Males.— -Length,  8-12  to  8-62 ;  expanse,  14-4  to  15-0;  tail, 
3-25  to  3-5  ;  wing,  4'5  to  4-75  ;  tarsus,  07  to  075  ;  bill  from 
gape,  1-1  to  1-3;  weight,  1-5  to  1-82  oz. 

Females.— Length,  8'35  to  8-6 ;  expanse,  15  to  15  3  ;  tail,  3  to 
3-4;  wing,  475  to  4'9  ;  tarsus,  07  to  0-8  ;  bill  from  gape,  1-1 
to  1-3;  weight,   1-5  to  175  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  dark  plumbeous  or  plumbeous  brown ;  claws 
very  dark  brown  ;  irides  light  wood  to  deep  brown  ;  upper 
mandible  dull  black,  dark  brown,  or  horny  brown ;  lower 
mandible  and  extreme  base  of  upper  mandible  pale  plumbeous 
or  bluish  white. 


124  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

The  male  lias  the  forehead  pale  brown,  varying  in  breadth 
in  different  specimens ;  the  lores  similar  but  paler;  feathers 
round  the  eye,  cheeks  and  ear-coverts  forming  a  large  patch 
on  the  side  of  the  head  and  neck,  silvery  white  ;  a  conspicuous 
black  mandibular  stripe  from  the  gape  down  the  sides  of  the 
neck;  chin  and  upper  throat  white  unmarked,  or  the  latter 
with  a  few  minute  black  streaks ;  lower  part  of  throat  white, 
sometimes  with  a  brownish  or  yellowish  tinge,  streaked  with 
black;  breast  and  abdomen  clear  brownish  yellow  or  somewhat 
olivaceous  brown,  varying  in  tint  in  different  specimens  ;  the 
middle  of  the  abdomen  always  yellowish ;  the  breast  sometimes 
whitish,  in  some  specimens  a  little  tinged  with  crimson  ;  all  the 
feathers  with  black  shaft  streaks,  largest  and  most  conspicuous 
on  the  breast,  nearly  obsolete  in  the  middle  of  the  abdomen ; 
flanks  barred  white  and  greyish  brown ;  lower  tail-coverts 
crimson ;  posterior  part  of  forehead,  crown  and  occiput  crim- 
son ;  interscapulary  region,  upper  tail-coverts  and  four 
or  six  central  tail  feathers  pure  black ;  rest  of  back  and  tail 
and  wings  black,  barred  with  white ;  the  primaries  paler 
colored  or  darkish  hair  brown  ;  first  primary  with  only  a  trace 
of  one,  the  others  with  two  or  three  bars  on  the  outer  webs 
and  corresponding  spots  on  the  inner  webs ;  the  bars  imper- 
fect on  all  the  quills,  represented  by  spots  on  both  webs ; 
wing-lining  mingled  black  and  white. 

The  females  never  have  any  red  tinge  on  the  breast,  and  they 
have  the  frontal  band  somewhat  greyer  and  narrower,  and 
the  whole  upper  part  of  the  head  black. 

The  only  two  Tenasserim  Woodpeckers  with  which  this 
species  could  be  confounded  are  Picus  analis,  Horsf.  (pectora- 
lis}  *  Blyth  )  and  Picus  macei. 

Analis  is  much  smaller,  and  has  the  rump,  upper  tail-co- 
verts and  central  tail  feathers  barred  with  white  ;  macei 
has  the  entire  under  parts  pale  fawny,  with  only  faint  black 
striations,  the  color  of  the  lower  parts  in  our  bird  being  to- 
tally different. 

Lord  Tweeddale  remarks,  Ibis,  1876,313,  that  atratus  is  dis- 
tinguished from  macei  by  having  the  uropygium  uniform 
black  and  not  marked  with  white,  but  in  all  my  specimens 
of  macei  I  find  that  there  is  precisely  as  much  of  the  rump 
and  upper  tail-coverts  uniform  black  as  in  the  present  species. 

160. — Picus  malirattensis,  Lath.  S.  F.,  III.,  58. 

Ramsay  obtained  specimens  of  this  species  at  Tonglwo.  It 
does  not,  I  believe,  occur  in  Tenasserim  proper. 


*  I  unite  these  two  on  other  people's  authority.  I  have  never  seen  a  Javan  specimen. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 


125 


163  bis. — Yungipicus  canicapillus,  Blyth.  (25)  J.  A. 
S.  B.,  XIV.,  197,  1845.  Descr.  S.  F.,  Ill,  60. 

?  variegatus,  Lath,  apud  Wagl.,  Syst.  Av.  Gen.  Pic.  sp.  26, 
1827,  nee.  Lath. 

?  bicolor,  Gm.,  S.N.  I., 438, 1788  apud  Wagl.  loc.  cit ,  1827 
nee.  Gm. 

?  moluccensis,  Tern,  nee  Gm.  Tabl.  Meth.  63,1838. 

?sondiacus,  Wall,  apud  Gray.  Hand  List  8589,  1870;  apud 
Tiocedd.,  Ibis,  1877,  290;  Wall,  in  Uccelli  di  Borneo, 
43,  n.  1874. 

?  fuscoalbidus,  Salvad.  U.  di  B.,  42,  1874. 

(TongJtoo,  Karennee,  at  4,000  feet,  Rams.)  K.youk-nyat;  Pahpoon  ;  Tliatone  ; 
E-poo;  Amherst:  Yea;  Zadee;    MeetaMyo;  Mergui ;  Bankasoon ;   Malewoon. 

Generally  distributed  throughout  the  province  to  an  ele- 
vation not  exceeding  5,000  feet. 

[This  speces  chiefly  frequents  old  clearings,  moderately  thin 
jungle,  groves  of  trees,  &c,  but  avoids,  as  a  rule,  dense  forest 
or  bamboo  jungle. 

It  extends  quite  to  the  south  of  the  Malayan  Peninsula. 
I  have  shot  it  in  Johore,  and  have  seen  it  in  Singapore. — W.  D.] 

Sumatran  and  Malaccan  specimens,  and  (the  Marquis  of 
Tweeddale  informs  us,  Ibis,  1877,  290,)  Javan  ones  also,  are 
identical.  Again  Malaccan  specimens  and  others  from 
different  portions  of  the  Malay  Peninsula  are  inseparable  from 
others  from  all  parts  of  the  Tenasserim  provinces,  Upper 
Burma,  Tipperah  and  Cachar.  From  all  localities  the  size  is 
somewhat  variable.  In  all  localities  the  extent  of  the  brown- 
ish grey  of  the  crown,  the  width  and  depth  of  color  of  the 
dark  occipital  patch  and  lateral  crown  stripes  varies,  as  does 
also  the  amount  of  spotting  on  the  central  tail  feathers. 

Assuming  that  the  Javan  birds  are  identical  with  the  Su- 
matran and  Malaccan,  then,  if  we  reject  Wagler's  name,  all  the 
birds  must  stand  under  Blyth's  name. 

I  am  not  sure  whether,  strictly  speaking,  according  to  the 
Code,  Wagler's  name  can  be  rejected.  It  involves  doubtless  an 
erroneous  identification,  but  it  was  the  first  distinctive  appel- 
lation bestowed  upon  the  species,  and  was  accompanied  by  a 
detailed  description. 

Anyhow  if  we  reject  Wagler's  name  we  must  accept  Blytlr's. 

It  has  been  said  that  canicapillus  is  larger,  has  a  greater  ex- 
tent of  grey  on  the  crown,  a  darker  tone  of  coloration  on  the 
upper  surface,  &c;  but,  as  a  matter  of  fact  from  Sumatra  to 
Cachar,  the  species  is  absolutely  one  and  the  same.  Indivi- 
duals vary,  but  there  does  not  appear  to  be  the  smallest  con- 
stant local  variation  in  either  color  or  size. 


126  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

I  give  the  size  of  wing  of  a  number  of  specimens 


Johore, 

31;  32;  3'1  ; 

3*1  (The    extreme  south 
of  the  Malay  Pen- 
insula.) 

Victoria  Point, 

315; 

(The      southernmost 
point  of   the   main- 
land of  Tenasserim.) 

Malewoon, 

33;  33;  31 

;31;3. 

Mergui, 

3-13. 

Amherst, 

31. 

Thatone, 

3-2;  3-2. 

Wimpong, 

3-27;  3-15. 

Myawadee, 

3-3. 

E-poo, 

3-23. 

Pahpoon, 

32;  326;  3'1 

;  3-25;  3>13;  3'1  ;  3'3. 

Kyouk-nyat, 

32;  325. 

Thayet  Myo, 

31  ;  31. 

East  Pegu  Hills, 

3-22. 

Commilla,  Tipperah 

30 ;  33. 

Dilkoushah,  Cachar, 

,  3-35  ;  32. 

I  might  multiply  measurements,  but  the  above  T  conceive  are 
sufficient  to  show  that,  from  the  extreme  south  of  the  Malay 
Peninsula,  there  is  no  appreciable  variation  in  size,  and  the 
same  may  be  said  of  plumage. 

I  do  think  that,  taken  as  a  body,  the  heads  of  the  southern 
birds  average  slightly  browner,  and  those  of  the  north  slightly 
greyer ;  but  browner  headed  birds  are  equally  met  with  in  the 
north,  and  greyer  ones  in  the  south,  and  this  slight  difference  in 
the  average  shade  cannot  possibly  constitute  grounds  for  specific 
separation. 

Note  that  I  only  unite  Javan  birds  on  the  Marquis  of  Tweed- 
dale's  authority.  Wagler  and  ethers  give  the  wings  of  Javan 
specimens  considerably  shorter  than  those  of  any  specimens 
that  we  have. 

Again,  the  Marquis  of  Tweeddale  unites  sondiacus  of  Wallace 
fully  described  in  Salvadori's  work  loc.  cit.,  with  Sumatran  and 
Malaecau  specimens  under  the  name  fuscoalbidus  applied  by  Sal- 
vadori  to  the  Bornean  specimens.  But  Wallace  gives  the  wing 
as  2  88,  agreeing  therefore  with  the  dimensions  given  for  the 
Javan  form. 

Is  it  possible  that  a  second  smaller  race  occurs  both  in 
Sumatra  and  the  Malay  Peninsula,  and  that  canieapillus,  a 
distinct  and  larger  race,  also  extends  to  both  of  these  ? 

We  have  collected  largely  in  the  southern  portion  of  the 
Malay  Peninsula,  but  we  have  come  across  no  specimens  with 
the  Avings  appreciably  less  than  the  dimensions  above  given. 
Unfortunately,  Salvador!  does  not  give  the   dimensions  of  the 


BIBDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 


127 


wings  of  Lis  Bornean  specimens,  nor  does  the  Marquis  of 
Tweeddale  give  those  of  his  Sumatran  ones  j  and  all  I  can  say 
positively  therefore  is  that,  while  I  entertain  no  doubt  that 
certain  Sumatran  and  Malay  Peninsula  specimens  are  referable 
to  canicapillus,  it  is  possible  that  another  smaller  race  occurs 
in  Java,  and  that  this  same  smaller  race  may  also  occur  in 
Borneo  and  along  with  canicapillus  in  Sumatra  and  the  Malay 
Peninsula. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c.,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males.— Length,  535  to  5-75  ;  expanse,  10'0  to  10-62  ;  tail 
from  vent,  1-75  to  2*12  ;  wing,  3*1  to  3"3  ;  tarsus,  0*5  to  06  ; 
bill  from  gape,  0-75  to  0-8;  weight.  067  to  075  oz. 

Female.— Length,  5'3  to  5*75  ;  expanse,  10-62  to  108  ;  tail 
from  vent,  175  to  2-12 ;  wing,  3-12  to  3'27;  tarsus,  0*5;  bill 
fromgape,  0'65  to  0-7;   weight,  0-5  to  0-7  oz. 

Legs,  feet,  claws,  and  lower  mandible  plumbeous  ;  upper 
mandible  horny  brown  ;  irides  red  brown. 

165  bis— Hemicercus  canente,  Less.  (43).  Descr.  S.  R, 
III.,  61. 

(?  Karen  Bills,  from  5C0  to  4,000  feet,  Earns.)  Palipoon ;  Salween  R.  ; 
Beeling  ;  Thntone  ;  Wmipong;  Kaukaryit,  Hongtkraw  K.  ;  Khyin;  Meetan  ; 
Amherst ;  Zadee;  Meeta  Myo ;  Zadawoon  ;  Tenasserim  Town;  Laynah. >  Pakchan  j 
Bankasoon. 

Generally  distributed  throughout  the    province. 

[The  Burmese  Heart-spotted  Woodpecker,  though  widely  dif- 
fused, is  nowhere  common.  It  is  chiefly  met  with  in  moderately 
thin  jungle  and  clearings,  in  pairs,  sometimes  in  families,  and  is 
very  sprightly  in  its  movements.  It  has  a  peculiar  note,  a  sort  of 
lono--drawn  chur-r,  which  it  constantly  utters  as  it  moves  about 
the°branches,  and  by  which  it  often  betrays  its  presence.  Both 
sexes  of  this  species  like  H.  cordatus  bear  tufts  of  bristly  feathers 
in  the  middle  of  the  back,  which  are  usually  covered  with  a 
gummy  substance,  which  has  a  very  strong  peculiar,  somewhat 
resinous,  but  decidedly  pleasant  smell.  Both  the  viscidity  and 
the  scent  completely  disappear  after  the  specimen  has  .been 
preserved  a  short  time. — W.  D.] 

I  give  the  Karen  Hills  doubtfully  as  a  habitat  of  this  species, 
because  the  Marquis  of  Tweeddale  says  of  the  species  occur- 
ring there : — 

"  Two  males  are  sent  by  Mr.  Ramsay  ;  one  has  the  head  uni- 
form deep  black ;  the  other,  with  a  few  buff  markings  on  the 
feathers  of  the  forehead  and  crown." 

This,  if  accurate,  seems  to  indicate  a  distinct  species.  I  have 
examined  over  50  specimens  of  this  species,  and  never  yet  saw 
one  with  the  head  uniform  deep  black.  Davison  has  seen  many 
more  and  says  the  same.   Neither  have  we  ever  seen   one   with 


128  BIRDS  OP  TENASSEBIM. 

buff '  markings  s  properly  so  called,  on  either  forehead  or  crown. 
Mere  specks  are  not  marking's,  and  these  are  all  we  have  ever 
seen  on  the  heads  of  adult  males  and  in  the  young-  males,  as 
the  buffy  head  becomes  black,  beginning  at  the  forehead,  the  buff 
speckles  show  out  there.  Either  Ramsay's  specimens  belong 
to  a  distinct  race,  or  they  are  altogether  abnormal. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  of  this  species : — 

Males. — Length,  6*35  to  6-5;  expanse,  12*75  to  13*0;  tail  from 
vent,  1-75  to  2'12  •  wing,  3"8  to  3*9;  tarsus,  075  •  bill  from 
gape,  10  to  1*15 ;  weight,  175  oz. 

Females. — Length,  5-62  to  6*37  *  expanse,  11*45  to  12*55  •  tail 
from  vent,  1*5  to  1*82  ;  wing,  3*45  to  3*75  ■  tarsus,  0*62  to  07  ; 
bill  from  gape,  0*82  to  0*92  •  weight,  1*25  to  1*5    oz. 

Legs  and  feet  very  dark  green,  sometimes  so  dark  as  to  appear 
black ;  bill  black,  bluish  at  gape  ;  irides  dark  reddish  brown. 

165  bis  A.— Hemicercus  sordidus,  Eyton.  (1). 

Bankasoon. 

Only  a  straggler  to  the  extreme  south  of  the  province. 

Ornithologists  are  not  by  any  means  agreed  as  to  the  num- 
ber of  species  of  this  genus  inhabiting  the  Malay  Peninsula, 
Java,  Sumatra,  and  Borneo. 

Count  Salvadori  (Uccelli  di  Borneo,  46)  gives  the  following 
diagnosis  of  the  four  species  which  he  admits  : — 

i.     H.  concretus,  Tern. 

Male. — Crest  in  front  reddish  yellowish  brown,  behind  red. 

ii.     H.  hartlaubi,  Math. 

Male. — Crest  entirely  red,  uniformly  colored. 

iii.  H.  sordidus,  Eyton. 

Male. — Crest  in  front  red,  behind  ashy  ;  rump  and  under 
tail-coverts  isabelline. 

iv.  H.  brookeanus,  Salvad. 

Male. — Like  sordidus,  but  rump  and  lower  tail-coverts  lemon 
yellow. 

The  Marquis  of  Tweeddale,  Ibis,  1877,  291,  unites  sordidus 
and  brookeanus  and  concretus  as  defined  by  Salvadori,  while  he 
unites  hartlaubi  with  the  true  concretus,  ex  Java  of  the  PI. 
Col.,  and  remarks  that  the  occurrence  of  true  concretus  beyond 
Java  rests  on  no  good  authority. 

There  is  no  doubt  as  to  the  identity  of  brookeanus  and  sor- 
didus. Freshly-moulted  specimens,  shot  in  the  Malay  Peninsula, 
often  have  a  more  or  less  bright  lemon  yellow  tinge  on  rump 
and  lower  tail  coverts,  and  in  some  of  our  specimens  this  tinge 
pervades  all  the  paler  portions  of  the  plumage. 

There  is  also  no  doubt  that  hartlaubi  is  Javan.  Mr.  Gould 
figures  an  unmistakeable  specimen  of  hartlaubi,  Birds  of  Asia, 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSEMM.  129 

XXVII.,  pi.  10,  from  Javau  specimens,  and  there  is  also,  I  think, 
no  reason  to  doubt,  judging-  from  the  great  variations  obser- 
vable in  specimens  of  sordidus,  that  the  specimens  he  figures  at 
pi.  9  from  Java  under  the  name  of  concretus  are  identical 
with  hartlaubi  and  with  the  true  conoretm  of  the  PI.  Col.  No.  90. 

In  fact  these  three  figures  represent  the  progress  of  the  male 
from  the  early  to  the  old  adult  stage.  Fig.  2  of  PI.  XLL, 
Malherbe's  Mon.  Picidce,  shows  the  quite  young  bird,  of  which 
I  have  a  specimen  now  before  me,  only  somewhat  younger  ;  in 
that  the  whole  of  the  feathers  of  the  breast  and  abdomen  are 
broadly  fringed  with  ruddy  isabelline. 

Assuming  for  the  moment  the  distinctness  of  concretus  vel 
hartlaubi,  from  sordidus  vel  brookeanus,  I  think  the  occurrence 
of  the  former  elsewhere  than  in  Java  rests  on  very  fair  authority. 

Temminck,  in  the  Texte  of  the  Planches  Col.  90,  remarks  that 
males  from  Sumatra  have  "the  forehead  and  the  ivhole  of  the 
feathers  of  the  crest  a  bright  vermilion."  This  can  only  apply 
to  the  form  known  as  hartlaubi;  it  does  not  apply  to  any  of  the 
stages  usually  accepted  as  pertaining  to  sordidus. 

Malherbe  gives  this  species  from  Borneo.  Count  Salvadori 
mentions  specimens  in  the  Milan  Museum  recorded  from  Borneo  : 
Mr.  Gould  distinctly  says  that  he  has  a  skin  of  the  same  species 
from  Malacca. 

We  have  a  specimen  shot  on  the  14th  November  at  Nealys, 
31  miles  from  Malacca,  in  which  only  just  the  under  feathers 
of  the  crest  at  the  base  of  the  occiput  are  grey  brown,  or  greyish 
olive — the  whole  visible  portion  of  crown  and  crest  being  crimson, 
so  that  it  hartlaubi,  as  at  present  usually  defined,  is,  as  there  seems 
no  doubt,  identical  with  concretus,  we  must  I  think  accept  a 
wider  habitat  for  it  than  Java. 

The  Marquis  of  Tweeddale  gives  the  following  stages  of 
plumage  of  head,  for  male,  of  what  he  considers  sordidus: — 

Crown  deep  crimson  ;  post  occipital  crest  plumes  dark  greyish 
olive. 

Crown  and  all  crest  plumes  dingy  reddish  buff  or  yellowish 
red. 

Crown  almost  all  pure  crimson ;  post  occipital  plumes  chang- 
ing from  reddish  tawny  to  olive  grey. 

Crown  ruddy  buff ;  elongated  occipital  crest  feathers  flame  red 
with  yellowish  buff  shaft  line  and  tip. 

Crown  mixed  bright  crimson  and  pale  ruddy  buff;  post  occipi- 
tal plumes  dark  greyish  olive. 

To  which  we  may  add — 

Crown  and  crest  crimson ;  basal  occipital  feathers  concealed  by 
upper  more  elongated  ones,  greyish  olive. 

Crown  and  crest  mixed  crimson  and  reddish  tawny  ;  occipital 
feathers,  concealed  by  upper  more  elongated  ones,  greyish  olive. 

17 


130  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

Crown  and  upper  part  of  occiput  brownish  ruddy  buff ;  each 
feather  narrowly  tipped  with  dark  brown  ;  crest  feathers  of  the 
same  color,  and  similarly  tipped,  but  the  basal  two-thirds  crim- 
son, except  at  the  margins  and  on  the  shafts,  which  are  concolo- 
rous  with  the  tip. 

One  of  our  specimens,  shot  at  Pulo  Seban,  22  miles  from 
Malacca  on  the  12th  of  November,  matches  Mr.  Gould's  figure  of 
concretus  from  Javan  specimens,  as  regards  the  crest,  except  that 
the  crimson  portion  of  the  posterior  crest  is  not  quite  so  bright 
as  exhibited  by  him. 

Having  no  adult  male  Javan  specimens  to  compare,  I  cannot 
offer  any  opinion  as  to  the  distinctness  or  otherwise  of  concretus, 
but  I  feel  quite  convinced  that  no  distinctive  characters  can  be 
based  upon  the  color  of  the  head  and  crest,  and  if  the  birds  are 
distinct,  the  distinction  must  be  based  upon  other  characters. 

To  judge  by  Mr.  Gould's  figures,  the  Javan  birds  are  of  a 
much  darker  color  on  cheeks  and  breast,  and  exhibit  much  more 
isabelline  on  the  occiput,  back  of  the  nape,  and  cheek  stripe 
than  sordidus  ever  does,  and  have  moreover  a  much  more 
marked  squamification  of  the  lower  surface  than  is  ever  obser- 
vable in  sordidus ;  but  these  characteristics  are  not  traceable  in 
Malherbe's  figures,  nor  in  Temminck's,  and  cannot  be  relied  on. 

The  following  is  a  description  of  a  young  male  sordidus  (assu- 
ming that  there  are  two  distinct  species)  shot  at  Bankasoon  on 
the  10th  June.  This  is  obviously  a  bird  just  from  the  nest,  and 
is  absolutely  identical  with  a  Javan  specimen  of  the  same 
age  :— 

The  entire  crown  brownish  ruddy  buff  ;  each  feather  narrowly 
tipped  with  dark  brown  ;  crest  similar  and  similarly  tipped  ;  ba- 
sal two- thirds  of  elongated  crest  feathers  dull  crimson  ;  the  mar- 
gins and  shafts  colored  like  the  terminal  portion. 

Back  of  neck  and  head,  under  crest,  ruddy  buff ;  chin,  throat 
and  sides  of  head  olive  brown  ;  centre  of  chin  and  throat  with  a 
greyish  tinge;  a  narrow  ruddy  buff  streak  from  the  gape  under 
the  ear-coverts  joining  into  the  ruddy  buff  of  the  nape. 

Breast  and  abdomen  olive  brown  ;  each  feather  broadly  fringed 
at  the  tip  with  rufescent  buff;  under  tail-coverts  black,  broadly  tip- 
ped with  rufescent  white  ;  primaries  and  their  greater  coverts,  se- 
condaries, and  tail  feathers  black  ;  hinder  secondaries  margined 
on  the  outer  webs  with  isabelline. 

Entire  mantle  and  tertiaries  rufous  isabelline,  palest  on  the 
tertiaries ;  the  feathers  black  centered,  but  the  rufous  margins  so 
broad  as  to  leave  comparatively  little  of  the  black  centering 
visible  ;  rump  and  upper  tail-coverts,  except  the  very  longest, 
rufous  isabelline,  excessively  narrowly  margined  at  the  tips 
with  black ;  longest  lateral  upper  tail-coverts  black,  tipped  with 
rufous  isabelline. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSEMM.  131 

The  females  of  sordidus  and  concretus  are  inseparable. 

Personally  I  doubt  the  distinctness  of  the  two  species,  though 
the  Javan  birds  may  run  smaller,  and  if  identical  all  will  stand 
as  concretus. 

165  ter.— Meiglyptes  tristis,  Horsf.    (21). 

Hankachin  ;  Bankasoon. 

Confined  to  the  extreme  south  of  the  province,  and  there  not 
rare. 

[This  species  is  usually  found  in  dense  forest,  not  coming 
out  to  clearing-s  and  open  tree  jungle.  It  goes  about  generally 
in  pairs,  hunting  the  branches  and  trunks  of  trees  like  Picus, 
but  never  descending  to  the  ground  as  Gecinus  and  others 
of  that  sub-group  so  often  do.  None  of  these  Meiglyptes  have 
the  strongly  scented  tuft  in  the  middle  of  the  back  that  is 
found  alike  in  the  Malayan,  Burmese,  and  South  Indian  Hemi- 
cerci.  Though  I  have  watched  these  closely  (they  are  not  shy). 
I  never  noticed  anything  peculiar  in  the  habits  of  any  of  the 
species  of  Meiglyptes. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  of  this  species  recorded 
in  the  flesh  : — 

Males.—  Length,  6'82  to  712  ;  expanse,  12-5  to  1272  ;  tail, 
2-12  to  2-4;  wing,  3-75  to  4*05  ;  tarsus,  065  to  07  ;  bill  from 
gape,  0*9  to  l'O;  weight,  1*5  to  T75  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  6*75  to  6'85  ;  expanse,  1235  to  12*85  ; 
tail,  2-12  to  2-4;  wing,  3-85  to  4-0;  tarsus,  0*65  to  0'75  ;  bill 
from  gape,  0  9;  weight,  l-5  ozs. 

The  legs  and  feet  dirty,  dingy,  or  glaucous  green  ;  claws  plum- 
bous  ;  bill  black  ;  edge  of  eyelids  black  ;  irides,  in  about  half 
the  specimens  of  each  sex,  deep  brown,  in  the  other  half  dull 
red. 

Lores,  feathers  immediately  round  eye,  the  point  of  the  chin, 
and  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible,  brownish  buff.  In  the  male 
a  patch  of  crimson  at  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible  on  either 
side  ;  the  rest  of  the  head  and  neck  all  round  white  to  buffy 
white  or  buff,  every  where  very  narrowly  and  closely  barred 
with  black  or  deep  brown  ;  breast  similar,  but  the  bars  rather 
broader  and  wider  apart ;  flanks  and  sides  of  abdomen  and 
lower  tail-coverts  similar,  but  the  bars  much  broader  and  wider 
apart ;  middle  of  abdomen  the  barrings  more  obsolete  and  con- 
fused, in  many  specimens  dark  brown,  spotted  with  buff;  wing- 
lining  and  axillaries  creamy  buff,  as  are  also  the  middle  of  the 
back  and  the  rump  ;  interscapulary  region,  wings  and  tail  black, 
barred  with  buff  or  buffy  white,  in  some  specimens  nearly  pure 
white  on  the  tail  and  towards  the  tips  of  the  secondaries  ;  the 
bars   are   more   or  less   imperfect  on  both  quills  and  rectrices, 


132  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

being  represented  by  spots  on  both  webs,  except  towards  the 
tips  of  the  primaries  where  the  spots  are  on  the  outer  webs  only. 
On  the  inner  webs  of  the  quills  these  spots  are  much  larger, 
and  have  a  tendency  to  coalesce  towards  the  bases  of  the  fea- 
thers. 

The  females  only  differ  in  wanting-  the  red  mandibular  patch  ; 
specimens  differ  a  good  deal  in  appearance,  as  some  have  the  paler 
portions  of  the  plumage  whiter  and  others  have  it  much  more 
buffy. 

165  quat—  Meiglyptes  jugularis,  Blyth.  (15),  Descr. 
S.  P.,  111,63. 

Palipoou  ;  Assoon  ;  Meetan  ;  Amherst  ;  Lemyne  ;  Yea  ;  Meeta   Myo  5  Tavoy. 

Confined  to  the  northern  and  central  portions  of  the  pro- 
vince. 

[Like  tristis  in  voice  and  habits,  but  not  nearly  so  much  of 
a  forest  bird,  being  often  found  in  large  clearings  and  open 
jungle,  and  even  in  bamboo  jungle. — W.  D.] 

165  guint— Meiglyptes  tukki,  Less.    (13). 

Bankasoon. 

Confined  to  the  extreme  south  of  the  province. 

[This  is  a  bird  of  the  dense  forest;  it  is  common  enough  in 
the  Malay  Peninsula  and  on  Singapore  Island,  but  only  just 
extends  within  our  limits. 

All  the  three,  species  of  Meiglyptes  occurring  within  our  limits 
are  very  similar  in  their  habits  and  voice.  The  note  is  a  re- 
gular Woodpecker  note,  a  sort  of  rolling  kirr-r-r. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  of  this 
species : — 

Males. — Length,  8'45  to  9'1 ;  expanse,  12'75  to  1375  ;  tail, 
2-75  to  3'2;  wing,  4"  1  to  4*25  ;  tarsus,  07  to  0"9  ;  bill  from 
gape,  1'05  to  I'l  ;  weight,  2  to  2'25  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  8*12  to  8*75  ;  expanse,  13*  to  13-75  ;  tail, 
2-82  to  3-0  ;  wing,  4*05  to  4'1  ;  tarsus,  0'76  to  07  ;  bill  from 
gape,  1-05  to  1*12  ;  weight,  2-25  ozs. 

Leo-s  and  feet  dull  or  brownish  green  ;  claws  a  little  paler  ; 
irides  brown  ;  upper  mandible  black  ;  lower  mandible  pale  plum- 
beous blue,  in  some  greenish  ;  in  many  the  tip  is  dark  plumbeous 
and  the  base  is  also  at  times  a  darker  plumbeous. 

In  the  male,  a  bright  crimson  stripe  on  either  side  at  the  base 
of  the  lower  mandible  ;  in  some  males  the  feathers  of  the  forehead 
slightly  tipped  with  crimson  ;  both  these  are  wanting  in  the 
female;  in  other  respects  the  plumage  of  the  two  sexes  does 
not  differ. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  133 

The  entire  top,  back  aud  sides  of  the  neck,  olive  brown, 
paler  on  the  sides  of  the  head,  darker  on  the  occiput  and 
nape ;  chin  and  throat  buffy  white,  very  narrowly  aud 
closely  barred  with  blackish  brown  ;  a  black  patch  at  the 
base  of  the  throat  in  front  running1  up  on  each  side  of  the 
throat  a  little  way,  to  where,  in  the  male,  it  meets  the  red  man- 
dibular stripe ;  immediately  behind  the  red  mandibular  stripe 
commences  a  pale  creamy  buff  stripe,  which  runs  down  the  side 
of  the  neck,  narrow  above,  broader  below  ;  breast  blackish 
brown,  very  narrowly  barred,  but  not  near  so  closely  as  on  the 
throat,  with  yellowish  white  ;  abdomen  and  rest  of  lower  parts 
a  dull,  somewhat  olivaceous  brown,  unbarred  in  the  middle  of  the 
abdomen,  elsewhere  barred,  more  broadly  than  on  the  breast, 
with  fulvous  white ;  upper  parts  colored  much  like  the  occiput, 
but  a  rather  purer  brown  ;  lesser  and  most  of  the  median  coverts 
unbarred  ;  rest  of  the  mantle,  back,  rump  and  upper  tail-coverts 
with  narrow  transverse  yellowish  white  or  pale  fulvous  bars, 
which  in  the  quills  and  rectrices  are  represented  by  spots  or  im- 
perfect bars  on  both  webs,  except  towards  the  tips  of  the  earlier 
primaries  where  there  are  no  marking's  on  the  inner  webs.  On 
the  inner  webs  of  the  quills  towards  their  bases  the  spots 
are  much  larger.    Wing-lining'  nearly  uniform  creamy  buff. 

166.— Chrysocolaptes  sultaneus,  Hodgs.  (41).  S.  F., 
III.,  64. 

(Tonghoo,  Kams.)  Kollidoo ;  Kyouk-nyat ;  Pahpoon  ;  Younzaleen  Creek; 
Thatone  ;  Tavoy  ;  Thenganee  Sakan  ;  Moulinein ;  Yea-boo  ;  Amherst ;  Zadee  ; 
Shymotee  5  Mergui ;  Pakchan  ,  Bankasoon. 

Common  throughout  the  province  up  to  elevations  of  5,000  feet. 

[Found  in  all  kinds  of  localities,  dense  and  thin,  evergreen 
aud  deciduous  forests,  clearing's,  &c.  Captain  Feilden  has  well 
described  the  habits  of  this  species,  S.  F.,  III.,  65. — W.  D.] 

Tenasserim  specimens  are,  I  think,  on  the  whole  nearer  the 
Himalayan  than  the  Southern  Indian  form  delesserti  of  Malherbe. 
Which  species  Tickell's  P.  guttacristatus  (J.  A.  8.  B.,  II.,  578) 
belong-ed  to  must  remain  doubtful,  until  further  specimens  are 
obtained  in  Bhorabhum  and  Dholbum.  I  have  seen  no  speci- 
mens of  either  sultaneus  or  delesserti  thence,  but  the  dimensions 
given — length  10"5  and  bill  1*8 — show  clearly  that  if  Tickell's 
bird  was  either  of  these,  it  belonged  to  the  smaller  southern  form, 
for  which  even  the  total  length  is  too  small.  Tickell's  name 
cannot  at  present  be  properly  applied  to  any  species. 

168.— Muelleripicus  pulverulentus,  Tem.  (21). 

(Karen  Hills,  Bams;  Tonghoo,  Lloyd.)  Pahpoon ;  Younzaleen  Creek; 
Larthorgee  ;   Thatone  ;  Amherst ;  Pakchan  :  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon  ;  Kohtoung. 

Sparingly  distributed  throughout  the  better-wooded  and 
less-elevated  portions  of  the  province  and  ascending,  Ramsay 
says,  the  Karen  Hills  to  a  considerable  elevation, 


134  BIRDS   OF   TENASSEMM. 

[This  species  cannot  be  said  to  be  common  anywhere.  It 
almost  always  goes  about  in  small  parties  of  from  four  to  six 
or  eight,  following  each  other  about  from  tree  to  tree,  keeping  up 
the  while  a  querulous  call  totally  unlike  that  of  any  other 
Woodpecker  I  know.  Even  when  at  work  tapping,  they  desist  at 
intervals  and  call,  being  answered  by  one  or  more  of  the  party, 
which  is  usually  scattered  about  on  neighbouring  trees.  With 
a  little  patience,  and  by  carefully  following  them  as  they  move 
through  the  jungle,  the  whole  party  may  be  secured  with  little 
difficulty. 

They  do  not  restrict  themselves  to  any  particular  localities, 
but  are  met  with  in  dense  and  thin  forest,  in  clearings,  in  fact 
wherever  there  may  happen  to  be  trees.  They  very  rarely 
work  low,  but  keep  up  on  the  higher  branches  of  the  trees. 
They  keep  pretty  much  on  the  alert,  and  the  moment  they 
catch  sight  of  you,  they  twist  out  of  sight  behind  the  branch 
on  which  they  happen  to  be  ;  in  fact,  the  best  way  to  shoot  them 
is  to  have  them  driven  off  the  tree  and  then  take  them  as  they 
fly.— W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  and  colors  of  soft  parts  of 
a  large  series  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males.— Length,  19-0to20'0;  expanse,  29*0  to  30-5;  tail 
from  vent,  7-25  to  7-75  ;  wing,  8"36  to  9*5  ;  tarsus,  1-39  to  1-5; 
bill  from  gape,  275  to  3!1  ;  weight,  1*0  to  1-5  lbs. 

Females. — Length,  18*25  to  19*5  ;  expanse,  27*5  to  2975 ;  tail 
from  vent,  6"6  to  7*6  ;  wing,  8'8  to  9*37  \  tarsus,  1*35  to  1*5  ; 
bill  from  gape,  2-65  to  2-75  ;  weight,  12  to  16  ozs. 

Legs  and  feet  are  dark  plumbeous  ;  claws  dark  bluish  horny  ; 
bill  dull  pale  blue,  gradually  shading  white,  tinged  blue  at  tip  ; 
orbital  skin  very  dark  plumbeous  or  plumbeous  grey  ;  irides 
dull  leaden  blue  or  deep  brown. 

169  ter. — Thriponax  crawfurdi,  J.  E.  Gr.  (8).  Descr. 
S.  I\,  III.,  66. 

(Tonghoo,  Earns.)  Kyouk-nyat ;  Palipoon  ;  Tkafone  ;  Wirapong  ;  Larthorgee. 

Confined  to  the  northern  portions  of  the  province ;  quite  in 
the  south  replaced  by  the  next  species  ;  but  between  occurs,  I 
believe,  a  wide  break  in  which  neither  is  found. 

[I  only  met  with  this  species  at  Pahpoon  and  in  the  hills  to 
the  north  of  that  place,  in  the  plains  country  between  the 
Salween  and  Sittang,  and  again  near  Myawadee.  It  is  rare,  for  I 
have  not  seen  it  more  than  a  score  of  times  from  first  to  last. 
I  have  shot  it  in  the  tree  jungle  aud  in  old  clearings,  but  I 
have  also  seen  it  in  comparatively  thick  forest. 

I  have  noticed  in  this  species  and  in  the  nearly  allied 
T.javensis  what  Captain  Feilden  has  recorded  (S.  F.,  III.,  68)  viz., 
that  when  tapping  the  strokes  are  delivered  slowly,  and  not  in  rapid 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  135 

succession,  producing  a  vapid  roll  as  is  the  case  with  M.  pulveru- 
lentus  and  C.  sultaneus.  I  can  add  nothing  to  Captain  Feilden's 
excellent  account. — W.  D.] 

169  quat.—  Thriponax  javensis,  Horsf.  (7).  S.   F., 
HI.,  67. 

Laynah  ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Confined  to  the  southernmost  district  of  the  province. 

[In  all  its  habits,  the  localities  it  frequents,  voice,  &c,  this 
species  resembles  exactly  the  last. — W.  D.] 

Malherbe  doubted  the  occurrence  of  this  species  in  Tenas- 
serim,  but  south  of  Mergui  it  is  not  uncommon.  I  have  already, 
S.  F.,  III.,  67,  pointed  out  briefly  how  this  and  the  allied 
Indian  Black  Woodpeckers  differ.  The  only  Burmese  species 
with  which  this  could  be  confounded  is  crawfurdi  (S.F.,  III.,  66), 
which  is  distinguished  at  once  by  its  white  rump,  and  by  the 
great  amount  of  white  on  the  inner  webs  of  the  primaries. 

The  present  species  varies  a  good  deal  in  size  ;  the  birds  pro- 
bably take  some  years  to  attain  their  full  dimensions. 

Males. — Length,  15-5  to  17  75  ;  expanse,  26  to  28'25  ;  tail, 
5-29  to  7-26  ;  wing,  8'75  to  9'2 ;  tarsus,  1'25  to  1'35  ;  bill  from 
gape,  2*25  to  2  6 ;  weight,  8  to  12  ozs. 

females. — Length,  16"25  to  18"12 ;  expanse,  26  to  28'5  ;  tail, 
62  to  7-5 ;  wing,  8-5  to  9-4 ;  tarsus,  1*25  to  1*45;  bill  from 
gape,  2 '2  to  2*35  ;  weight,  8  to  12  ozs. 

Legs  and  feet  pale  plumbeous  to  leaden  blue ;  iris  creamy 
white^  creamy  yellow,  clear  yellow ;  orbital  skin  very  dark  plum- 
beous ;  bill  black  ;  lower  mandible  plumbeous  blue  to  dusky 
plumbeous. 

In  the  males  the  forehead,  crown,  occiput  and  occipital  crest, 
and  a  broad  patch  on  either  sides  at  the  base  of  each  mandible  are 
intense  crimson.  In  the  female  these  patches  are  wanting,  and 
the  forehead  and  crown  are  black.  Excepting  the  red  positions, 
the  entire  upper  surface  of  the  bird,  tail,  sides  of  the  neck,  and 
breast  are  black  ;  the  upper  plumage,  in  fine  specimens,  with  a 
certain  amount  of  a  bluish  or  greenish  lustre ;  the  chin  and 
throat  and  front  of  the  neck,  except  at  the  base,  black,  speckled 
with  white ;  the  sides  of  the  head  are  black,  but  there  is  a 
little  white  speckling  immediately  behind  the  ear-coverts ; 
the  entire  abdomen,  sides,  and  flanks  are  pale  yellowish  crea- 
my ;  the  lowest  feathers  of  the  breast  are  tipped  whitish  ;  the 
lowest  feathers  of  the  abdomen,  flanks,  and  tibial  plumes  have 
a  blackish  brown,  more  or  less  cordate  spot  near  the  tip ;  the 
lower  tail-coverts  are  black.  The  primary  lower  wing-coverts 
black  ;  the  lowest  of  them  greyish  brown  ;  the  rest  of  the  wing- 
lining  creamy  white. 


130  BIRDS   OF   TENASSEKIM. 

The  quills  have  a  little  white  or  yellowish  white  at  their 
extreme  bases,  variable  iu  amount.  One  very  fine  male  has  not 
a  trace  of  this  on  the  base  of  the  primaries,  only  on  the 
bases  of  the  secondaries  and  tertiaries.  One  female — and  the 
females  seem  to  show  it  more  than  the  males — has  the  basal 
three-quarters  of  an  inch  of  the  inner  webs  of  the  primaries 
white. 

171. — Gecinus  striolatus,  Bly. 

Said  by  Lord  Tweeddale  (B.  of  B.,  p.  76)  to  have  been 
obtained  at  Tonghoo  by  Major  Lloyd,  but  seen  nowhere  else  in 
Tenasserim  as  yet. 

171  Us.— Gecinus  vittatus,  Vieill  (68).  Descb.  S.  F., 

III.,  69. 

(Tonghoo,  Rams.)  Pakpoon  ;  Sittang  R.  ;  Theinzeik  ;  Thatone  ;  Wimpong  ; 
Thengnnee  Sakan  ;  Myawadee  ;  Topee  ;  Karope ;  Amherst  ;  Yea  ;  Meeta  Myo  ; 
Tavoy  ;  Shymotee  ;  Uslieetkerrpone  ;  Mergui ;  Tenasserim  Town  ;  Bopyin  ; 
Choun  pyah  ;   Pakchan ;    Bankasoon- 

Extremely  common  throughout  the  province,  except  in  the 
hilly  portions  above  3,500  feet  elevation. 

[This  is  one  of  the  commonest  of  our  Woodpeckers,  except 
in  the  extreme  south,  and  even  there  it  is  far   from  rare. 

I  have  not  }^et  met  with  it  anywhere  in  the  Malay  Peninsula 
south  of  the  Pakchan. 

Its  habits  and  notes  are  precisely  like  those  of  the  other 
Gecini — -occipitalis,  squamatus,  &c. — W.  D.] 

171  ter.— Gecinus  nigrigenxs,  Hume.  (30).  Descr. 
Pr.  A.  S.  B.,  1st  May  1874.,  S.  P.,  II.,  244  and 
471  n. 

{Foot  of  Karen  Hills,  to  600  feet;  Tonghoo,  Rams.)  Pachoung ;  Kollidoo  ; 
Dargwin;  Makana;  Myawadee  ;  Endingnone;  Larthorgee  ;  E-poo  j  Paraduba. 

Confined  to  the  drier  and  more  thinly-wooded  hills  of  the 
outer  Tenasserim  range  in  its  northern  and  central  portions  and 
there  not  rare. 

[I  only  obtained  this  species  in  the  hills  to  the  north  of 
Pahpoon,  and  again  all  about  Myawadee  and  the  country  between 
this  and  Mooleyit.  It  is  not  a  bird  of  the  dense  forests,  and 
does  not  ascend  Mooleyit.  In  its  voice  it  is  quite  similar 
to  the  other  members  of  the  genus.  It  does  not,  that  I  am 
aware,  extend  to  the  low  flat  country  anywhere,  nor  do  I  know 
of  its  occurring  anywhere  south  of  Paraduba.  I  did  not  find 
it  anywhere  about  Meetan.  It  is  most  abundant  in  open 
bamboo  jungle  and  about  clearings  ;  it  goes  about  in  parties  or 
families  of  4  to  6,  and  like  other   Gecini  habitually  feeds  on  the 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  137 

ground.  It  is  very  shy,  and  after  one  shot  very  difficult  to 
come  up  with  again. — W.  D.] 

I  still  consider  the  Siamese  G.  erythropygins,  Elliot,  Nouv. 
Arch.,  1866,  Bull.  p.  76,  recognizably  distinct ;  but  a  comparison 
of  more  specimens  from  Siam  may  disprove  this  view,  in 
which  case  our  bird  must  take  my  friend  Mr.  Elliot's  name. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  of  a  large  series  recorded  in 
the  flesh  : — 

Males.— Length,  1282  to  13'3  ;  expanse,  19*5  to  20*5;  tail 
from  vent,  4-8  to  56 ;  wing,  6-25  to  6'45  ;  tarsus,  1*15  to  1-25 ; 
bill  from  gape,  1*6  to  1'75 ;  weight,  5*5  to  6*0  oz. 

Females.  —  Length,  12-25  to  13-25  ;  expanse,  18*25  to  20*25  ; 
tail  from  vent,  46  to  5*5  ;  wing,  6*0  to  6 "4;  tarsus,  1*1  to  1*2; 
bill  from  gape,  1*45  to  1*6  ;  weight,  4*75  to  5  ozs. 

Legs  and  feet  dirty  brownish  or  plumbeous  green  ;  bill  dark 
horny  brown  or  blackish,  yellowish  at  base  of  lower  mandible  ; 
hides  pale  to  bright  gamboge  yellow. 

172.— G-ecinus  occipitalis,  Vig.  (19). 

{TongTioo,  Rams.)  Dargwin ;  Pahpoon ;  Sinzaway ;  Myawadee;  Kanee ; 
Pabyouk  ;  Kohbaing ;  Paraduba  ;  Amherat ;  Meeta  Myo. 

Confined  to  the  northern  and  central  portions  of  the 
province. 

[This  species  is  nowhere  common.  I  have  not  observed  it 
anywhere  south  of  Tavoy.  It  is  most  frequently  seen  in  the 
immediate  vicinity  of  Pahpoon,  but  does  not  ascend  the  hills 
to  the  north  of  that  place  for  any  distance. 

It  is  a  bird  of  the  thin  forests,  bamboo  jungles,  and  clearino-s, 
too  well  known  to  call  for  further  remark. — W.  D.] 

173.— Chrysophlegma  flavinucha,  Gould.  (16). 

{Karen  Hills,  Tonghoo,  Rams.)  Kollidoo  ;  Kyouk-nyat ;  Pahpoon  ;  Younzaleen 
Creek  ;  1'h.utone  ;  Wimpong  ;  Myawadee  ;  Megaloon;  Larfchorgee. 

Confined  to  the  low  hills  and  their  neighbourhood  in  the 
northern  and  central  portions  of  the  province. 

[This  species  generally  goes  about  in  pairs;  it  keeps  to 
clearings  and  thin  forest ;  feeds  a  great  deal  on  the  ground  ; 
very  rarely  to  be  seen  high  upon  trees.  It  is  nowhere  common 
in  Tenasserim,  though  at  the  same  time  it  is  not  rare.  It  does 
not  appear  to  get  down  as  far  south  as  Meetan. 

I  got  one  specimen  of  this,  which  had  obviously  been  well 
grilled  in  some  jungle  fire  some  little  time  previously,  and  yet, 
strange  to  say,  seemed  in  very  good  condition  ;  the  upper  mandi- 
ble had  been  nearly  entirely  destroyed,  the  toes  and  claws  were 
burnt  off,  and  the  quills  were  chiefly  siuged  away,  and  yet  the 
bird  was  well  and  hearty.  This  could  only  have  happened  in  the 
case  of  a  ground-feeding  Woodpecker. — W.  !>.] 

18 


138  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

174.— Chrysophlegma  chlorolophus,  Vieill.  (15). 

{Tonghoo,  Karennee  Hills  at  3,000  feet,  Earns.)  Pine  forests,  Salween ; 
Kollidoo ;  Kyouk-nyat  ;  Pahpoon ;  Wimpong  j  Myawadee  ;  Endingnone  ; 
Kaukaryit,  Homigthraw  R. ;  Mooleyit ;  Amherst. 

Confined  to  the  northern  and  central  portions  of  the  province, 
occurring-  alike  in  the  lower  and  highest  hills,  and  even  in  the 
plains,  though  rare  there,  and  not  very  common  anywhere. 

[Another  ground-feeding  Woodpecker,  occurring  alike  in 
moderately  thin  and  dense  forests,  and  found  right  up  to  the 
top  of  Mooleyit. 

It  goes  about  generally  in  pairs,  but  at  Myawadee  I  met 
with  huge  troops  of  Woodpeckers  consisting  of  this  species; 
flavinucha,  occipitalis,  nigrigenis,  vittatus,  C.  sultaneus,  T. 
intermedia,  Microptermis  phaioceps,  T.  crawfurdi,  Gecinulus 
viridts,  Yitngipicus  canicapillus,  all  moving  about,  as  if  working 
in  concert,  mixed  up  with  a  lot  of  Garrulax  belong  eri,  and 
moniliger  and  Cissa  speciosa,  SfC,  like  a  mob  of  Paries,  Ijopho- 
phanes,  Abrornis,  Silta  and  Cerlhia,  such  as  one  often  sees  near 
Simla.  Such  a  Paradise  of  Woodpeckers  I  never  saw.  It  was 
open  bamboo  jungle,  interspersed  with  teak  and  other  trees,  with 
here  and  there  cleared  patches  in  which  there  are  always  numbers 
of  dead  trees  standing  or  lying  on  the  grouud. — W.  D.] 

175  Ms.— Calolophus  mentalis,  Tern.  (4). 

Bankasoon. 

Confined  to  the  extreme  south  of  the  province,  and  very  rare 
there.     Probably  only  an  occasional  straggler. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  of  the  species : — 

Males. — Length,  10-75  to  11-25  ;  expanse,  1  7-25  to  175  ;  tail, 
3\74  to  4-25  ;  wing,  5*4  to  5-5  ;  tarsus,  0-85  to  0-9  ;  bill  from 
gape,  1'4  to  1*65;  weight,  3-75  ozs.  (only  2  measured.) 

Females.  —Length,  10*5  to  11*0  ;  expanse,  16*0  to  17-62  ;  tail, 
3'2  to  4-5  ;  wing,  5'  to  5'4  ;  tarsus,  0*8  to  0'9  ;  bill  from  gape,  1*4 
to  1*5  ;  weight,  3*5  to  4  ozs. 

Legs  and  feet  green  ;  claws  plumbeous  ;  upper  mandible  dull 
black;  lower  mandible  and  edges  of  upper  mandible  near 
nostril,  pale  plumbeous ;  orbital  skiu  dark  green,  at  times  pale 
green  ;  irides  deep  red. 

In  this  species  the  males  have  the  point  of  the  chin  and  a 
broad  stripe  of  feathers  at  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible  brown, 
spotted  with  brownish  white. 

The  middle  of  the  throat  streaked  black  and  pure  white;  the 
lores  nearly  bare,  brownish  ;  the  feathers  immediately  under  the 
eye,  and  ear-coverts,  dull  olive  green  ;  the  whole  top  of  the 
head  and  the  anterior  portion  of  the  occipital  crest  are  a 
rather  brighter  olive  green  ;  terminal   portion  of  occipital  cresfc 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  139 

extremely  clear  bright  yellow ;  sides  and  front  of  the  neck 
chestnut ;  back,  scapulars,  rump,  upper  tail-coverts,  the  smallest 
coverts  along  the  ulna,  breast,  abdomen,  vent,  flanks,  and  lower 
tail-coverts,  green,  brightest  on  the  middle  of  the  back  and 
scapulars,  duller  and  duskier  towards  the  vent ;  the  whole  of 
the  rest  of  the  coverts,  the  outer  webs  of  the  secondaries,  and 
more  or  less  of  the  basal  portion  of  the  tertiaries  (the  terminal 
portions  being  green)  deep  crimson ;  winglet  and  tips  and 
margins  of  some  of  the  earlier  primary  greater  coverts  green ; 
primaries  dull  black,  with  reddish  buff  spots  on  the  outer  webs, 
and  similar  but  much  larger  bar-like  spots  on  the  inner  webs ; 
the  outer  webs  of  the  earlier  primaries  are  suffused  with  crimson 
above  the  emavgination,  the  later  ones  nearly  to  the  tips  ;  the 
inner  webs  of  the  secondaries  barred  like  those  of  the  primaries. 
Tail  uniform  black ;  wing-lining  dark  green,  closely  barred  with 
greenish  to  fulvous  white. 

The  female  has  the  point  of  the  chin,  audapatch  on  either 
side  of  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible  of  the  same  color  as  the 
sides  and  front  of  the  neck.  In  other  respects  her  plumage 
does  not  differ  from  that  of  the  male. 

175  ter.— Callolophus  puniceus,  Borsf.  (12). 

Laynali ;  Bankasoon. 

Confined  to  the  southern  district  of  the  province,  and  there  not 
rare. 

[This  bird  has  some  rather  anomalous  habits  for  a  Woodpeck- 
er, and  it  has  besides  a  very  peculiar  note,  not  in  the  least  resem- 
bling any  of  the  varied  notes  of  other  Woodpeckers.  It  in- 
habits the  evergreen  forests,  occasionally  coming  into  tounyahs 
or  clearings.  It  has  a  habit  of  working  its  way  to  the  very 
top  of  some  high  dry  tree,  and  remaining  there  for  half  an 
hour  or  more  sometimes,  uttering,  at  short  intervals,  its  pecu- 
liar note.  In  the  dusk  of  the  evening,  when  other  Woodpeckers 
cease  to  be  heard,  it  gets  very  noisy,  and  then  may  be  heard 
calling  in  many  directions,  shewing  that  it  is  not  very  uncom- 
mon ;  it  is  however  more  often  heard  than  seen. 

It  occurs,  so  far  as  I  am  aware,  only  in  the  south  of  the  pro- 
vince. I  found  it  most  common  about  Laynah. 

It  almost  always,  I  may  remark,  goes  about  singly,  and  I 
have  never  seen  it  descend  to,  or  feed  upon,  the  ground,  as 
Gecinus  and  Chrysophlegma  so  constantly  do. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males. — Length,  9'25  to  10*75  ;  expanse,  15  to  16-75  ;  tail, 
3'5  to  4-25  ;  wing,  475  to  5-25  ;  tarsus,  0"85  to  0'95  ;  bill  from 
gape,  1*15  to  1*4  ;  weight,  2*75  to  3"25  ozs. 


140  BIRDS   OF  TENA3SERIM. 

Females.—  Length,  10'25  to  11*0  ;  expanse,  15-25  to  17-25; 
tail,  382  to  435  ;  wing-,  5'12  to  5-5  ;  tarsus,  0*85  to  0-9  ;  bill 
from  gape,  1*35  to  1*45;  weight,  2-75  to  3*25  ozs. 

Legs  and  feet  pale  green,  sometimes  dingy,  sometimes  slight- 
ly yellowish ;  claws  pale  greenish  horny  ;  eyelids  dull  black  ;  or- 
bital skin  lavender  blue,  bright  plumbeous  blue,  pale  blue, 
sometimes  glanced  with  green  close  to  the  eye  ;  irides  crimson  ; 
lower  maudible  and  base  of  upper  mandible  chrome  to  green- 
ish yellow  ;   rest  of  upper  mandible,  black  ;  gape  lavender. 

The  males  have  a  broad  crimson  stripe  at  the  base  of  the  lower 
mandible  on  either  side  ;  in  other  respects  the  plumage  of  the 
two  sexes  does  not  differ,  but  birds  of  the  same  sex  differ  a  good 
deal,  inter  se,  as  I  think,  in  consequence  of  differences  of  age. 

Whole  top  of  the  head  and  anterior  portion  of  occipital  crest 
and  entire  visible  portion  of  closed  wings,  except  the  outer 
webs  of  the  primaries  below  the  emarginations,  and  the  tips 
of  the  tertiaries,  brilliant  crimson ;  rest  of  occipital  crest  pale 
bright  yellow  ;  back,  scapulars,  rump,  and  upper  tail-coverts,  and 
more  or  less  of  tips  of  tertiaries,  bright  grass  green  ;  the  feathers 
of  the  upper  back  narrowly  fringed  with  bright  yellow,  those 
of  the  rump  and  lower  back  so  broadly  fringed  with  this 
colour  that  it  becomes  dominant ;  a  blackish  dusky  line  on 
the  upper  part  of  the  lores ;  chin,  throat,  ear-coverts  and 
sides  of  the  neck  a  sordid  dingy  greenish  brown,  greener 
on  the  ear-coverts  ;  breast  and  rest  of  lower  parts  dull  olive 
green,  becoming  browner  on  the  vent  and  lower  tail-coverts ; 
sides  and  flanks  more  or  less  spotted  with  white  or  greenish 
white ;  in  some  specimens  the  sides  and  flanks  are  regularly 
barred  with  greenish  or  fulvous  white,  and  the  whole  abdomen 
is  spotted,  and  occasionally  these  spots  extend  to  the  lower  tail- 
coverts  also,  and  again  in  some  specimens  there  is  barely  a 
trace  of  any  spots  at  all ;  the  tail  is  uniform  black  ;  the  outer 
webs  of  the  primaries  below  the  emarginations,  and  the  whole 
inner  webs,  deep  brown  ;  the  inner  webs  on  their  basal  portion 
with  numerous  moderate  sized  white  spots  at  the  margins  ; 
wing-lining  white  or  fulvous  white ;  all  the  feathers  margined 
with  green  or  dusky,  so  as  to  produce  a  spotted  appearance. 

Some  birds  are  almost  entirely  brown  below,  some  have  the 
throat  pale  almost  whitey  brown. 

Some  have  the  whole  throat  a  dingy  rusty  brown  ;  many  are 
much  duller  on  the  upper  surface  than  I  have  described. 

175  quat— Callolophus  malaccensis,  Lath.    (15). 

Mergui;  Tenaaserim  Town ;  Bopyin;  Bankasoou  ;  Malewoon, 

Confined  to  the  southern  portions  of  the  province  and  there 
rather  common. 


BIRDS  OF  TENASSERIM.  141 

[A  bird  of  the  evergreen  forests,  not  occurring  in  open  coun- 
try, but  unlike  the  other  Callolophi  rather  partial  to  mangrove 
swamps,  in  which  I  have  often  shot  them.  These,  too,,  I  never 
saw  on  the  ground.  It  has  none  of  the  peculiar  habits  of  puni- 
ceus,  and  its  note,  as  well  as  that  of  mentalis  (of  which  1  shot 
many  in  the  Straits),  rather  resembles  that  of  the  Gecini.  All 
three  species,  however,  as  a  rule  go  about  singly. — W.  D.J 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males.— Length,  9'5  to  10"62  ;  expanse,  15*75  to  17-12  ;  tail, 
3-1  to  3'82;  wing,  4-85  to  5-5  ;  tarsus,  0'8  to  TO;  bill  from 
gape,  1-05  to  1*37  ;  weight,  3 '5  to  4-5  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  9*5  to  10*82;  expanse,  15-55  to  16'5  ;  tail, 
3-62  to  3-75  ;  wing,  4-85  to  5*37  ;  tarsus,  0-8  to  TO ;  bill  from 
gape,  1-05  to  1*3  ;  weight,  4  to  4*5  ozs. 

Legs  and  feet  pale  dingy  green  ;  claws  bluish  or  greenish 
dusky  horny  ;  irides  commonly  red,  in  some  specimens  almost 
brown,  in  one  pale  crimson ;  eyelids  pale  plumbeous  to  dark  grey ; 
upper  mandible  black  ;  lower  mandible  pale  plumbeous  to  pale 
bluish  white. 

The  adult  male  has  the  forehead,  crown,  occiput,  the  greater 
portion  of  the  occipital  crest,  and  the  upper  portion  of  the  sides 
of  the  neck,  and  the  whole  visible  portion  of  the  closed  wings, 
(except  the  inner  webs  of  the  tertiaries,  and  the  outer  webs  of 
the  primaries  below  the  emarginations,)  very  deep  crimson, 
brighter  on  the  sides  of  the  occiput  and  upper  neck  ;  the  poste- 
rior portion  of  the  crest  pale  yellow ;  the  extreme  base  of  the 
forehead  often  brownish  or  dusky  ;  the  feathers  under  the  eye, 
cheeks,  patch  at  the  base  of  lower  mandible  and  the  ear-coverts 
pale  chestnut  brown  ;  all  the  feathers  more  or  less,  in  different 
specimens,  broadly  tipped  with  crimson  ;  chin,  throat,  rest  of 
sides  of  neck,  and  sometimes  upper  breast,  the  same  pale  chest- 
nut brown ;  breast  and  entire  lower  parts  closely  barred,  black 
ish  brown  and  sordid  white;  the  whole  breast,  more  or  less 
tinged  with  the  color  of  the  throat,  which,  in  some  specimens, 
completely  overlays  the  uppermost  feathers  and  obliterates  the 
barrings  there  ;  the  upper  back  is  normally  -green,  barred  with 
ruddy  or  greenish  white,  or  again  pale  yellow,  but  in  some  speci- 
mens many  of  the  feathers,  especially  towards  the  sides  of  the 
back,  are  blotched  with  crimson,  and  sometimes  there  are  such 
blotches  even  in  the  middle  of  the  upper  back. 

The  scapulars  are  green  at  their  bases,  generally  barred  like 
the  upper  back,  sometimes  unbarred,  but  crimson  at  their  tips 
and  on  their  outer  webs ;  the  rump  and  central  portion  of  the 
shortest  upper  tail-coverts  are  green  ;  the  feathers  so  broadly 
fringed  with  very  pale  yellow  that  scarcely  any  other  color  is 
seen  ;  the  rest  of  the  upper  tail-coverts  brownish  black,  some- 
times tinged  with  green,  with  pale  spots  near  the  tips,  some- 


142  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

times  brownish,  sometimes  rusty,  sometimes  yellowish  white. 
Tail  uniform  black ;  quills,  where  not  crimson,  hair  brown,  with 
brownish  white  imperfect  bars  on  the  margins  of  the  inner  webs 
except  towards  the  tips  of  the  primaries,  and  with  pale  brown 
spots  on  the  outer  webs  of  the  primaries  where  not  crimson,  i.e., 
below  the  emarginations ;  the  wing-lining  is  white,  barred  and 
mottled  with  brown. 

The  female  differs  from  the  male  in  having  the  ear-coverts 
vmtipped  with  crimson,  and  in  having  a  broad  frontal  band,  the 
lores,  cheeks,  feathers  at  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible,  chin 
and  upper  part  of  the  throat,  with  a  white  spot  at  the  extreme 
tip  of  each  feather  surrounded  on  the  feather  side  by  a  dusky 
line.  In  some  specimens,  this  peculiar  marking  is  wanting  on 
the  chin  and  upper  throat,  and  in  some  specimens  again  it 
extends  over  the  entire  throat,  front  and  anterior  portion  of  sides 
of  neck,  and  even  on  to  the  uppermost  part  of  the  breast. 

In  some  specimens  (but  this  is  very  rare  amongst  our  Tennas- 
serim  birds,  while  on  the  other  hand  it  seems  to  be  very  common 
among  Malaccan  birds)  the  barring  on  the  interscapulary  region 
is  almost  entirely  obsolete. 

Our  Tennasserim  birds  have,  as  a  body,  conspicuously 
larger  bills  than  those  from  the  southern  part  of  the  Malay 
Peninsula,  and  they  seem  to  be  larger  altogether.  Moreover,  a 
greater  number  of  them  show  the  crimson  blotching  on  the 
upper  back,  and  show  it  to  a  greater  extent ;  in  fact  our  Tennas- 
serim birds  appear  to  me  to  approach  more  closely  to  miniatus 
than  do  the  Malaccan  birds.  See  further  on  this  subject,  S.  F., 
III.,  824m. 

176.— Venilia  pyrrhotis,  JECodgs.  (6). 

{Tonghoo  Hills,  Earns.)  Kollidoo  ;  Kyouk-nyaf; ;  Dargwin  ;  Pahpoon ;  Mooleyifr. 

Confined  to  the  upper  and  lower  ranges  of  hills  in  the  nor- 
thern and  central  portions  of  the  province. 

[I  was  greatly  puzzled  when  I  first  met  with  this  species ;  it 
never,  for  a  moment,  struck  me  that  it  could  be  a  Woodpecker. 
I  found  it  first  in  dense  kine  grass,  and  when  disturbed  it  darted 
further  away  into  the  grass  with  a  sharp  single  cry.  It  was 
only  after  a  good  deal  of  fagging  and  a  determination  to  find 
out  what  the  bird  was  that  I  succeeded  in  shooting  my  first 
specimen.  It  is  a  rare  and  very  shy  bird.  I  afterwards  found 
it  at  Pahpoon  and  in  the  hills  to  the  north  of  that  place,  in  low 
dense  underwood,  and  again  in  similar  situations  on  the  north- 
west slope  of  Mooleyit.  It  avoids  the  more  open  portions  of  the 
forest,  and  is  usually  to  be  found  moving  about  close  to  the 
grouud.  It  is  almost  always  in  pairs.  I  have  never  seen  them 
until  disturbed  ascend  any  tree.— W.  D.] 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  143 

The  following  ave  dimensions,  &c.,  recorded  in  the  flesh : — 

Males. — Length,  1T2  to  11"5  ;  expanse,  18'0  to  18-75;  tail 
from  vent,  3*5  to  4*25  ;  wing,  5'62  to  5*9  ;  tarsus,  1*0  to  1*05  ; 
bill  from  gape,  1*9  to  2  0;  weight,  6'0  oz. 

Female. — Length,  11*0;  expanse,  17*5  ;  tail  from  vent,  4*0; 
wing,  5*4 ;  tarsus,  l'l,  bill  from  gape,    1*75. 

Legs  and  feet  very  dark  green,  sometimes  so  dark  as  to  appear 
black ;  claws  dark  horny  brown ;  bill  pale  greenish  yellow, 
strongly  tinged  green  at  base  and  whitish  and  semi-transparent 
at  tip  ;  irides  reddish  orange  to  brownish  red. 

176  bis.— Venilia  porphyromelas,  Boie.  (30). 

Bopjin  ;  Palaw-ton-ton  ;  Bakasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Confined  to  the  Mergui  or  southernmost  district  of  the 
province,  but  very  common  there. 

[Like  its  congener  (for  it  is  a  true  Venilia,  though  going  by 
many  strange  names,  Lepocestes,  Blythepicus,  &c.)  it  is  very  shy 
and  keeps  much  to  the  undergrowth  and  smaller  trees  of  the 
evergreen  forests ;  it  is  also  very  fond  of  working  about  the 
fallen  trees  ;  it  seems  (like  V.  pyrrhotis)  to  avoid  studiously  the 
more  open  portions  and  larger  trees  of  the  forest. 

It  is  almost  always  found  in  pairs,  and  utters  incessantly  a 
single  sharp  metallic  note. — W.  D.] 

The    following    are    dimensions,   &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males. — Length,  9  to  9-35  ;  expanse,  15  to  15*25  ;  tail,  3  to 
3-25  ;  wing,  4-75  to  5  ;  tarsus,  0*8  to  0-9  ;  bill  from  gape,  1-45 
to  1"6  ;  weight,  3  oz. 

Females. — Length,  8*5  to  9'5  ;  expanse,  146  to  15'82  ;  tail, 
3-2  to  3-4;  wing,  4-62  to  5'0;  tarsus,  0'82  to  1-0 ;  bill  from 
gape,  1'3  to  15  ;  weight,  2*25  to  3  ozs. 

Legs  and  feet  dark,  varying  in  shade  very  much,  generally 
somewhat  purplish  or  purplish  brown,  sometimes  greyish  purple, 
or  very  dark  greyish,  or  greenish  brown  ;  the  irides  are  red,  crim- 
son, scarlet,  or  even  salmon  pink ;  the  orbital  skin  varies  much 
like  the  legs  and  feet,  dark  purplish  grey,  dark  greyish  brown,  or 
brownish  green,  to  almost  black  ;  -the  bill  is  chrome  yellow, 
more  or  less  strongly  tinged  with  green  towards  the  base. 

The  adult  male  has  the  forehead,  crown,  occiput,  cheeks,  and 
ear-coverts  a  dingy,  somewhat  coffee,  brown  ;  a  broad  patch  on 
either  side  of  the  occiput,  nearly  extending  to  the  nape,  the  most 
intensely  brilliant  crimson ;  back,  scapulars,  dull  deep  maroon 
crimson  ;  rump  and  upper  tail-coverts  sooty  brown,  narrowly  and 
obscurely  banded  with  pale  brown  or  brownish  white,  and  more  or 
less  suffused  or  overlaid  with  the  same  color  as  the  back,  in 
some  very  fine  specimens  obliterating  almost  all  traces  of  the  bar- 
ring ;  secondaries,   tertiaries,  lesser   and   median    coverts,   and 


144  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

secondary  and  tertiary  greater  coverts  like  the  rump,  dusky  brown, 
with  narrow  transverse  bars,  more  or  less  imperfect  on  the  inner 
webs  of  the  secondaries,  and  strongly  overlaid  with  the  crimson 
maroon  of  the  back,  so  that,  in  fine  specimens,  the  banding  is  barely 
traceable  in  the  closed  wing,  except  on  the  inner  webs  of  the 
tertiaries,  to  which  the  maroon  very  seldom  extends ;  winglet, 
primary  greater  coverts,  and  primaries  hair  brown ;  the  two 
latter  obscurely  banded  with  brownish  or  rufescent  white,  which 
is  almost  obsolete  on  the  inner  webs  of  the  primaries  towards 
their  bases. 

Tail,  which  is  almost  invariably  extremely  worn  and  dilapi- 
dated, black,  with  narrow  transverse  pale  brown  or  rufescent  white 
bars ;  chin  and  throat  much  like  the  crown,  but  usually  paler  on 
the  chin  and  darker,  grading  into  the  color  of  the  breast,  on  the 
lower  part  of  the  throat ;  an  obscure  reddish  tinge,  not  only  in 
the  male,  but  equally  in  the  female,  on  the  feathers  on  either  side 
of  the  throat  at  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible  ;  breast  and  entire 
lower  parts  a  deep  sooty,  at  times  somewhat  chocolate,  brown, 
almost  black  on  the  sides,  often  with  a  faint  maroon  tinge  on  the 
breast  and  flanks ;  lower  tail-coverts  often  with  obscure  very 
narrow  paler  transverse  bars ;  edge  of  the  wing  deep  brown  ; 
wing-lining  and  lower  surface  of  quills  grey  brown,  with  nu- 
merous narrow  pale  transverse  bands,  obsolete  towards  the  tips 
of  the  quills. 

In  some  specimens  the  frontal  feathers  are  paler  and  have  more 
or  less  of  a  rusty  tinge;  sometimes  all  the  feathers  of  the  crown 
and  occiput  are  feebly  tipped  with  this  paler  color ;  the  whole 
coloring  of  the  bird  varies  in  different  specimens ;  some  specimens 
are  almost  black  below ;  some  have  the  head  a  moderately  dark 
earth  brown  ;  in  some  specimens  the  red  patches  on  the  sides  of 
the  occiput  extend  laterally  as  a  narrow  half  collar,  nearly  or 
quite  meeting  on  the  nape. 

Females  only  differ  in  wanting  the  crimson  patches  just  refer- 
red to  ;  they  have,  equally  with  the  male,  the  reddish  moustachial 
tinge. 

Young  females  appear  to  be  precisely  similar  to  the  adults,  but 
everywhere  duller  colored.  Young  males  appear,  to  judge  from  a 
single  specimen  we  have,  to  be  also  like  the  adults,  but  to  want 
the  crimson  patches  and  instead  to  have  all  the  feathers  of  the 
crown  and  occiput  suffused  on  their  terminal  halves  with  dull 
maroon  red. 

177  bis.— Gecinulus  viridis,  Blyth.  (22).  Descr.  S.  E., 
Ill,  71. 

(Tonghoo  Hills,  at  2,500  feet,  Earns.)  Kyouk-nyat ;  Dargwin ;  Pahpoon  ; 
Head  waters  of  the  Tiioungyen  5  Assoon  ;  Meetan  ;  Yea  ;  Meeta  Myo  ;  Pabyin  ; 
Mergui  ;  Pakchan. 

Not  uncommon  throughout  the  province  in  suitable  localities. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  145 

[This  species  is  very  partial  to  bamboos,  and,  except  in  the 
extreme  south  of  the  province,  where  it  is  rare,  may  be  met  with 
wherever  there  is  bamboo  jungle.  It  is,  however,  nowhere  seen 
in  great  numbers,  though  most  common  in  the  north.  It  goes 
about  usually  single,  sometimes  in  pairs,  never  in  small  parties. 

I  never  saw  it  feeding  on  the  ground,  nor  did  I  ever  meet 
with  it  in  dense  forest,  or  at  any  great  elevation  on  the  hills,  as 
there  you  get  into  country  unsuited  to  it. — W.  D„] 

The  following  are  dimensions  and  colors  of  the  soft  parts 
recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males.— Length,  1O0  to  10*6 ;  expanse,  16-75  to  17*25;  tail 
from  vent,  4*0  to  4-25  ;  wing,  5*05  to  5-5  ;  tarsus,  1*0  to  1*05  ; 
bill  from  gape,  1*2  to  1  "25  ;  weight,  3  ozs. 

^femafo*.— Length,  10-25  to  10-62  j  expanse,  16*0  to  170  • 
tail  from  vent,  3*9  to  4-25  ;  wing,  5'1  to  5'25  ;  tarsus,  0*82  to 
Q'95  ;  bill  fioni  gape,  1-15  to  1*5  •  weight,  2*75  to  3  ozs. 

Legs,  feet  and  claws  pale  dirty  green  ;  bill  pale  bluish  white, 
strongly  tinged  with  blue  at  base ;  irides  pale  brown  to  deep 
red.  brown. 

178.— Micropternus  phaioceps,  Myth.  (33). 

(Tonghoo,  Rams.)  Palipoon  ;  Beelxag  ;  Thatone  ;  Wimpong  ;  Myawadee  j 
Ko-go-Houngthraw ;  Kaukaryit,  Houngtliraw  R. ;  Moulmein  ;  Karope  ;  Amherst; 
Me  eta  Myo  ;  Tavoy. 

Confined  to  the  northern  and  central  portions  of  the  province ; 
but  see  my  remarks  on  this  and  the  next  species  S.  F.}  V.,  472, 
et  seq. 

[This  is  quite  a  bird  of  the  open  cultivated  country,  very 
fond  of  gardens  and  bamboo  clumps,  usually  met  with  singly, 
feeding  at  no  great  height  from  the  ground,  and  sometimes  on 
it.  They  are  always  smeared  with  some  gummy  substance, 
always  have  a  strong  peculiar  smell,  and  almost  always  have  the 
tails  more  or  less  studded  with  ant's  heads.  These  are  the 
large  red  ants  of  the  open  jungle,  who,  once  they  seize  anything, 
never  lose  their  hold.  You  may  pick  them  to  pieces,  but  their 
heads  hold  on  still.  These  are  the  sumput-api  or  fire-ants 
of  the  Malays,  and  they  bite  unpleasantly.  These  seize  hold 
of  the  tail  feathers  of  these  Woodpeckers  ;  their  bodies  get 
rubbed  off,  but  the  heads  remain,  sometimes  in  scores,  adhering 
to  the  lateral  webs  of  the  tail  feathers. — W.  D.] 

178    bis.— Micropternus  brachyurus,    Vieill.   (13). 
Desor.  S.  P.,  V.,  473. 

Mergui  ;  Pakchan  ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

As  yet  only  observed  in  the  southernmost  district  of  the  pro- 
vince. 

19 


140  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM, 

[Habits,  voice,  &c.,  as  in  preceding. — W.  D.] 

184.— Tiga  javanensis,  Ljungh.  (69). 

{Tonghoo,  Uarennee,  Rams.)  Kyouk-nyat  ;  PahpoOn  ;  Salween  R.  ;  Thatone  ', 
Wimpong  ;  Pabyouk  ;  Kokbaing  ;  Karope  ;  Amherst ;  Yea  ;  Meeta  Myo  ;  Tavoy  ; 
Shymotee  ;  Uslieetherrpone ;  Mergui  ;  Tenasserim  Town  ;  Pakchan ;  Banka- 
soon ;  Malewoon. 

Common  to  a  degree  throughout  the  province,  but  not  ascend- 
ing to  elevations  above  3,500  feet. 

[Decidedly  the  most  common  Woodpecker  in  Tenasserim,  oc- 
curring from  the  extreme  north  to  the  extreme  south,  and  equally 
abundant  everywhere  and  in  all  sorts  of  localities  where  there 
are  any  trees,  big  or  small.  It  is  found  singly  or  in  pairs.  Its 
note  is  similar  to  that  of  C.  sultaneus  but  not  so  harsh. — W.  D.] 

I  have  already  pointed  out  that  T.  rubropygialis,  Malh.,  and 
T.  intermedins,  Bly.,  are  not  in  my  opinion  separable  (S.  F.,  III., 
328;  IV.,  390).  Sumatran  and  Malayan  speciieaens  (and  Lord 
Tweeddale  says  Javan  also)  though  averaging  perhaps  slightly 
smaller,  are  equally  I  think  inseparable,  and  Ljungh's  name 
dating  from  1797  must  therefore  be  adopted. 

185  &/s.— Gauropicoides  rafflesii,  Tig.  (14). 

Tlienganee  Sakan  ;  Bankasoon. 

Confined  to  the  dense  evergreen  forests  along  the  bases  of 
the  southern  and  central  portions  of  the  outer  Tenasserim  range. 

[A  rare  bird,  met  with  only  in  the  evergreen  forests  of  the 
extreme  south  of  the  province,  and  at  the  base  of  the  Mooleyit 
range.  Its  habits  are  just  the  same  as  that  of  the  preceding 
species  (except  that  it  keeps,  as  far  as  I  have  observed,  entirely 
to  the  forest,  never  coming  into  the  clearings  or  open),  and  its 
voice  is  hardly  to  be  distinguished  from  it. 

I  have  seen  this  low  down  and  even  on  fallen  trees,  but  never 
feeding  on  the  ground.  It  is  not  shy.  It  is  generally  met  with 
in  pairs,  sometimes  singly,  never  in  parties. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males.— Length,  124  to  12*7  ;  expanse,  18*25  to  20;  tail,  5 
to  5"1 ;  wing,  5-75  to  6'15  ;  tarsus,  0*92  to  TO;  bill  from  gape, 
1-4  to  1-65  ;  weight,  4*25  to  5  ozs. 

Females. — Length,ll*4  to  12*25;  expanse,  18"2  to  18*75, tail, 
4*5  to  4*75  ;  wing,  5*45  to  6-05  ;  tarsus,  0*9  to  1*0;  bill  from  gape, 
1*45  to  1*6  ;  weight,  3-5  to  5  ozs. 

Legs  and  feet  dark  green;  claws  dark  plumbeous  -irides  deep 
brown  to  deep  brownish  red ;  upper  mandible  black  or  bluish  ; 
tip  of  lower  mandible  generally  blackish  ;  rest  of  lower  mandible 
dark  plumbeous  to  plumbeous  blue  iu  different  specimens. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  147 

The  males  have  the  anterior  portion  of  the  lores,  and  a  nar- 
row ill-defined  frontal  band,  pale  orauge  rusty  ;  the  rest  of  the  fore- 
head, crown,  occiput  and  full  occipital  crest,  bright  scarlet ;  the  pos- 
terior portion  of  the  lores,  and  a  stripe  under  the  eye,  including 
the  basal  portion  of  the  ear-coyerts,  and  a  broad  stripe  down  the 
sides  of  the  neck,  and  a  long  stripe  from  behind  the  eye,  border- 
ing the  red  of  the  occiput,  and  almost  meeting  under  the  crest, 
white ;  a  band  running  between  these  two  stripes  from  behind 
the  eye,  across  the  ear-coverts,  bordering  the  white  stripe  last 
referred  to,  and  meeting  on,  and  occupying  the  nape,  black ;  as  is 
also  another  stripe  on  either  side,  beginning  at  the  gape  and  run- 
ning down,  bordering  the  white  neck  stripe  first  referred  to,  The 
whole  space  between  these  black  gape  stripes,  chin,  throat  and.  fea- 
thers at  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible,  pale  buffy  orange,  most 
orange  on  the  last-named  parts ;  entire  back  and  rump,  scapulars, 
coverts,  (except  the  primary  greater  coverts)  outer  webs  of  second- 
aries, and  visible  portions  of  both  webs  of  tertiaries,  golden  olive  ; 
all  the  feathers  of  the  back,  rump,  and  lesser  and  median  coverts 
marginally  fringed  with  pure  golden ;  upper  tail-coverts  and  tail 
uniform  black,  the  former  sometimes  a  little  suffused  towards 
their  tips  with  the  color  of  the  back ;  breast,  abdomen,  vent, 
and  lower  tail-coverts  dull  dark  brown  ;  the  extreme  upper  part 
of  the  breast  and  the  sides  of  the  same,  more  or  less  suffused 
with  a  golden  olive  tinge,  and  the  central  portion  with  less  of 
this  but  with  an  obscure  chocolate  tinge  ;  flanks  greener,  irre- 
gularly barred  or  spotted  with  dull  white ;  the  size  and  extent 
of  this  spotting  varies  greatly  in  different  specimens,  in  some 
it  extends  to  all  the  lower  tail-coverts,  and  occupies  all  the  sides 
of  the  abdomen,  and  even  the  lower  central  part  of  the  abdo- 
men ;  in  others  it  is  almost  obsolete  every  where.  Note  that  in 
many  males  the  golden  fringing  of  the  feathers  of  the  back  is 
so  broad  as  to  become  the  dominant  color,  and  that  again  in 
many  males  some  or  all  the  feathers  of  the  rump  have  more 
or  less  of  a  crimson  or  orange  crimson  tinge  towards  their  tips. 

The  primaries  and  their  greater  coverts  and  the  inner  webs  of 
the  secondaries  are  black  or  blackish  brown ;  the  primaries 
paling  somewhat  on  their  terminal  portions,  and  the  second  to 
the  seventh  more  or  less  tipped  with  pale  fawny  brown ;  the 
earlier  primaries  generally  exhibit  a  few  line-like  spots  of 
the  same  color  as  the  tippings  above  referred  to  on  the  margins 
of  their  outer  webs,  and  all  the  quills  exhibit  larger  or  smaller 
white  spots  on  the  middle  of  their  inner  webs,  not  quite  extend- 
ing either  to  margins  or  shafts.  This  is  said  to  be  the  only 
Woodpecker  in  which  these  central  spots  are  exhibited. 

I  should  notice  that  in  this  species  also  the  color  of  the 
lower  parts  is  very  variable,  some  specimens  having  a  strong 
olivaceous  tinge  on  the  whole  of  these. 


148  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

The  female  only  differs  from  the  male  in  having  the  orange 
or  orange  buff  frontal  band  broader,  and  the  whole  of  the  crim- 
son of  the  head  replaced  by  black.  The  young  birds  are  like 
the  females,  but  want  an  orange  tinge  on  the  forehead,  are 
everywhere  duller  colored,  and  have  the  chin,  throat,  and  feathers 
at  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible  a  more  or  less  pale  drabby 
dusky  brown. 

186. — Vivia  innominata,  Bart. 

Blyth  gives  this  from  the  Tenasserim  Mountains?  where 
Davison  has  hitherto  failed  to  find  it,  though  Wardlaw  Ramsay 
obtained  it  in  the  Karen  Hills  at  2,000  feet. 

187.— Sasia  ochracea,  JSodgs.  (11). 

{TongTioo  Hills,  Earns.)  Pine  forests,  Salween  ;  Palrpoon  ;  Meetan  ;  Yea  ; 
Taroy;  Tkayetchoung  ;  Pabyin  ;  Mergui ;  Ckoungthanouag  ;  Bahonee. 

Throughout  the  province,  but  rather  rare,  and  not  ascending 
the  higher  hills. 

[This  species  occurs  throughout  the  province  (wherever  the 
country  is  moderately  open,  especially  where  there  are  bam- 
boos) even  in  the  extreme  south,  where  one  would  expect  to 
meet  with  the  nearly  allied  S.  abnornis.  It  keeps  to  the  under- 
growth and  secondary  scrub  and  bamboo  jungle,  working  about 
the  fallen  logs.  It  is  astonishing  what  a  loud  sound  one  of  these 
little  fellows  can  produce  when  tapping  a  bamboo.  I  have  more 
than  once  thought  that  it  must  have  been  some  large  Wood- 
pecker, and  was  astonished  that  I  could  not  see  it,  and  when  at 
last  I  did  discover  the  tiny  object,  I  felt  quite  as-  much 
astonished  at  the  sound  it  was  able  to  produce,  as  it  was  at  my 
sudden  advent.  It  is  very  fond  of  knocking  about  in  low  brush 
wood.  I  do  not  know  its  call,  nor  do  I  think  I  ever  heard  it. 
It  is  usually  alone,  but  sometimes  pairs  are  met  with. — W.  D.] 

The  specimen  entered  by  me  in  one  of  my  former  lists  as 
abnornis  is,  I  now  consider,  a  very  young  bird  of  ochracea. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males. —  Length,  33  to  3*5;  expanse,  6"5  to  7'12;  tail  from 
vent,  0-75  to  0-9;  wing,  2'0  to  25;  tarsus,  0*45  to  05 ;  bill 
from  gape,  0'55  ;  weight,  0'3  oz. 

Females. — Length,  3*5  ;  expanse,  6*75  to  6*82;  tail  from  vent, 
0-82  to  1-0;  wing,  2-0  to  2-1;  tarsus,  0-45  to  0'5  ;  bill  from 
gape,  0'6  ;  weight,  0"3  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  dull  orange  ;  claws  very  pale  brown  ;  upper 
mandible  and  tip  of  lower  mandible  dark  horny  brown  ;  rest  of 
lower  mandible  pale  bluish  ;  irides  from  pale  red  to  dark  crimson  ; 
orbital  skin  dull  crimson. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  149 

188. — Yunx  torquilla,  Lin. 

Obtained  by  Ramsay  in  Karennee  and  apparently  in  Tonorhoo 
also,  but  not  met  with  elsewhere  in  Tenasserim  as  yet. 

190  Us. — Oaloramphus  hayi,  Gr.  (4). 

Bankasoon ;  Malewoon. 

Confined  to  the  extreme  south  of  the  province,  and  there 
even  excessively  rare. 

[For  a  Barbet  this  species  has  a  most  extraordinary  note,  a 
low  soft  whistle.  It  is  generally  found  in  small  parties  of 
three  and  four,  sometimes  in  pairs  and  occasionally  singly, 
hunting  about  the  leaves  and  branches  and  trunks  of  trees, 
peering  into  every  crevice  and  cranny  in  the  bark,  and  cling- 
ing about  in  all  sorts  of  positions  far  more  like  a  Tit  than  a  Bar- 
bet.  Its  food  consists  quite  as  much  of  insects  as  of  fruits. 
It  is  a  forest  bird.  I  have  never  seen  it  in  gardens ;  and,  though 
I  have  shot  so  few  in  Tenasserim,  I  have  had  ample  opportunities 
of  watching  it  further  south. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  :  — 

Males.— Length,  7-  to  7'5  ;  expanse,  II-  to  11*5 ;  tail,  2-05  to 
2-25  ;  wing,  3-1  to  3-5  ;  tarsus,  0-75  to  0*8;  bill  from  gape,  1*15 
to  1*3 ;  weight,  1-5  to  1*75  oz. 

Females. -^Length,  675  to  7'5  ;  expanse,  10-75  to  11-25  ; 
tail  2-  to  2-2;  wing,  2-15  to  2-55  ;  tarsus,  0*8  ;  bill  from  gape, 
1-15  to  1-2;  weight,  1-25  to  1-75  oz. 

Count  Salvadori,  U.  di  B.,  p.  40,  infers  that  the  two  sexes  of 
the  nearly  allied  C.  fuliginosus  of  Borneo  differ  in  the  color  of 
their  bills.  In  this  he  is  doubtless  correct,  because  in  the  present 
species  the  males  have  the  bill  black,  while  the  females  have  it 
dull  reddish  brown  to  a  dirty  orange  or  ochraceous  brown  ;  in 
both  sexes  the  legs  and  feet  are  orange,  the  claws  black,  the  irides 
dull  red  or  brownish  red,  occasionally  dark  brown,  with  scarcely 
any  perceptible  red  tinge.     The  orbital  skin,  brown. 

The  two  sexes  only  differ  in  this  matter  of  the  color  of  their 
bills. 

In  full  plumaged  adults  the  entire  upper  surface  is  brown, 
somewhat  of  an  umber  brown  on  the  head,  more  of  a  hair  brown 
elsewhere;  the  feathers  of  the  head  excessively  narrowly  mar- 
gined with  a  rustier  brown,  and  all  the  feathers  of  the  mantle, 
rump,  and  upper  tail-coverts  narrowly  margined  with  excessively 
pale  yellow  or  greenish  yellow,  besides  which  there  is  just  a 
perceptible  olivaceous  shade  over  the  whole  of  these  parts,  and 
on  the  outer  margins  of  the  tail-feathers  towards  their  bases. 

The  yellow  or  greenish  yellow  margins  referred  to  are  always 
more  distinct  on  the  upper  tail-coverts,  and  the  whole  of  these 
margins  are  often  wanting  in  birds  in  worn  plumage. 


150  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

The  shafts  of  the  feathers  of  the  head  are  black  or  blackish, 
spine-like  and  shining- ;  the  chin  and  throat  are  pale  rufescent 
brown  or  rufous  fawn  ;  the  ear-coverts  and  sides  of  the  head  some- 
times like  the  throat,  but  rustier,  sometimes  brown  like  the  crown, 
but  then  more  or  less  finely  pencilled  and  intermingled  with  pale 
rufescent ;  the  breast,  abdomen,  vent  and  lower  tail-coverts  are 
silky  yellowish  white,  with  a  more  or  less  conspicuous  tinge  of 
pale  primrose  down  the  middle  and  on  the  sides  of  the  abdo- 
men, as  also  generally  on  the  upper  breast ;  the  sides  are  slaty 
grey ;  the  tibial  plumes  dark  brown,  more  or  less  fringed  at  the 
tips  with  pale  greenish  yellow;  sometimes  there  is  a  tinge  of 
yellow  in  the  middle  of  the  throat. 

I  don't  think  these  birds  are  Barbets  at  all.  Setting  aside 
their  notes  and  habits,  the  peculiar  pinched-up  culmen,  remind- 
ing one  of  that  of  Machceramphus  alcinus,  is  altogether  unbarbet- 
like„     I  have  an  idea  that  they  are  near  Indicator. 

191. — Megalsema     grandis,    Gould,    (marshallorum, 
tiwinh.  virens  apud,  Jerd.) 

Obtained  in  the  Karen  Hills  by  Ramsay.  Elsewhere  we 
only  met  with  the  true  virens,  the  Chinese  race.  I  carefully 
compared  all  our  specimens  with  Chinese  ones. 

191  bis. — Megalaema  virens,  Bodd.    (4). 

Kollicloo  ;  Kyouk-nyat ;  Thengauee  Sakan. 

Confined  to  the  northern  and  central  sections  of  the  main 
Tenasserim  range,  ascending  to  the  summit  of  even  Mooleyit. 

[I  often  heard  this  bird  in  the  hills  to  the  north  of  Pahpoon, 
and  shot  one  specimen  near  Kollidoo  at  an  elevation  of  about 
5,000  feet,  and  another  at  Kyouk-nyat  on  the  banks  of  the 
Salween  in  amongst  the  hills.  Again  I  met  with  it  at  Mooleyit. 
It  frequents  the  higher  forest  trees,  and  has  the  same  wailing 
cry  of  pio-pio-pio,  as  the  nearly  allied  Himalayan  species. 

To  judge  from  the  numbers  I  heard  they  did  not  appear  to 
be  rare,  but  the  four  I  obtained  were  the  only  ones  that  I 
actually  saw. — W.  D.] 

The  Tenasserim  hill  specimens  (and  the  bird  never  occurs  in 
the  plains)  differ  uniformly  from  the  Himalayan  Megalcema 
grandis,  Gould  nee.  Gm.,  marshallorum,  SwTinh.,  by  having  the 
entire  head  a  dull  greenish  blue,  instead  of  a  violet  blue,  and  in 
wanting  entirely  in  some  specimens,  and  almost  entirely  in 
others,  the  yellow  striation  of  the  feathers  of  the  nape.  They 
are  identical  with  Chinese  specimens  with  which  I  have  carefully 
compared  them. 


BIRDS  OF  TENASSERIM.  151 

192.— Megalaema  hodgsoni,  JBonap.    (50). 

(TongTioo,  Rams.)  Kollidoo;  Pahpoon ;  Younzaleen  Creek;  Sinzaway  $ 
Thatone ;  Wimpong  ;  Myawadee  ;  Kaukaryit,  Houngthraw  R. ;  Moulmein  5 
Pabyoukj  Paraduba ;  Amherst ;  Meeta  Myo;  Tavoy ;  Shymotee. 

Generally  distributed  throughout  the  northern  and  central 
sections  of  the  province  (common  in  the  former,  growing  rapidly 
rarer  in  the  latter),  alike  in  hills  and  plains,  but  not  ascending- 
the  highest  hills. 

[From  the  hills  north  of  Pahpoon  to,  at  any  rate,  as  far  south 
as  Shymotee  (south  of  Tavoy),  this  species  occurs.  It  probably 
extends  somewhat  further  south,  but  I  have  not  yet  worked  the 
country  lying  between  Tavoy  and  Mergui,  but  at  this  latter 
place  or  anywhere  south  of  it,  it  does  not,  I  believe,  occur. 
In  its  habits  it  is  similar  to  M.  viridis  of  Southern  India,  and  it 
has  the  same  note  but  louder. — W.  D.] 

195. — Megalaema  asiatica,  Lath.    (3). 

(Tonglwo,  Rams.)  Kollidoo  ;  Pahpoon. 

Confined  to  the  less-elevated  and  better-wooded  tracts  of  the 
northern  portion  of  the  province,  replaced  in  those  of  the  central 
portion  by  the  next  species. 

[I  met  with  this  Barbet  but  rarely  and  only  at  Pahpoon  and 
the  hills  north  of  that  place.  I  obtained,  three  specimens,  all 
of  which  I  shot  in  heavy  forest.  Its  note  and  habits  are  well 
known. — W.  D.] 

195  bis.— Megalaema  davisoni,  Hume.  (8).    Descr. 
S.  F.,  V.,  108. 

Thenganee  Sakan  5  Thoungya  Sakan  ;  Meetan.    - 

Confined  to  the  bases  of  the  lower  spurs  of  the  central  section 
of  the  main  Tenasserim  range. 

[Habits  and  voice  precisely  those  of  asiatica. — W.  D.] 

195  ter.— Megalaema  incognita,  Bume.  (4).    Descr. 
S.  E.,  II.,  442,  486. 

Karope ;  Amherst ;  Tea. 

Apparently  confined  to  the  plains  country  of  the  central 
portion  of  the  province. 

[I  first  met  with  this  novelty  at  the  village  of  Karope ;  further 
south  I  obtained  it  again  at  Yea,  and  later  in  the  year  I  got 
two  more  at  Amherst.  All  the  specimens  I  obtained  were  shot 
in  thin  tree  jungle.  I  have  not  since  come  across  the  bird. 
It  seems  to  be  very  local.    At  Tavoy  and  southward  I  kept  a 


152  BIRDS   OF  TENASSEMM. 

special  look-out  for  it,  but  failed  to  see  it,  so  that  it  probably 
does  not  occur  so  far  south.  Its  note  is  very  similar  to  that  of 
M.  asiatica,  and  so  are  its  habits.  Those  I  shot  had  eaten  only 
fruit.— W.  D.] 

196. — Megalcema  frcmkUni,  Bly th. 

Stated  by  Tickell  to  swarm  in  the  Tenasserim  Hills,  but  the 
bird  he  referred  to  was  without  doubt  the  nearly-allied 
M.  ramsayi. 

196  Us.— Megalsema  ramsayi,  Walden,  (24).  Desce. 
S.  E.,  III.,  402. 

{Karennee,  Earns.)  Above  Paraduba  ;  Mooleyit. 

Confined  in  Tennaserim  proper  to  the  higher  slopes  of  Mooley- 
it, but  re-appearing  in  the  continuation  of  the  same  range  in, 
Karennee. 

[I  only  met  with  this  species  on  the  Mooleyit  range  about 
3,500  feet.  I  never  saw  it  in  any  of  the  many  hills  rising  far 
above  this  elevation,  northward  of  this.  On  Mooleyit  it  is  the 
commonest  and  the  noisiest  of  birds. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  of  five  males 
and  one  female  : — 

Males. — Length,  8-5  to  9-2  ;  expanse,  13*4  to  13*75  ;  tail  from 
vent,  2*4  to  2*8 ;  wing,  3-9  to  4-05 ;  tarsus,  0*9  to  1*05  ;  bill 
from  gape,  1'35  to  1*4;  weight,  3  ozs. 

Female. — Length,  925  ;  expanse,  13*75  ;  tail  from  vent,  2*7  ; 
wing,  4*0  j  tarsus,  1*0  ;  bill  from  gape,  1*5  ;  weight,  3-25  ozs. 

Legs  and  feet  pale  dirty  bluish  green  ;  claws  greenish  horny ; 
base  of  upper  mandible  and  lower  mandible  to  angle  of  gonys 
pale  plumbeous ;  rest  of  bill  black ;  irides  red  brown. 

196  quat. — Megalsema  mystacophanos,  Tem.  (38). 

Om-a-gwen ;  Hergui  ;  HankacMn ;  Palaw-ton-ton ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Confined  to  the  southern  half  of  the  province,  but  rare  except 
in  the  southern  quarter. 

[This  bird  has  a  peculiar  note  which  might  very  well  be 
syllabized  by  tok-toktok — tok-toktok  uttered  incessantly. 
In  the  forests  where  it  does  occur,  its  note  may  be  heard  nearly 
all  day  and  nearly  all  night  on  a  bright  moonlight  night,  but 
it  is  most  noisy  during  the  evening  soon  after  dusk. 

Though  very  often  heard,  it  is  but  comparatively  seldom  seen, 
for  it  keeps  either  to  the  tops  of  the  highest  trees  or  to  the 
very  bushy  ones.  It  is  very  fond  of  clinging  to  the  trunks 
of  trees  and  tapping  away  like  a  Woodpecker,  and  many  of  those 
I  obtained  I  shot  while  so  engaged,  As  a  rule  it  keeps  to  the 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM.  153 

dense  evergreen  forests,  but  I  have   seen    and    shot  it  in  com- 
paratively thin  tree  jungle. 

It  is  common  in  the  evergreen  forests  of  the  extreme  south, 
and  it  even  extends  north  of  Tnvoy,  for  I  shot  one  specimen 
close  to  the  Henza  Basin,  but  so  far  north  it  is  very  rare. — 
W.  D.] 

I  am  disposed  to  agree  with  Count  Salvadori  that  M.  humei, 
Marshall  (Ibis,  1870,  p.  536),  is  a  stage  of  the  young  of  M.  mys- 
tacophanos, but  Captain  Marshall,  who  has  examined  our  series, 
and  Mr.  Davison,  who  has  shot  an  enormous  number  of  mys- 
tacophanos  in  all  stages  of  plumage,  are  still  inclined  to  consider 
humei  distinct.  Undoubtedly,  Salvadori  figures  a  specimen  of 
humei,  but  then  his  bird  is  from  Borneo,  whence  humei  was 
said  to  come,  and  Captain  Marshall's  contention  is  that,  though 
very  closely  resembling  one  stage  of  mystacophanos,  and  occurring 
with  it  in  Borneo,  it  is  distinct  and  probably  peculiar  to  Borneo. 

We  have  an  enormous  series  of  this  bird  in  every  stage  of 
plumage,  collected  by  ourselves  in  various  parts  of  Southern 
Tenasserim  and  the  Malay  Peninsula,  where  it  is  very  common, 
and  it  is  certain  that  we  have  obtained  no  specimen  which  agrees 
perfectly  with  the  specimens  figured  by  Captain  Marshall. 

One  thing  is  clear,  viz.,  that,  as  a  rule,  immature  mystacophanos 
never  shows  much  of  the  red  breast  patches,  until  a  considerable 
portion  of  the  chin  and  throat  are  also  red.  Occasionally,  these 
patches  may  be  found  represented  by  single  specks,  whilst  the 
chin  and  throat  are  still  yellow,  but  in  no  single  instance  is 
there  a  conspicuous  red  breast  patch,  until  a  considerable  amount 
of  red  has  been  developed  on  chin  and  throat,  whereas  in  the 
type  of  humei  the  red  patches  are  strongly  developed,  and  there 
is  not  the  smallest  tinge  of  red  on  the  throat. 

To  my  mind,  however,  this  does  not  go  for  much ;  true,  we 
have  some  20  young  specimens  approximating  to  the  humei 
stage,  but  all  distinguished  as  above,  but  the  changes  of  plumage 
in  this  species  are  so  irregular  and  variable  that  I  do  not  think 
any  conclusions  can  be  safely  based  even  upon  this  number  of 
specimens. 

The  youngest  specimens  we  have,  birds  killed  in  June  and 
probably  just  out  of  the  nest,  are  a  nearly  uniform  green,  save 
only  that  the  cheeks  below  the  eyes,  and  an  ill-defined  baud 
across  the  forehead  from  eye  to  eye,  have  a  bluish  tinge,  and 
that  there  is  a  small  reddish  orange  spot  at  the  base  of  the  bill 
in  front  of  the  eyes.  From  this  stage  the  normal  change  clearly 
is  for  the  throat  to  grow  yellow,  for  the  forehead  just  above  the 
bill  to  grow  dusky,  mingled  with  orange,  and  for  a  few  red  fea- 
thers to  break  out  in  the  centre  of  the  crown.  Then  the  red 
of  the  crown  extends ;  the  cheeks  become  more  decidedly  blue ; 
the  throat  more  decidedly  golden ;  in  the  midst  of  this  golden 

20 


154  BIRDS    OF    TENASSERIM. 

more  orange  feathers  appear,  and  then  red  ones,  and  by  the  time 
the  greater  portion  of  the  chin  and  throat  are  red,  the  red  breast 
spots  begin  to  show  out,  and  the  whole  forehead  becomes  more 
or  less  golden. 

But  then  we  have  other  young  birds  in  which  the  chin  and 
throat  have  become  red,  and  the  forehead  golden  orange,  without 
the  slightest  appearance  even  of  red  on  the  crown  ;  and  others 
in  which  the  whole  crown  is  red,  the  chin  and  throat  pure  pale 
yellow,  and  the  whole  forehead  still  green  ;  and  again  others 
in  which  the  whole  forehead  has  become  bright  yellow,  without 
the  appearance  of  any  red  on  either  crown  or  throat,  so  that  it  is 
clear  that  there  is  considerable  irregularity  in  the  stages  by  which 
the  uniform  green  bird  passes  into  the  brilliant  plumage  of  the 
adult,  and  I  do  not,  therefore,  think  that  the  point  on  which 
Messrs.  Marshall  and  Davison  are  disposed  to  rely  for  separating 
humei,  even  coupled  with  the  fact  that  we  have  never  obtained 
a  specimen  in  Tenasserim  or  the  Malay  Peninsula,  corresponding 
exactly  with  humei,  is  at  all  conclusive  as  to  the  specific  distinct- 
ness of  this  latter.  It  is  quite  possible,  however,  that  humei 
may  still  prove  to  be  a  distinct  and  very  closely  allied  Bornean 
race,  but  I  personally  do  not  expect  this. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  colors  of  the  soft  parts,  and 
description  of  perfect  adults  : — 

Males. — Length,  8*0  to  9*5  ;  expanse,  1275  to  13-6  ;  tail,  23 
to  2-62  ;  wing,  376  to  4*2  ;  tarsus,  TO  to  1*05  ;  bill  from  gape, 
1*6  to  1*8;  weight,  275  to  3  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  9'12  to  9-25  ;  expanse,  13  to  13-5  ;  tail,  2-4  ; 
wing,  3'85  to  4-1  ;  tarsus,  0'95  to  1*12  ;  bill  from  gape,  T75  to 
1-8  ;  weight,  275  to  3*5  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  very  pale  bluish  or  horny  green  ;  irides  deep 
brown;  bill  black;  orbital  skin  dark  greenish  or  greyish  brown. 

The  adult  has  the  whole  forehead  and  anterior  half  of  the 
crown  golden  yellow ;  the  posterior  part  of  the  crown,  and  the 
centre  of  the  occiput  crimson  ;  a  spot  at  the  base  of  the  bill  in 
front  of  the  eye  ;  chin  and  upper  part  of  throat,  and  a  spot  on 
either  sides  of  the  base  of  the  throat,  crimson  ;  cheeks  and  basal 
portion  of  ear-coverts,  and  basal  one-third  of  throat,  blue ; 
feathers  immediately  above  the  eye,  and  a  short  broad  streak 
running  backwards  from  the  posterior  upper  half  of  the  eye, 
black;  a  patch  of  bright  pale  yellow,  followed  by  pale  verditer 
blue,  at  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible  on  either  side  ;  rest  of 
the  plumage  (except  the  inner  webs  of  the  quills  and  lateral 
tail  feathers,  and  the  outer  webs  of  the  first  primary,  and  of  the 
succeeding  primaries  below  the  emavginations,  which  are  deep 
hair  brown)  bright  grass  green,  paler  on  the  lower  surface,  and 
the  feathers  of  the  neck,  and  more  or  less  of  the  back  and  breast, 
and  generally  the  upper  tail-coverts,  more  or  less  conspicuously 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM.  155 

margined  with   a   brighter  and  yellower  green,  giving  on  the 
neck,  especially,  a  somewhat  scaly  appearance. 

Lower  surface  of  tail  greenish  blue;  edge  of  the  wing  dark 
green  ;  wing-lining  pale  grey ;  some  of  the  feathers  margined 
with  white,  and  centred  with  greyish  green ;  margins  of  the 
inner  webs  of  the  quills  towards  their  bases  very  pale  buffy  or 
pale  fawn. 

197.— -Xantholsema  hsemacephala,  Mull.  (3). 

{Tonghoo,  Karennee,  Earns.)     Dargwin  ;  Pahpoon  ;  Oyne  Eiver  ;  Moulniein  ; 
Ngabeemah  ;  Amherst ;  Zadee  ;  Tavoy  ;  Mergui ;  Pakchan  ;   Bankasoon. 

Common  throughout  the  province,  but  only  in  open  country  ; 
not  found  in  dense  forest. 

[The  Coppersmith  is  quite  as  common  over  a  great  portion 
of  Tenasserim  as  it  is  in  many  parts  of  India,  but  towards  the 
south  it  is  much  less  often  met  with,  and  in  the  immediate 
vicinity  of  the  Pakchan  it  occurs  but  rarely. — W.  D.] 

198  quat.— Megalsema  cyanotis,  Blyth.  (17).  Descr. 
S.  E.,  III.,  77. 

(Karen  Sills,  Earns.)  Thatone ;  Kyouk-nyat;  Meeta  Myo  ;  Bankasoon; 
Malewoon. 

Found  throughout  the  province,  but  rare,  except  in  the  south. 

[This  little  Barbet  occurs  throughout  Tenasserim,  wherever 
there  is  any  evergreen  forest,  and  even  in  cultivated  land  near 
this,  and  I  have  seen  it  actually  in  the  town  of  Moulmein.  It 
is  rare,  however,  in  the  north,  and  nearly  wanting  in  the  com- 
paratively dry  country  between  Moulmein  and  Yea.  About 
Tavoy  even  it  is  not  common,  but  becomes  so  towards  the  south, 
and  is  very  abundant  indeed  everywhere  south  of  Mergui,  and 
on  those  islands  of  the  Archipelago  that  I  visited. 

It  usually  perches  itself  on  the  very  summit  of  some  tall  tree, 
and.  keeps  calling  for  hours  at  a  time,  and  in  the  forests  of  the 
south  its  call  may  be  heard  in  many  places  throughout  the  day, 
and  is  one  of  the  commonest  sounds  one  hears. 

The  call  (koo-turr,  koo-turr)  is  quite  unlike  that  of  Xantholce- 
ma,  and  closely  approximates  to  that  of  Megalcema.  It  is  in  fact 
much  more  of  a  Megalcema  than  a  Xantholcema.  I  have 
always  met  with  it  singly. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c  ,  recorded  in  the  flesh  — 

Males. — Length,  6-25  to  6  9;  expanse,  lO'O  to  11*0;  tail 
from  vent,  1-87  to  2-3;  wing,  3-0  to  3'3;  tarsus,  0*7  to  0*82; 
bill  from  gape,  1*0  to  1*1  ;  weight,  0'8  to  T25  oz. 

Females. — Length,  612  to  6'6  ;  expanse,  1O0  to  10-25  ;  tail 
from  vent,  1'82  to  2- 12  ;  wing,  2'82  to  3"0  ;  tarsus,  075  to  076  ; 
bill  from  gape,  l-05. 


156  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

Legs  and  feet  dirty  green  ;  claws  bluish  black  j  bill  black  ;  base 
of  lower  mandible  slightly  tinged  reddish  horny  ;  irides  very 
dark  brown. 

199. — Cuculus  canorus,  Lin. 

Blyth  says  that  a  specimen  of  this  bird  in  immature  plumage 
was  sbot  in  his  presence  in  the  garden  of  the  Commissioner  of 
Moulmein. 

Wardlaw  Ramsay  also  obtained  it  in  Karennee  at  3,500  feet, 
but  Davison  has  never  yet  met  with  it  in  Tenasserim. 

200.— Cuculus  striatus,  Drap.    (i). 

Eanee. 

Apparently  not  rare  in  Tenasserim  north  or  south;  though 
only  a  single  specimen  was  preserved. 

202. — Cuculus  sonneratii,  Lath. 

Blyth  (B.  of  B.,p.  80)  gives  this  fromTenasserinij  and  says  that 
as  an  Indian  bird  he  has  only  seen  it  from  Malabar  and  Ceylon. 

It  most  probably  does  occur  in  the  lower  bills  of  Tenasserim, 
though  we  have  not  yet  met  with  it ;  as  an  Indian  bird,  besides 
the  localities  mentioned,  my  museum  contains  it  from  near 
Mussoorie,  from  Kumaon,  from  Sikkim,  from  the  Lower  Hills 
of  the  Bhotan  Doars,  from  Raepoor,  Central  Provinces,  and 
from  Matheran  (above  Bombay). 

Blyth  also  quotes  Lord  Walden's  remark  that  pravatus, 
Horsf.,  which  inhabits  Malacca,  Sumatra,  &c.,  is  considerably 
smaller. 

The  following  measurements  of  the  wings  of  a  number  of 
Indian  and  Malayan  specimens,  taken  at  random  from  our  large 
series,  quite  confirm  this  view  :  — 

Indian.— 5'0;  4~65  ;  4*8;  4-6;  4-9;  4-65;  4'65  ;  4-9;  4*9. 

Malayan.— 4-25 ;  4'25  ;  4"4;  4-6;  4"25  ;  4'4  ;  4"2. 

I  think,  moreover,  that  taking  the  birds  as  a  body,  though  this 
cannot  be  predicated  of  single  specimens,  the  bills  in  pravaius 
are  proportionally  larger  and  wider  at  the  base.  Still  I  am 
disposed  to  believe  that  a  really  large  series  from  Sikhim  to 
Sumatra  would  prove  the  two  forms  to  grade  insensibly  into 
each  other. 

203.— Cuculus  micropterus,  Gould.  (2). 

Mooleyit ;  Choulai  Creek. 

Bather  rare  in  Tenasserim. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSBRIM.  157 

205  bis. — Hierococcyx    nanus,  Hume.    (4).  Descr. 
S.  F.,  V.,  490. 

Bankasoon. 

Confined,  in  Tenasserim,  to  the  evergreen  forests  of  the 
extreme  south  of  the  province;  probably  a  mere  straggler 
from  Siam. 

206.— Hierococcyx  nisicolor,  Hodgs.  (1).  Descr.  S.F., 
V.,  96,  347. 

Thatone. 

Only  once  met  with  in  Tenasserim. 

I  have  already  written  at  some  length  in  regard  to  this  species, 
loc  cit.,  but  I  wish  here  to  notice  further  that  we  obtained  an 
adult  of  this  species  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Malacca  agreeing 
feather  for  feather  with  our  Himalayan  and  Thatone  specimens, 
but  whereas  in  no  one  of  ten  Himalayan  and  one  Thatone  speci- 
men does  the  wing  exceed  7  inches,  and  in  seven  out  of  the  ten  it 
is  less  thau  this;  in  our  Malayan  specimen  the  wing  is  7*35.  Of 
course,  this  bird  cannot  be  confounded  with  fugax,  which  has  a 
very  much  larger  bill. 

207.— Hierococcyx  sparveroid.es,  Vig.  (10). 

{Karennee,  at  4,000  feet,  Rams.)     Pahpoon  ;  Thatone  ;  Moulmein;  Amherst. 

Common  in  the  plains  country  between  the  Sittang  and  Sal- 
ween  rivers ;  rarer  elsewhere.  Confined  to  the  northern  and 
central  portions  of  the  province. 

[Frequents  gardens  and  thin  tree  jungle.  Feeds  chiefly  on 
insects.  Has  a  fine  loud  call.  Threads  its  way  through  the  trees 
of  a  clump  and  flies  out  suddenly  from  one  chimp  of  trees  to 
another,  creating  a  great  commotion  amongst  all  the  small  birds 
of  the  neighbourhood,  parties  of  whom  continually  follow  and. 
chase  it,  mistaking  it,  as  indeed  I  myself  have  often  done,  for 
a  Hawk,  which  in  its  flight  it  exactly  resembles.  — W.  D.] 

As  I  have  shown  elsewhere  Gould's  strenuus  is  only  a  laro-e 
specimen  of  this  species.  The  plumage  he  admits  himself  is 
identical,  and  exceptionally  fine  Tenasserim  and  Himalayan 
specimens  quite  come  up  to,  and  in  several  cases  considerably 
exceed  his  dimensions  of  strenuus.  Southern  Indian  specimens 
run  considerably  smaller. 

The  following  are  dimensions  and  colors  of  soft  parts  recorded 
of  three  males  and  two  females  :■- — 

Males. — Length,  163  to  16-5  ;  expanse,  25'8  to  275  ;  tail 
from  vent,  8'0  to  9'0 ;  wing,  9-2  to  9'8  ;  tarsus,  1-05  to  1-1 ;  bill 
from  gape,  1*35  to  1*5  ;  weight,  6  to  7  ozs. 


158  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

Females. — Length,  15'0  to  15*5  ;  expanse,  24*5  to  25-8  ;  tail 
from  vent,  7-8  to  8*8  ;  wing-,  8-5  to  9*0;  tarsus,  0'97  to  1*1 ;  bill 
from  gape,  1*4  to  1*5  ;  weight,  575  ozs. 

Leo-s,  feet,  claws,  gape,  and  eyelids  bright  yellow ;  upper 
mandible  black ;  lower  mandible  pale  green ;  irides  orange 
yellow,  orange  red,  or  pale  red  brown. 

209.— Oacomantis  threnodes,  Cab.  (24). 

(Tonghoo,  Karennee,  Earns.)  Pahpoon  ;  Khykefo  ;  Thatone  ;  Moulmein  ; 
Yea-boo  ;  Meetan  ;  Amherst  ;  Mergui  ;  Bopyin;  Pakchan  ;  Bankasoou. 

Common  throughout  the  whole  of  the  province,  but  not 
ascending  the  hills  to  any  height. 

[Most  frequently  met  with  in  gardens  and  clearings,  low 
scrub,  &c. ;  it  avoids  dense  forest.  It  is  a  very  noisy  bird, 
and  is  continually  calling.  Its  call  is  a  series  of  whistled  notes, 
beginning  rather  low  and  ascending  rapidly  by  semi-tones.  It 
is  not  nearly  so  plaiutive  as  that  of  the  Indian  bird  (passerina.) 
It  was  common  to  a  degree  on  the  Thatone  plains,  about  and 
actually  in  the  village  of  Meetan  and  on  the  island  of  Mergui. — 
W.  D.] 

I  am  unable  to  discover  any  difference  whatsoever,  except 
that  of  size,  between  the  Eastern  Bengal  and  Upper  Burmese 
form  which  Jerdon  designated,  Ibis,  1872,  p.  15,  riifiventris,  and 
the  Malaccan  form  C.  threnodes,  Cab.  (Mus.  flein.,  pt.  IV.,  19, 
1862),  and  it  has  to  be  noticed  that,  as  we  proceed  southward  in 
Tenasserim,  the  birds  grow  smaller.  The  great  majority  of  the 
adult  males,  moreover,  from  the  extreme  south  of  the  Tenasserim 
province  have  wings  under  4' 2,  and  must,  therefore,  necessarily 
be  designated  threnodes  (though  some  adults  of  this  have  the 
wings  only  3'9j  even  if  the  two  forms   are  held  to  be  distinct. 

In  Bengal  and  Assam  adult  males  the  wings  run  up  to  4*7, 
but  even  in  these  localities  I  find  some  adult  males  iu  which  the 
wings  are  less  than  4-5.  As  a  body  the  bills  of  the  true 
threnodes  do  appear  to  me  to  be  broader  at  the  base  than 
those  of  riifiventris,  but  intermediate  forms  occur.  Again,  some 
birds  are  everywhere  greener  above,  others  are  much  purer  ashy 
on  head,  nape,  and  rump,  others  have  the  chin,  throat,  and  breast, 
a  much  purer  aud  bluer  grey,  whilst  in  others  there  is  a  good 
deal  of  rufous  edging  to  the  feathers  of  the  middle  of  the  throat 
and  upper  breast.  But  none  of  these  differences  coincide  with 
differences  of  habitat  or  size  of  wing  or  breadth  of  bill ;  and 
so  far  as  I  can  judge,  from  the  very  large  series  (some  70  speci- 
mens in  all)  before  me,  threnodes  and  riifiventris  can  only  be 
separated  arbitrarily  on  the  ground  of  difference  of  size. 

Those  who  still  consider  the  two  species  distinct  must  add 
riifiventris   to   the  list,    but    not     excise     threnodes,   lo   which 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM.  159 

unquestionably  South  Tenasserim  specimens  belong.  For  my 
part,  seeing  that  between  the  largest  Eastern  Bengal  specimen 
(wing  of  male,  47)  and  the  smallest  Singapore  one  (wing  of 
male  3'9),  there  is  a  perfect  gradation  in  size,  I  doubt  the 
expediency  of  maintaining  two  species,  and  adopt  CabamV 
name  as  it  has  priority  of  Jerdon's. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  of  some  few  of  our  Tenas- 
serim specimens  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males. —  Length,  7-35  to  9'0  ;  expanse,  1175  to  13*0;  tail 
from  vent,  3'4  to  5'0;  wing,  4*0  to  4*4. 

Females. — Length,  8*8  to  9'5  ;  expanse,  1275  to  135  ;  tail 
from  vent,  4'5  to  5-12  ;  wing,  4-25  to  4*62  ;  tarsus,  0-6  to  075  ; 
bill  from  gape,  0*9  to  TO  ;  weight,  1-25  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  chrome  yellow,  tinged  red  in  some  specimens  ; 
upper  mandible  and  tip  of  lower  mandible  black  ;  rest  of  lower 
mandible  red  brown  ;  hides  varied,  some  were  pale  wood  brown, 
some  huffy  brown,  and  others  crimson. 

210— Surniculus  lugubris,  Horsf.  (13). 

(Tonghoo  Rills,  Karennee,  Rams.)  Moulmein  ;  Amlierst  ;  Yea  ;  Shymotee  ; 
Mergui ;  Choulai  Creek  ;  Bankasoon. 

Confined  apparently  to  the  southern  half  of  Tenasserim  pro- 
vince, and  common  there  only  in  the  southernmost  quarter,  but 
re-appearing   in  the  northern  recently  incorporated  tracts. 

[I  shot  quite  a  young  bird  of  this  species  in  some  secondary 
jungle  at  Mergui  ;  it  was  in  company  with  two  Dicrurus  an- 
nectans,  by  one  of  which  it  had  just  a  few  minutes  before  been 
fed.  So  it  is  very  probable  that  this  species  deposits  its  eggs 
in  the  nests  of  the  different  species  of  Dicruri. 

In  the  north  of  the  province  I  hardly  ever  met  with  this 
bird,  and  only  shot  one  specimen  close  to  Yea,  but  at  Mergui  and 
southward  it  was  far  from  rare,  and  I  obtained  a  number  of 
specimens.  It  frequents  the  forests,  secondary  scrub,  and  gardens, 
but  apparently  gives  the  preference  to  the  former. 

Although  I  have  had  many  opportunities  of  observing  the 
bird,  I  never,  that  I  am  aware  of,  heard  it  utter  any  note. — 
W.  D.] 

I  am  quite  unable  to  recognize  any  valid  specific  difference 
between  Malayan  and  Himalayan  Drougo  Cuckoos,  although, 
no  doubt,  the  latter  may  average  slightly  larger. 

Cabanis  says,  _  Mus.  Heine,  IV.,  18  n,  that  the  Malayan 
lugubris  differs  in  its  smaller  size,  and,  not  wholly  constant, 
feebler  furcation  of  the  tail;  and  he  says  that  the  wings  in 
Dicmroides  measure  603  (5*5  French;  against  5*2  (475  French) 
in  the  Malayau. 

But  the  fact  is  that  the  Indian  Continental  species  does  not,  as 
a  rule,  measure  six  inches,  nor  have  I  ever  met   with  one  single 


160  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

specimen,  of  which  the  wings  were  as  large  as  this.  Possibly, 
Cabanis  does  not  use  the  old  Paris  inch  adopted  by  most  Conti- 
nental ornithologists. 

I  am  not  very  well  off  for  this  species,  but  the  following  are 
the  dimensions  of  the  wings  of  all  the  Indian  specimens  (29  in 
number)  in  my  museum,  or  at  least  that  I  can  at  present  lay 
my  hands  on  : — 

Sikim  and  Bhootan  Doars.— 5*4 ;  57  ;  5-27  ;  5-48;  5-5  ;  5-6  ; 
5-5;  5-4;  5-6;  5-5;  5-75. 

Upper  Assam.— 5-47;  5"6;  57  ;  5-25  ;  5'4;  5-2  ;  5'5  ;  5-35  ; 
5-4;  5-25;   5'25;  5'6 ;  52. 
Sylhet.— 5-4;  5'55. 
Tipperah. — 5*3. 

Raipore,  Central  Provinces. — 5*3. 
Kyoukphyow. — 57. 
And  the  following  are  dimensions  of  eleven  Tenasserim  speci- 
mens :  — 

Moulmein. — 5  5. 
Lemyne,  north  of  Yea. — 5*1. 
Mergui.— 5-2;  5-2 ;  5-4;  545;  52. 
Bankasoon. — 5'2  ;  5-4  ;    525. 
Malewoon. — 5 '4. 
And  the  following  of  seven  Malayan  : — 
Penang. — 5  3  ;  4-9. 
Malacca.— 4-8  ;  5-2;  5"0. 
Singapore. — 4*9;  51. 
It  is  clear  that  differences  in  dimensions   like   these  will    not 
suffice  to   separate   the   two   supposed  species,  and  I  have  been 
unable    to    discover    any    other  differences    between     Malayan, 
Tenasserim  and  Continental  birds.  In  all  three  sets  of  specimens, 
some  birds  have  the  tail  more,  and  others  less  forked  ;  some  have 
stouter  and  longer,  and  some  slenderer  and  shorter  bills  ;  neither 
this  nor  the  differences  in  other   dimensions   appear   to  depend 
upon  sex,   almost  all  our  specimens  are  sexed  by  dissection,  and 
I  find  equally  large  and  small,  males  and  females. 

Ao-ain  from  all  localities  some  specimens  exhibit  a  conspicuous 
white  nuchal  patch,  and  some  show  no  traces  whatsoever  of  this. 
The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  of  five  males   and  three 
females  from  Tenasserim,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males. — Length,  9-5  to  10-12;  expanse,  15*12  to  16"0;  tail 
from  vent,  4"9  to  5'37  ;  wing,  52  to  5-5  ;  tarsus,  0*6  to  0"65  ; 
bill  from  gape,  TO  to  172  ;  weight,  1*25  oz. 

Females. — Length,  975  to  10-25;  expanse,  15*5  to  16"0;  tail 
from  vent,  5'0  to  5-5;  wing,  5-1  to  5-4  ;  tarsus,  065  to  07  ;  bill 
from  gape,  17  to  1*2  ;  weight,  1*2  to  1*5  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  dark  plumbeous  blue ;  claws  dark  horny  ;  bill 
black  ;  irides  dull  brown. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  161 

211.-— Lamprococcyx  maculatus,  Gm.  (7). 

(Tonghoo,  Lloyd.  ;  Karen  Bills,  at  4,200  feet,  Rama.)  Thoungaha  Gfyue  R.  ; 

Moulmein  ;  Mooleyit ;  Meetan. 

Chiefly  confined  to  the  central  hills,  but  occurring  as  a  rare 
straggler  throughout  the  central  and  northern  portions  of  the 
province. 

[This  species  has  a  very  fine  clear,  and,  for  the  size  of  the  bird, 
loud  whistling  call  of  three  notes,  rapidly  uttered.  It  was  very 
common  on  the  higher  portions  of  Mooleyit.  The  food  of  this 
species  is  entirely  insects.  It  is  chiefly  a  forest  bird,  though 
I  killed  one  specimen  in  a  garden  at  Moulmein.  It  is  very  sel- 
dom seen,  as  it  keeps  up  in  the  higher  branches  of  trees,  but  on 
the  hills  is  continually  heard,  as,  on  moonlight  nights  at  any 
rate,  it  calls  at  intervals  throughout  the  night  as  well  as  the 
day.— W.  D.] 

The  specimen  I  formerly  with  doubt  identified  as  basalts  is, 
I  am  now  convinced,  either  an  abnormal  specimen  of  the  young 
of  maculatus,  or  the  young  of  some  yet  undescribed  species.  It 
is  too  large  for  basalts. 

Lord  Tweeddale  remarks  of  maculatus  (Ibis,  1876,  346):  "In 
fully  adult  plumage  it  has  the  chin  and  throat,  but  not  the  breast, 
unbarred  emerald  green  like  the  upper  plumage/' 

Lord  Tweeddale  can  never  have  seen  an  adult.  I  have,  I  find,  at 
present,  only  twenty  Himalayan  specimens  of  this  little  Cuckoo, 
but  no  less  than  five  have  the  entire  breasts  uniform  emerald 
green.  This  perhaps  is  an  abnormal  proportion,  as  at  least 
thirty  more  specimens  from  the  Himalayas  have  passed  throuo-h 
my  hands,  and  probably  I  have  retained  an  undue  proportion  of 
the  fullest  plumaged  birds.  Certainly,  however,  at  least  one  in 
ten  have  the  entire  breast  uniform  metallic  green.  Out  of  seven 
Tenasserim  specimens  one  has  it. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  :—  ■ 

Males. — Length,  5-9  to  6'8;  expanse,  12*5  to  12*6;  tail  from 
vent,  2-4  to  2'8  ;  wing,  4*3  to  4"4  ;  tarsus,  0'6  to  062 ;  bill  from 
gape,  0*85  ;  weight,  0*8  to  0*85  oz. 

Female. — Length,  7"0;  expanse,  13"0 ;  tail  from  vent,  2*9  ; 
wing,  4"4;  tarsus,  0'65;  bill  from  gape,  09;  weight,  nearly 
1-0  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  dark  brownish  green  ;  bill  bright  orange  yellow, 
tipped  black  ;  irides  red  brown. 

211  bis.— Chalcococcyx  xanthorhynchus,  Horsf.  (2). 
Descr.  S.  E.,  II,,  191.     ?  juv.,  III.,  81. 

Kanee  ;  Amherst. 

Extremely  rare  in  Tenasserim. 

21 


162  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

213.— Coccystes  coromandus,  Lin.  (2). 

(Karennee,  at  1,600  feet ;  March,  Earns.)    Meeta  Myo  ;  Amherst. 

Extremely  rare  in  Tenasserim. 

[I  have  but  very  rarely  met  with  this  species  in  Tenasserim.  I 
shot  one  specimen  at  Meeta  Myo  in  some  low  scrub  close  to  the 
village. 

It  extends  its  range  to,  at  any  rate,  as  far  south  as  Malacca  in 
the  neighbourhood,  of  which  place  I  have  met  with  a  few  speci- 
mens. I  have  never  heard  the  note  that  I  know,  for  it  does 
not  ascend  our  hills  in  Southern  India. — W.  D.] 

214  bis.— Eudynamys  malayana,  Cab.  and  Heine. 
(42.)Descr.  S.  E.,  II.,  193. 

(TongTioo,  Earns.)  Pahpoon  ;  Thatone  ;  Kanee  ;  Pabyouk  ;  Kohbaing  ;  Karope  ; 
Amherst;    Tayoy;  Shymotee  ;  Mergui;  Bopyin;  Chounpyah. 

Common  in  spring  and  summer  throughout  the  more  open 
portions  of  the  province. 

[During  the  months  of  December,  January,  and  February,  this 
species,  though  met  with,  is  very  rare ;  but  suddenly  in  March 
the  whole  place  becomes  alive  with  them,  and  they  continue  very 
numerous  till  July.  In  August,  September,  October,  and  Novem- 
ber again  not  one  is  to  be  met  with — all  have  apparently  migrat- 
ed. When  they  are  in  season  they  are  one  of  the  commonest 
birds,  and  their  whistling  call,  which  resembles  the  words  "  who 
are  you,"  is  heard  so  incessantly  as  to  become  a  perfect  nuisance. 
They,  of  course,  avoid  the  heavy  forest,  or  are,  at  any  rate,  only 
found  on  its  outskirts ;  they  are  most  abundant  in  and  about 
villages  and-  towns. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  :  — 

Males.— Length,  16*5  to  16*75  ;  expanse,  24*5  to  24-75;  tail 
from  vent,  7*8  to  8-5  ,•  wing,  7'9  to  8*25  ;  tarsus,  1*45  to  1*55; 
bill  from  gape,  1*5  to  1*55. 

Females. — Length,  16-0  to  17*0;  expanse,  24'0  to  24-5;  tail 
from  vent,  7*5  to  8*25;  wing  7*62  to  8'0 ;  tarsus,  1*45  to  1*5; 
bill  from  gape,  15  to  1*75. 

Legs  and  feet  dull  plumbeous ;  bill  greenish  horny,  plumbeous 
at  base  of  lower  mandible  ;  irides  crimson. 

215.— Rhopodytes  tristis,  Less.  (46). 

{TongTioo,  Tonghoo  Rills,  Karennee,  Earns.)  Kollidoo  ;  Pahpoon  ;  Younzaleen 
Creek ;  Theinzeik ;  Thatone  ;  Moulmein ;  Fabyouk  ;  Yea-boo ;  Karope  ;  Amherst ; 
Meeta  Myo  ;  Taroy ;  Tenasserim  Town. 

Common  in  the  northern  half,  rarer  in  the  southern  central 
portion,  and  absolutely  wauting  in  the  extreme  south  of  the 
province, 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  163 

Mergui  and  the  Tenasserim  River  seem  to  indicate  the  south- 
ern limit  of  this  species,  and  it  is  met  with,  I  should  say,  so  far 
south  only  as  a  straggler  from  the  more  northern  portions  of  the 
province.  About  Pahpoon  and  between  that  place  and  Moulmein 
and  its  vicinity  it  is  very  common,  but  less  so  south  of  Moulmein 
to  Tavoy. 

[Singly  or  in  pairs  it  frequents  thin  tree  jungle,  gardens,  and 
secondary  scrub,  and  is  particularly  fond  of  this  latter,  especially 
when  it  is  very  dense  and  impenetrable.  Its  flight  is  weak, 
and  it  relies  more  for  its  safety  on  the  dense  and  impenetrable 
character  of  the  places  it  prefers  to  frequent.  It  has  a  marvellous 
capacity  for  making  its  way  through  dense  cover.  Its  note  is 
a  peculiar  cat-like  chuckle,  often  heard  when  the  bird  is  thread- 
ing its  way  through  dense  cover. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males.— Length,  21*0  to  23*0;  expanse,  18-12  to  185  ;  tail 
from  vent,  13*75  to  15*75  ;  wing,  6*12  to  6-42;  tarsus,  1*45  to 
1'6  ;  bill  from  gape,  1*62  to  1*75  ;  weight,  4  to  5  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  23'5  to  23*75;  expanse,  18*0  to  19'25;  tail 
from  vent,  15*5  to  16*6;  wing,  6*12  to  6*37  ;  tarsus,  1*46  to 
1*5  ;  bill  from  gape,  1*62  ;  weight,  4*75  ozs. 

Legs  and  feet  dark  greenish  plumbeous ;  bill  pale  green, 
tinged  at  gape  and  near  base  with  red ;  irides  brown  or  reddish 
brown  ;  facial    skin  dull  dark  to  bright  crimson. 

215  bis.— Rhopodytes  diardi,  Less.  (10). 

Usheetherrpone  ;  Hankachin ;  Bankasoon ;  Malewoon. 

Entirely  confined  to  the  southernmost  district  of  the  pro- 
vince; meets  tristis  about  Mergui  and  replaces  it  southwards 
of  this. 

[In  its  habits  and  notes  this  species  resembles  R.  tristis,  but 
I  have  occasionally  found  it  in  the  evergreen  forests  of  the 
Pakchan.  I  found  it  very  common  everywhere  in  the  Malay 
Peninsula  and  shot  many,  but  noticed  nothing  distinctive  in 
its  habits,  food  or  voice. — W.  D.] 

This  species  is  not  unlike  R.  viridirostris  of  Southern 
India,  and  it  is  about  the  same  size,  and  has  a  very  similar  bill ; 
but  it  differs  in  having  the  chin,  throat,  and  breast  uniform 
ashy,  without  the  dark  mottling  of  the  throat  and  striation  of 
the  breast  of  the  Indian  species;  in  wanting  altogether  the 
fulvous  tinge  on  the  breast,  abdomen,  and  lower  tail-coverts, 
which  characterizes  this  latter  ;  in  having  the  bare  orbital  space 
larger  and  crimson  (blue  in  the  Indian  bird),  and  in  having  the 
white  tippings  to  the  tail  feathers,  about  one-third  of  the 
length  of  those  in  viridirostris.  The  tail  also  runs  shorter, 
and  the  upper  surface  is  darker. 


164  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

In  the  present  species  the  sexes  do  not  appear  to  differ  in 
dimensions,  or,  as  far  as  we  have  noticed,  in  any  other  particular. 

Length,  14- to  15*5  ;  expanse,  14*5  to  15-5  ;  tail,  8*12  to 
9'25  ;  wing-,  49  to  5"25  ;  tarsus,  1"25  to  1*47  ;  bill  from  gape, 
1-37  to  1'5  ;  weight,  2*75  to  3  ozs. 

The  legs  and  feet  are  dark  plumbeous  green ;  the  bill  pale 
green  ;  the  irides  dark  brown ;  the  bare  orbital  space  crimson ; 
edges  of  eyelids  black. 

The  head,  cheeks,  ear-coverts  and  sides  of  the  neck  dark  slaty 
grey ;  the  feathers  mostly  faintly  darker  shafted ;  the  chin,  throat 
and  breast,  grey,  paler  than  the  head,  somewhat  albescent  on 
the  chin,  throat,  and  sometimes  on  the  breast ;  breast  gradually- 
shading  into  upper  abdomen,  which  is  darker  and  duskier,  and 
this  again  into  the  lower  abdomen  and  vent,  which,  with  the  lower 
tail-coverts,  flanks,  and  wing-lining,  are  blackish  dusky,  the  three 
latter  mostly  with  more  or  less  of  a  greenish  lustre ;  the  upper 
back  like  the  crown,  but  more  or  less  glossed  with  metallic 
green;  the  whole  of  the  rest  of  the  upper  surface  dark  metallic 
green,  with  a  bluish  lustre  in  some  lights,  especially  on  the 
inner  webs  of  the  quills  ;  the  tail  obsoletely  rayed  transversely, 
and  all  the  feathers  tipped  for  a  breadth  of  from  0-3  to  0*5  with 
pure  white. 

A  narrow  velvet  black  line  dividing  the  crimson  facial  skin 
from  the  base  of  the  upper  mandible. 

215  ter.— Rhopodytes  sumatranus,  Raffi.  (19). 

Mergui ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Common,  but  only  in  the  southernmost  district  of  the 
province. 

[In  the  secondary  scrub,  with  which  a  great  portion  of  the 
island  of  Mergui  is  covered,  this  species  was  quite  a  common 
bird.  To  the  north  of  Mergui  I  did  not  meet  with  it  at  all,  and 
to  the  south  but  seldom,  although  I  met  with  many  places  that 
appeared  to  me  quite  as  suitable  as  the  places  it  frequented  on 
the  island  of  Mergui.  Its  note  is  precisely  like  that  of  R. 
tristis,  and  so  are  its  habits.  In  fact  all  these  Malhokas,  and 
even  P.  erythrognathus  are  exactly  alike  in  all  these  respects. — 

W-  D.  ] 

This  species  is  extremely  like  the  preceding,  but  is  distin- 
guished by  its  somewhat  larger  size,  longer  and  more  conspicuous 
bill,  by  its  clear  orange  facial  skin  shading  to  blood  red  on  the 
posterior  portion,  and  by  its  deep  chestnut  middle  abdomen, 
vent  and  lower  tail-coverts.  The  black  band  dividing  the  facial 
skin  from  the  base  of  the  upper  mandible  is  broader,  and 
an  excessively  narrow  white  line  in  most  specimens  borders  the 
feathers  of  the  head  along  the  upper  margin  of  the  bare  orbital 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  165 

space,  and  some  traces  of  this  are  sometimes  observable  on  the 
lower  margin  immediately  under  the  middle  of  the  eye.  No 
further  separate  description  seems  necessary. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c.  : — 

Males.— Length,  157  to  17*0  ;  expanse,  1675  to  17*5  ;  tail, 
9-25  to  10-25  ;  wing,  5*5  to  5-82  ;  tarsus,  1*4  to  1-5  ;  bill  from 
gape,  1-5  to  1-62 ;  weight,  3*5  to  375  ozs. 

Females  (only  2  measured). — Length,  15*82,  16-12;  ex- 
panse, 16-5;  tail,  9,  9*62;  wing,  5-45,  5-5  ;  tarsus,  1-5  ;  bill 
from  gape,  1*5,  1*55. 

Legs  and  feet  plumbeous  green  ;  bill  pale  green ;  hides  pale 
blue ;  bare  orbital  space  clear  orange,  palest  round  the  eye, 
shading  to  blood  red  at  the  posterior  angle. 

216  ter.— Phcenicophaus  erythrognathus,  Hartl.  (26). 

Yea  ;  Mergui ;  Laynah  ,•  Choungthapee ;  Bahonee;  Palaw-ton-ton ;  Bankasoon  • 
Malewoon. 

Very  common  in  the  southernmost  portions  of  the  province  ; 
getting  rarer  as  you  proceed  northwards,  and  apparently  not 
occurring  north  of  the  Yea  River,  which  seems  the  boundary 
of  several  species. 

[I  obtained  one  specimen  of  this  bird  about  48  miles  south 
of  Yea,  but  in  this  locality  it  appeared  to  be  very  rare.  At 
Mergui  and  southwards  to  the  Pakchan  it  is  common.  As 
I  have  elsewhere  mentioned  the  iris  of  this  bird  in  the  male 
is  a  pale  clear  blue,  in  the  female  usually  bright  yellow,  some- 
times an  opalescent  white  tinged  with  yellow ;  in  the  youno- of 
both  sexes  it  is  a  deep  reddish  brown.  In  habits  this  bird 
generally,  I  think,  resembles  the  other  Zanclostomi,  and  in  the 
localities  it  frequents  also,  viz.,  open  forest,  gardens  and  thick 
secondaiy  scrub,  by  preference  the  latter. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh : — 
Males.— Length,  18-5  to  19*25  ;  expanse,  19*5  to  21 ;  tail,  10-5 
to  10-75  ;  wing,  6-65   to  7-12;  "tarsus,  1*6   to    18;    bill    from 
gape,  1*8  to  2-0 ;  weight,  5  to  7ozs. 

females. — Length,  17  to  19;   expanse,  18-4   to   20*12;  tail 
9-12  to  10-75;  wing,   6-25   to   6*82;  tarsus,  1-62  to  1*75;   bill 
from  gape,  1*7  to  1*98;  weight,  5to6'5  ozs. 

Legs  and  feet  dark  plumbeous,  or  dark  bluish  or  plumbeous 
green ;  facial  skin  deep  red ;  lower  mandible  to  beyond  the 
gonys,  and  upper  mandible  at  base  below  the  nostril,  dark  ma- 
roon red ;  rest  of  upper  mandible  pale  green  ;  rest  of  lower  man- 
dible green,  generally  darker  than  the  upper  mandible,  sometimes 
shaded  with  dusky ;  irides  turquoise  or  pale  blue  in  the  male, 
bright-yellow  in  the  female ;  this  is  invariable  in  the  adults. 
One  quite  young  bird,  sexed  a  female  just  out  of  the  nest,  had  the 


166  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

irides  opalescent  white,  other  young  birds  had  them  reddish 
brown. 

An  excessively  narrow  white  line  bounds  the  upper  margin 
of  the  bare  orbital  space,  and  is  more  or  less  apparent  on  the 
lower  margin  also ;  the  entire  top  of  the  head  dark  grey,  with 
more  or  less  of  a  green  lustre ;  the  chin  white,  greyish  white,  or 
grey;  a  stripe  from  the  base  of  the  upper  mandible  below  the  or- 
bital space  over  the  greater  part  of  the  ear-coverts,  and  joining 
the  grey  of  the  occiput  behind  the  orbital  space,  a  purer  grey ;  the 
entire  upper  parts  from  the  nape,  dark  glossy  metallic  green,  with 
more  or  less  of  a  blue  lustre  on  the  quills,  especially  on  their 
inner  webs,  and  all  the  feathers  of  the  tail  tipped  for  from  2*5  to 
4  inches,  it  varies  a  good  deal  in  different  specimens,  with  deep 
maroon.  Throat,  breast,  abdomen  and  lower  halves  of  sides  of  the 
neck  deep  chestnut;  lower  abdomen  and  tibial  plumes 
dusky ;  the  former  fringed  with  dull  maroon,  the  latter  with 
green  reflections;  the  lower  tail-coverts  dull  maroon  ;  lower 
wing-coverts  glossy  green,  a  little  mingled  with  maroon  chestnut. 

Very  young  birds  are  somewhat  duller  colored,  have  the 
orbital  pace  paler,  no  red  on  the  bill,  and  the  whole  of  the  two, 
in  one  specimen  four,  central  tail  feathers,  uniform  glossy  metallic 
green.  As  one  of  our  specimens  has  all  four  of  the  central 
feathers  like  this,  and  two  others  only  two,  it  is  not  impossible 
that  other  young  ones  may  have  all  the  tail  feathers  like  this, 
and  if  so,  such  a  specimen  may  have  been  the  foundation  of 
Verreaux's  P.  aneicaudus  (Mag.  deZool.,  1855,  357)  as  indeed 
has  been  suggested  long  ago  by  Stoliczka. 

In  some  specimens,  in  other  respects  apparently  adult,  with 
the  full-sized  broad  tail  feathers  (the  young  always  have  these 
narrower),  the  maroon  on  the  central  tail  feathers  is  reduced  to 
a  mere  spot  on  both  webs  near  the  tips  ;  but  we  have  not  yet 
met  with  a  perfect  adult  with  the  red  fully  developed  on  the 
bill,  in  which  the  whole  of  the  central  tail  feathers  were  green. 

216  quat. —"Rhmortha,  chlorophaea,  Raffl.  (12). 

Lemyne  ;  Yea  ;  Tavoy  ;  Thayetckoung  ;  Tenasserim  Town  ;  Palaw-ton-ton  ; 
Eankasoon. 

Confined  to  the  southern  three-fourths  of  the  southern  half  of 
the  province. 

[This  species  ranges  as  far  north  at  any  rate  as  Lemyne,  a 
village  about  a  day's  march  north  of  Yea,  but  is  rare  till  you  get 
further  south,  and  even  there  is  nowhere  very  common.  By 
preference,  it  frequents  the  densest  parts  of  the  evergreen  forests, 
and  cane-brakes  and  densest  of  scrubby  jungle.  In  all  its  habits 
it  resembles  Rhopoctytes,  but  has  quite  a  different  note,  a  peculiar 
cat-like  mew  (not  the  chuckle  of  the  others),  which  it  utters  at 
short  intervals  as  it  threads  its  way  through  the  tangled  foliage. 


BIRDS  OF  TENASSERIM.  167 

It  is  almost  invariably  found  in  pairs.  These  also  feed  apparently 
entirely  (I  have  dissected  mauy)  on  insects. — W.  D.] 

In  this  species,  despite  all  that  lias  been  said,  there  is  no  possi- 
ble doubt,  (as  Davison  has  sexed  scores  of  specimens  in  Tenas- 
serim  and  the  Malay  Peninsula,)  that  the  adult  males  have  the 
rufous  head  and  black  banded  tails,  and  the  females,  the  grey 
heads  and  the  cheftnut  tails. 

The  sexes  do  not  vary  in  size.  The  following-  are  dimensions  : — 

Length,  12-5  to  13*75;  expanse,  1275  to  13*7;  tail,  6'82  to 
8-25;  wing-,  4-26  to  4-62;  tarsus,  0*95  to  1-12;  bill  from  gape, 
1-3  to  1-4 ;  weight,  1-75  to  2  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  dark  plumbeous  ;  claws  black  ;  bill  apple  green  ; 
orbital  skin  pale  green,  inclining  to  bluish  ;  hides,  in  the  only 
specimen  in  which  these  were  recorded,  dark  brown. 

The  males  have  the  whole  top  and  sides  of  the  head,  sides  and 
back  of  the  neck,  and  entire  mantle,  and  all  but  the  tips  of  the 
quills,  (which  are  dusky  or  deep  hair  brown,)  chestnut,  brighter 
on  the  head  and  neck,  where  the  paler  orange  buff  bases  of  the 
feathers  show  through  a  good  deal,  darker  on  the  other  parts ; 
rump,  upper  tail-coverts  and  tail  blackish  dusky ;  all  the  feathers 
of  the  latter  tipped  white  for  about  half  an  inch,  and  the  feathers 
blackening  and  losing  their  bands  about  half  an  inch  inside  these 
tippings ;  the  whole  of  the  rest  of  the  tail  feathers  narrowly, 
closely,  and  rather  obscurely  banded  with  pale  somewhat 
yellowish  brown  ;  upper  tail-coverts  more  narrowly,  more  closely, 
but  somewhat  less  obscurely  similarly  banded  ;  rump  with  traces 
of  similar  but  still  finer  and  closer  banding  ;  chin,  throat  and 
breast  much  paler  than  the  head  and  back,  a  warm  full-colored 
buff  ;  upper  abdomen  this  same  color,  shaded  with  smoky  grey ; 
lower  abdomen  and  thigh  coverts  smoky  grey,  passing  into 
smoky  dusky  on  the  lower  tail-coverts,  and  all  these  dusky  parts 
very  finely  and  obsoletely  banded. 

The  females  have  the  whole  head,  neck  all  round,  chin,  throat 
and  breast  pale  grey,  becoming  albescent  on  the  lower  surface, 
and  generally  a  little  stained  with  fulvous  on  the  middle  of  the 
breast ;  upper  abdomen  grey,  shading  into  fulvous,  and  the 
fulvous  again  passing  to  a  dusky  on  the  flanks  and  lower  tail- 
coverts  and  tibial  plumes,  which  are  all  more  or  less  fringed 
with  dull  rusty  towards  the  tips  of  the  feathers  ;  the  entire 
tail  chestnut  (like  the  wings,)  tipped  for  half  an  inch  with  pure 
white,  and  with  a  sub-terminal  black  band  of  about  the  same 
width. 

216  quint.— Zanclostomus  javanicus,  Horsf.  (4). 

Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Confined  to  the  southernmost  extremity  of  the  province,  and 
very  rare  there. 


168  BIRDS   OF   TENASSKRIM. 

[This  is  a  very  rare  bird  in  Tenasserim.  I  got  one,  a  male,  at 
Bankasoon,  and  Mr.  A.  T.  Hough  shot  another  near  Malewoon, 
and  these  and  two  others  shot  later  at  Malewoon  are  the  only 
specimens  I  have  ever  seen  in  Tenasserim.  In  the  Malay  Penin- 
sula further  south,  the  bird  is  less  uncommon,  frequenting  the 
outskirts  of  the  forest  and  undergrowth.  Its  habits  are  just 
those  of  R/wpodytes. — W.  D.J 

All  our  specimens  procured  in  Tenasserim  were  males.  Only 
one  of  our  Malayan  specimens,  a  female,  was  measured,  and  of 
this  the  colors  of  the  soft  parts  were  not  recorded. 

The  sexes  do  not  appear  to  differ  in  size  or  plumage,  but  the 
following  dimensions  and  colors  of  the  soft  parts  refer  only  to 
males  :— 

Length,  16-5  to  18-0;  expanse,  15'25  to  17  ;  tail,  10'37  to 
10*8;  wing,  5*25  to  575  ;  tarsus,  1"35  to  1*5 ;  bill  from  gape, 
1-42  to  1-8. 

The  legs  and  feet  plumbeous,  dark,  and  with  more  or  less  of  a 
green  shade ;  bill  coral  red  ;  gape  dull  smalt ;  naked  space  round 
eye  blue,  in  some  pale,  in  some  a  bright  smalt ;  irides  brown,  in 
some  deep,  in  some  light.  In  somewhat  younger  birds  the  cul- 
men  and  tip  of  lower  mandible  are  black  ;  very  likely  in  the 
quite  young  bird  the  whole  mandible  is  reddish  dusky,  but  we 
have  as  yet  obtained  no  nestlings. 

In  the  adult  male  the  forehead  and  anterior  part  of  the  crown 
are  a  light  grey  brown,  (with  more  or  less  of  a  fulvous  tinge  and 
dark-shafted,)  passing  into  the  purer  grey  of  the  posterior  portion 
of  the  crown ^  occiput,  back  and  sides  of  the  neck  behind  the  eye, 
the  lores  and  feathers  immediately  under  the  eye,  chin,  entire 
throat,  and  front  and  lower  portion  of  sides  of  the  neck  pale,  ferru- 
ginous buff;  breast  and  upper  abdomen  clear rJearl  grey,  shaded 
and  overlaid  with  dingy  buff;  lower  abdomen,  flanks,  tibial 
plumes  and  lower  tail-coverts  rather  bright  chestnut,  deepest  on 
the  lower  tail -coverts  ;  sides,  axillaries,  wing-lining,  a  beautiful 
clear  grey,  with  a  little  pale  fulvous  patch  just  under  the  carpal 
joint ;  wings,  scapulars,  upper  tail-coverts,  and  tail,  dull  greyish 
metallic  green,  with  more  or  less  of  a  blue  lustre;  the  lesser 
coverts  and  the  shoulders  of  the  wing  greyer  and  paler ;  the  tail 
darker  and  greener,  obsoletely  rayed,  and  with  all  the  feathers  tip- 
ped with  from  0-6  to  09  ;  (the  central  ones  slightly  less  broadly 
than  the  others)  with  pure  white. 

The  back  and  rump  dark  grey ;  the  feathers  lax,  and  with 
more  or  less  of  a  greenish  lustre. 

217  quat—  Centrococcyx  intermedius,  Hume.  (35). 
Descr.  S.  F.,  I.,  454 

(Karen  Bills,  Tonghoo,  Rams).  Pahpoon  ;  Thoungsha  Gyne  R. ;  Pabyouk  ; 
Karope  ;  Amherst;  Meeta  Myo  ;  Tavoy  ;  Mergui ;  Pukchan. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  169 

Common  throughout  the  province,  but  only  where  the  country 
is  fairly  open  and  not  ascending-  the  higher  hills. 

[This  species  has  the  same  notes  and  habits  as  the  common 
Southern  Indian  rufipennis.  It  avoids  the  dense  forests  and  the 
heavy  kine  grass,  and  greatly  affects  gardens  and  fields.  It 
feeds  about  chiefly  on  the  ground,  stalking  about  slowly  with 
its  tail  carefully  lifted.  They  eat  every  living  thing  they  can 
seize,  devouring  small  mammals,  reptiles,  insects,  and  possibly 
small  stranded  fish  and  crustaceans,  as  I  have  continually  seen 
them  prowling  about  on  mud  banks  of  rivers  just  above  the 
water's  edge. — W.   D.] 

The  whole  of  the  specimens,  thirty-five  in  number,  preserved 
by  us  from  all  parts  of  Tenasserim  from  the  extreme  north  to 
the  Pakchan  Estuary,  belong  to  this  species. 

Formerly,  some  of  our  specimens  were  recorded  as  ewycercus, 
a  totally  different  and  immensely  larger  species  which  we  have 
since  obtained  in  the  Malay  Peninsula,  but  which  does  not, 
so  far  as  we  know,  ever  extend  so  far  north  as  the  Pakchan 
Estuary. 

The  present  species  varies  a  good  deal  in  size,  chiefly  according 
to  sex;  in  the  adult  females  the  wings  vary  from  7*75  to  8-4,  and 
in  adult  males  from  7 '3  to  7'9. 

This  species  differs  from  rufipennis,  Illiger,in  having  the  whole 
interscapulary  region  red,  even  in  birds  in  the  barred  plumage 
of  the  young.  It  differs  from  the  true  eurycercus  in  its  much 
smaller  size,  (as  will  be  seen  from  the  dimensions  of  this  latter 
species  given  further  on,)  and  in  its  conspicuous  green  tail  (I 
speak  of  course  of  adults),  the  tail  being  blue  in  eurycercus.  It 
differs  from  maximus,  nobis  (described  at  the  same  time  as  inter- 
medius) ,  which  has  the  wing  9  to  9*5  ;  in  its  smaller  size,  deeper 
chestnut  tinge,  and  in  the  decided  blue  of  its  breast  and  abdomen, 
in  full  plumaged  adults  ;  these  parts  having  a  decided  green  shade 
mixed  with  the  blue  in  maximus.  Lastly,  it  differs  from  the  Acheen 
species  which  I  formerly  erroneously  identified*  with  eurycercus, 
in  its  smaller  bill  (sex  for  sex)  deeper  chestnut,  and  much  more 
purely  green  tail. 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  of  some  few  specimens  of 
the  present  species,  five  males  and  three  females,  measured  in  the 
flesh.  Unfortunately,  having  measured  so  few  birds,  our 
dimensions  do  not  fully  represent  the  limits  within  which  the  two 
sexes  vary : — 

Males.— Length,  17-75 to  19-75  ;  expanse,  22-25  to  24-5  j  tail, 
9-0  to  10-75 ;  wing,  73  to  7*75  -  tarsus,  2-12  to  2-35  ■  bill  from 
gape,  1-75  to  V82  ■  weight,  about  8  ozs. 


S.  F.,  I., 453. 

22 


170  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

Females.—  Length,  20  to  21*62;  expanse,  24  to  25  ;  tail,  10-5 
to  11-62  ;  wing,  7'75  to  8'25  ;  tarsus,  2'37  to  2'5  •  bill  from 
gape,  2'0  ;  weight,  about  12  ozs. 

The  legs,  feet,  and  bill  are  black  ;  the  irides  crimson. 

We  have  this  species  not  only  from  all  parts  of  Tenasserim, 
but  also  from  numerous  localities  in  Pegu,  from  Akyab,  the 
Arracan  Hills,  Dilkhushah,  Cachar,  and  Dacca,  and  we  have  a 
quite  young  bird  from  Dehra  Doon  just  out  of  the  nest  with  the 
win°"  8-0,  which  may  belong  to  this  species,  or  may  be  mawimus. 

Maximus  we  have  still  only  from  Sindh,  Sikim,  Goorgaon 
(whence  also  we  have  true  rujlpefinis ) ,  and  strange  to  say  Cawn- 
pore,  and  possibly  the  young  specimen  from  the  Dhoon  may 
belong  to  this  species. 

Bufipennis  we  have  still  only  from  Delhi,  Grourgaon,  Allahabad, 
Raipore,  Sumbulpore,  and  other  places  in  the  Central  Provinces, 
from  Ootacamund,  Seegore,  Colachul,  Anjango,  and  other  loca- 
lities in  the  south  of  India. 

By  some  inexplicable  oversight,  while  we  have  nearly  60 
specimens  of  intermedins,  we  have  only  twenty  of  the  common 
rufipennis,  and  we  are  therefore  quite  unable  at  present  to  de- 
fine at  all  accurately  the  limits  of  the  three  species  ;  but  rufipen- 
nis appears  to  be  the  bird  of  Southern  and  Central,  maximus 
of  Western  and  North-western  Continental  India,  intermedins 
of  Eastern  Continental  India,  and  the  whole  of  Burma. 

I  take  this  opportunity  of  noting  that  the  bird  that  I  described 
from  Acheen  as  Centrococcyx  eurycercus,  Hay,  was  not  really  that 
species  but  distinct.  I  observe  that  Lord  Tweeddale  remarks  that 
the  Centrococcyx  from  the  south-east  of  Sumatra  is  identical  with 
Malaccan  eurycercus,  but  this  is  certainly  not  the  case  with 
the  Centrococcyx  from  Acheen,  the  north-west  extremity  of 
Sumatra. 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  of  the  true  eurycercus  from 
Malacca  aud  Pulo  Seban  : —    . 

Height     of  Mid         Hind 

Bill  from  Bill  from  both  Man-  Toe  and  Toe  and 


Sex. 

Wing. 

Tail. 

Gape. 

Frontal  dibles      a 

,  t  Tarsus. 

Claw. 

Claw. 

bone  to 

Margin 

of 

Tip. 

Feathers. 

Male 

91 

13- 

1-97 

172 

07 

245 

215 

172 

Male 

9'2 

135 

1-96 

1-83 

079 

24 

2-15 

1-8 

Male 

8-9 

13- 

1-92 

1-87 

087 

27 

2-25 

1-65 

Male,  Juv. 

85 

12-25 

1-95 

1-8 

0  75 

2"35 

22 

1-8 

Female 

85 

13  2 

1-9 

1-68 

073 

2  48 

2-1 

1-62 

Female,  Juv.  8-5 

13  0 

18 

1-65 

07 

2-1 

1-97 

1-75 

Female,  Juv.  8.0 

125 

1-9 

1-77 

0-68 

2-27 

2-06 

17 

Contrast  these  with  similar  dimensions  of  a  very  fine   Acheen 
adult : — 

Male  7-9        *10-        1-95        fl-83  064  205        184  139 

*  From  vent,  95. 

f  From  margin  of  feathers,  1.4. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  171 

I  may  add  that  the  total  length  of  this  bird  in  the  flesh  was 
19'8  ;   of  the  adults  of  eurycercus  from  22  to  24. 

This  Acheen  species  is,  therefore,  very  much  smaller  than 
the  true  eurycercus,  with  as  long1,  or  perhaps  longer,  but  consider- 
ably slenderer  bill.     The  hind  claws  are  markedly  shorter. 

The  tail  blue,  with  a  marked  green  shade  ;  the  adults  in  fact 
with  tails  colored  like  those  of  somewhat  immature  eurycercus. 

Sex  for  sex  the  Acheen  birds  have  much  larger  bills  than 
intermedins,  and  moreover  have  nothing  of  the  bright  pure 
green  gloss  on  the  tails  of  the  perfect  adults  of  that  species. 

I  propose  to  distinguish  this  form  for  the  present  under  the 
name  of  Centrococcyx  acheenensis. 

218.— Centropus  bengalensis,  Gm.  (4). 

{Karen-nee,  Earns.)  Kollidoo  ;  Tavoy;  Bankasoon;  Malewoon. 

Occurs,  though  very  sparingly,  in  suitable  localities  throughout 
the  province. 

[This  species  occurs  but  sparingly  in  the  province,  and  only 
in  those  portions  where  there  is  kine  grass  or  rank  low  herbage. 
When  flushed  it  flies  but  a  short  distance  and  drops  into  the 
grass.  I  have  never  seen  it  either  in  forest,  or  even  in  the 
scrubby  jungle  that  the  larger  Ooucal  loves  to  frequent.  The 
note  and  habits  of  this  species  are  admirably  described  by  Mr. 
Gammie,  S.  ¥.,  V.,  385.— W.  D.] 

I  enter  all  our  specimens  as  bengalensis,  Gm.  Cabanis  gives  two 
nearly  allied  species,  C.  lepichs,  Horsf.,  from  Java,  and  C.  bengalen- 
sis, Nepal.  The  Marquis  of  Tweeddale,  Tr.  Z.  S.,  VIII.,  58, 
assigns  Dumont's  name  javanensis  to  the  first,  and  adds  Malacca, 
Banjermassing,  and  Celebes  to  the  original   Javan  habitat.  _ 

It  may  be  that  the  Marquis  of  Tweeddale  is  in  error  in  iden- 
tifying Malaccan  examples  with  the  Javan  species,  but  it 
appears  to  me  very  certain  that  there  is  only  one  species  of  this 
type  from  Singapore  to  Suddya  on  the  one  side,  and  Nepal  on  the 
other. 

The  distinctions  drawn  by  Cabanis  between  his  lepidus  (java- 
nensis  apud  Lord    T.,)  and  C.  bengalensis  are  briefly  these:  — 

Lepidus  black,  with  greenish  lustre  Bengalensis  black,  with  a  bluish  lustre. 

Wings  and    interscapulars  pale   ferrugi- 
nous  red       Some    of  the  shafts  of  the  Wings  and  interscapulars  cinnamon  red. 
lesser  wing-coverts  white. 

Bill  very  short.  Bill  moderate. 

Claws  long.  (  laws  excessively  long. 

Length,  13-7;  wing,  575.  Length,  15  32;  wing,  6-8o. 

Tail,  74;  culmen,  0-91-  Tail,  877;  culmen,  1-1. 

Height  of  bill,  0-55;  tarsus,  1-65-  Height  of  bill,  05o ;  tarsus,   165. 

Middle  toe,  excluding  claw,  11.  Middle  toe,  excluding  claw,  1-19. 

Hind  toe  claw  inside,  11.  Hind  toe  claw  inside,  T29. 

Dr.  Cabanis  appears  to  have  had  one  adult  of  the  one  supposed 
species,  and  one  adult  of  the  other  before  him. 


172  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

I  have  now  eight  from  the  Malayan  Peninsula,  and  thirty- 
one  from  different  parts  of  Tenasserim,  Pegu,  Eastern  Ben- 
gal, and  Assam  before  me,  and  I  cannot  entertain  a  doubt  that 
from  all  these  localities  the  species  is  one  and  the  same. 

First  as  to  the  lustre.  In  perfect  adults,  whether  from  the 
Straits,  Burma,  Bengal,  or  Assam,  the  lustre  is  bluish,  not  the 
bright  blue  of  the  upper  back  of  rectungais,  but  still  a  decided 
blue.  In  some  younger  birds,  there  is  more  or  less  of  a  greenish 
tinge  about  the  feathers  of  the  head  and  nape,  and  sometimes  all 
the  basal  and  central  portions  of  the  feathers  have  a  decided 
greenish  tinge,  but  this  is  equally  observable  in  birds 
from  Assam,  Calcutta,  Tenasserim,  and  Singapore.  Every  Ma- 
layan specimen  can  be  exactly  matched  by  specimens  from 
different  parts  of  Bengal  and  Assam. 

And  the  same  may  be  said  as  to  the  colors  of  the  wings 
aud  interscapulary  region,  which,  in  some  specimens  from  both 
localities,  may  be  properly  called  pale  ferruginous,  and  in  others 
cinnamon. 

As  for  the  white  shafts  to  some  of  the  lesser  wing  coverts, 
these  are  observable  in  9-10ths  of  all  apparently  full-plumaged 
birds  from  Nepal  to  Johore,  only  about  one  in  ten  apparent 
adults  lose  this  entirely. 

There  remain  differences  in  size,  alike  in  bills  and  claws, 
and  in  other  dimensions.  Dr.  Cabanis  had  very  few  specimens, 
or  he  would  have  found  great  variation  in  the  size  of  both  his 
larger  and  smaller  supposed  species  ;  and  if  the  Marquis  of 
Tweeddale  is  correct  in  identifying  Javan  and  Malay  Penin- 
sula specimens,  his  birds  must  have  been  incorrectly  sexed, 
or  he  would  have  discovered  that  all  the  large  ones  were  females, 
and  the  small  ones  males. 

The  following  are  dimensions  recorded  in  the  flesh  of  a  number 
of  adult  males  from  various  localities,  from  Johore  to  Suddya  : — 

Length,  12-7  to  13;  expanse,  15-9  to  17-2;  wing,  5-25  to 
5*5 ;  tail,  6#75  to  7*7;  tarsus,  1*45  to  1*55;  bill  from  gape, 
1*1  to  1*9  ;  hind  toe  claw  inside,  0*7  to  0*95. 

The  following  are  dimensions  of  adult  females  : — 

Length,  14*25  to  15;  expanse,  18*25  to  18*75;  wing,  6*5  to 
6*8;  tail,  8*4  to  8*6;  tarsus,  1*6  to  1*7;  bill  from  gape,  1*25; 
hind  toe  claw  inside,  0*9  to  1*1. 

And  the  bills  of  the  females  are  not  only  longer,  but  markedly 
stouter  as  a  body  than  those  of  the  males. 

Younger  birds  of  both  sexes  are  considerably  smaller  than  the 
adults. 

It  may  be  that  the  Javan  bird  is  distinct,  but  certainly  all 
those  that  we  have  seen  from  the  Malayan  Peninsula  have  been 
identical  with  those  from  various  parts  cf  India  and  Burma 
The  females  from  both  localities  answering  fairly   to  Cabanis 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  173 

bengalemis,  and  the  males  to  his  lepidus,  with  the  sole  exception 
that  from  Singapore  upwards  all  the  perfect  plumaged  adults 
have  a  bluish  and  not  a  greenish  lustre  on  head  and  neck,  though 
a  certain  amount  of  greenish  lustre  is  observable  on  these  parts 
in  a  somewhat  less  advanced  stage  of  plumage. 

If  any  other  allied  species  occurred  in  the  Malay  Peninsula, 
I  think  we  must  have  obtained  it  just  as  we  have  obtained 
rectunguis  and  eurycercus,  and  it  seems  to  me  to  follow  that 
either  the  Marquis  of  Tweeddale  is  wrong  in  identifying  Malac- 
can  and  Javan  specimens,  or  that  lepidus,  Horsf.,  javanensis, 
Dumont,  is  not  distinct  from  hengalensis,  Grm. 

223.— Arachnothera  magna,  Kodgs.  (3). 

Kyouk-nyat ;  Salween  E. 

Confined  to  the  northernmost  portions   of   Tenasserim  proper. 

[I  only  observed  this  species  in  the  hills  to  the  north  of 
Pahpoon,  and  even  there  it  was  rare.  The  specimens  I  ob- 
tained I  shot  on  Bombax  trees,  which  these  birds  frequented,  in 
company  with  many  other  species,  to  feed  on  the  nectar  of  its 
flowers.  All  the  species  of  Arachnothera  that  I  have  observed 
are  very  similar  in  their  habits  and  voice. — W.  D  ] 

The  larger  Indian  Spider-hunter  is  extremely  common  in  Sik- 
him  and  parts  of  Nepal  in  the  hills  and  valleys,  from  an 
elevation  of  about  two  to  five  thousand  feet  according  to  season, 
and  descending  at  times  in  the  winter  to  even  a  lower  elevation, 
and  being  found  though  as  a  straggler  and  exceptionally  in  the 
Doars  and  the  Terai  in  the  cold  weather. 

I  am  not  aware  that  it  is  ever  found  further  west  than  Nepal ; 
but  if  it  does  occur  at  all  in  Kumaon,  it  can  only  be  as  a  strag- 
gler. Eastward  in  the  western  portions  of  Assam,  always,  be  it 
understood,  in  hilly  tracts,  it  appears  to  be  common,  and  I  have 
no^  received  numerous  specimens  from  Suddya,  the  very 
easternmost  station  in  the  province.  Southwards  it  is  found  in 
the  Khasia  Hills,  Hill  Tipperah,  the  hilly  portions  of  Chittagong, 
and  Arrakan.  It  does  not  occur,  so  far  as  I  yet  kuow,  in  the 
dry  northern  portions  of  Pegu,  but  east  of  the  Sittang  it  occurs 
in  the  northern  portions  of  the  Tenasserim  province,  as  far 
south  as  Pahpoon.  Further  south  than  this  Davison  has  never 
observed  it.  Beavan,  however,  undoubtedly  obtained  a  specimen 
at  Kyodan,  which  is  some  30  miles  south  of  Pahpoon,  but  70 
miles  north  of  Moulmein.  Col.  Tickell  is  said  to  have 
obtained  it  twice  in  Tenasserim,  but  this  was  probably  in  the 
hills,  dividing  this  from  Siam,  and  Horsfield  gives  a  specimen, 
Cat.  B.  E.  I.  C,  p.  727,  from  Heifer's  collection,  but 
Davison  has  for  more  than  four  years  collected  vigorously  in  most 
parts  of  Tenasserim,  and  he   has  never  met   with  a   specimen 


174  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

south  of  Pahpoon,  although,  by  a  misprint  in  my  first  list,  S.  F., 
II.,  p.  473,  I  am  made  to  record  a  specimen  from  near  Yea. 

There  is  little  to  be  said  of  the  habits  of  these  Arachnotheras, 
which  are  all  very  similar  to  those  of  other  Sunbirds  fre- 
quenting large  flowering  trees,  like  the  silk  cotton  tree  (Bom- 
bax,  several  species)  and  feeding  chiefly  on  nectar,  though 
unquestionably  also  consuming  insects,  the  remains  of  which  are 
continually  found  in  their  stomachs. 

If  the  trivial  name  Spider-hunter- is  meant  to  indicate  that 
they  are  chiefly  insectivorous,  I  doubt  its  correctness,  as  I 
believe  that  their  chief  staple  of  food  is  nectar. 

They  have  a  feeble  chirruping  note,  uttered  chiefly  while 
the  bird  is  feeding,  but  occasionally  also  as  they  fly  from  tree 
to  tree. 

Their  flight  is  swift  and  direct,  with  rapid  beats  of  the 
wings,  but  they  seldom,  if  ever,  appear  to  take  any  length- 
ened flight. 

Further  particulars  will  be  found,  Stray  Feathers,  Vol.  III., 
p.  85,  but  the  first  paragraph  of  page  86  must  be  considered 
cancelled,  except  the  first  line  and  a  half.  It  is  true  that 
male  aurala  has  almost  the  same  dimensions  as  female  magna, 
and  also  that  the  striatum  on  the  back  of  female  magna  is  some- 
what less  marked  than  in  the  male  ;  but  male  aurata,  with  its  ex- 
cessively fine  striae  of  the  lower  surface,  and  its  almost 
unstriated  back,  can  never  be  mistaken  for  female  magna. 

223  bis. — Araclmothera    aurata,    Bly.    Descr.  S.  E., 
III.,  85. 

Has  occurred  at  Tonghoo  and  in  the  Karen  Hills,  but  has 
not  been  as  yet  observed  elsewhere  in  Tenasserim. 

224.— Arachnothera  longirostra,  Lath.  (27). 

(TonqJioo,  Earns.)  Pahpoon;  Moulrnein  ;  Tkayetchoung  ;  Pabyin ;  Tenas- 
serim Town ;  Pakchan  ;  Bankasoon. 

Rather  common  throughout  the  province. 

[This  is  the  most  widely-distributed  Spider-hunter  in  Tenasse- 
rim, occurring  throughout  the  country  from  its  northern  to  its 
southern  limits,  but  it  is  nowhere  very  abundant.  I  have  "al- 
ways found  it  most  abundant  in  plantain  gardens,  where  it  may 
be  seen  clinging  head  down  and  sucking  the  nectar  from  the 
plantain  flowers.  I  have  also  found  it  not  uncommon  in  cocoanut 
plantations,  and  the  undergrowth  on  the  outskirts  of  forest,  and 
in  scrub  jungle. — W.  D.] 

The  little  Spider-hunter  is  common  in  Hill  Tipperah  and  the 
Cachar  Hills,  Chittagong,  and  the  Arrakan  Hills,  but  it  does  not 
seem  to  extend  northwards  into  Assam,   the  Doars,  or  Sikhim 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  175 

It  does  not  occur,  so  far  as  I  yet  know,  in  the  dry  portion  of 
Upper  Pegu,  but  throughout  the  whole  Tenasserim  provinces, 
from  Tonghoo  to  quite  the  Pakchan,  I  have  seen  specimens  from 
almost  every  locality. 

Davison  always  found  it  in  Tenasserim  as  elsewhere  most 
numerous  in  plantain  gardens,  where  it  may  be  seen  generally  up- 
side down  clinging  to  the  purple  bract  leaves  of  the  young  plan- 
tain bunches,  its  head  turned  up  inside  the  bract,  and  thus  hidden 
from  sight,  busily  sucking  the  nectar  from  the  inflorescence  con- 
cealed beneath  the  purple  sheath. 

Southwards  in  the  Malay  Peninsula,  Davison  obtained  it  at 
Singapore  and  at  Nealys,  30  miles  north-east  cf  Malacca,  and 
saw  it  at  Johore  and  other  places,  but  it  is  not  nearly  so  abund- 
ant in  the  Peninsula  as  in  Tenasserim,  and  is  to  a  great  extent 
replaced  in  the  former  by  modesta  and  flavigaster. 

In  the  southern  portion  of  the  Indian  Peninsula  again  we 
have  it  from  Kotagherry  and  other  localities  on  the  Nil- 
gherris,  the  Wynaad,  the  Malabar  Coast,  and  the  Hills  of  S. 
Travancore,  and  though  not  so  abundant  as  in  Tenasserim,  it  is 
not  really  rare  ;  four  or  five  may  be  seen  in  a  morning  about  the 
euphorbia  hedges  of  the  Coonoor  Ghat. 

Specimens  from  all  these  localities  are  identical. 

In  this,  as  in  all  the  other  species  of  Arachnothera  with  which  I 
am  acquainted,  the  male  is  the  largest.  The  following  are  measure- 
ments taken  in  the  flesh  of  a  very   considerable  number  : — 

Male.— Length,  6'12  to  6*5  ;  expanse,  7*8  to  8*62  ;  tail  from 
vent,  1-62  to  1*9  ;  wing,  25  to  2*7  ;  tarsus,  062  to  7 ;  bill  from 
gape,  1-38  to  T62 ;  weight,  045  to  0*55  oz. 

Female. — Length,  5-62  to  5'75  ;  expanse,  7'5  to  7*75  ;  tail  from 
vent,  1-62  to  1-75  ;  wing,  2*2  to  2*5;  tarsus,  0-55  to  0*6.;  bill 
from  gape,  1*2  to  1*46  ;  weight,  04  to  05  oz. 

The  irides  are  always  deep  brown,  but  there  is  a  great  vari- 
ation in  the  color  of  the  soft  parts,  certainly  not  dependent  on 
age,  as  we  have  obtained  both  old  and  young  birds  exhibiting 
both  types  of  coloration ;  probably  it  is  seasonal,  as  birds  killed 
in  December  and  January  exhibit  both  types;  those  killed  in 
June,  August,  and  September  exhibit  only  the  first  type,  but 
then  we  have  only  three  birds  killed  in  June,  and  one  in  August, 
and  one  in  September. 

First  Type. — Legs  and  feet  dark  plumbeous  blue ;  upper  man- 
dible black  ;  lower  mandible  pale  plumbeous  blue. 

Second  Type. — Legs,  feet  and  claws,  pale  yellowish  fleshy  ; 
upper  mandible  horny  brown ;  lower  mandible,  except  towards 
the  tip  and  gape,  yellowish  fleshy. 

Specimens  exhibiting  intermediate  coloring  are  often  procured. 
A  biro1  killed  on  the  17th  of  December  had  the  legs  and  feet 
pale  plumbeous,  mottled   with  dull  yellow;    another  killed   two 


176  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

days  later  had  the  legs  pale  lavender;  the  feet  dull  yellow; 
another  killeJ  about  the  same  time  had  the  entire  legs  and  feet 
a  pale  lavender ;  the  colors  of  the  bills  being  similarly  inter- 
mediate. 

224  bis. — Arachnothera  modesta,  Eyton  (12). 

Tkoungsheyen  Satan  ;  Meeta  Myo  j  Bantasoon. 

Confined  to  the  forests  of  the  southern  and  central  por- 
tions of  the  province. 

[This  species,  the  Grey-breasted  Spider-hunter,  is  rare  in 
Tenasserim. 

The  most  northerly  point  at  which  I  have  as  yet  met  with 
it  has  been  on  the  north-western  spurs  of  Mooleyit.  But  in  the 
Malay  Peninsula  it  is  much  more  abundant.  In  fact,  in  the  whole 
country  all  about  Malacca,  and  again  about  Jokore,  it  is  perhaps 
the  commonest  species  of  the  genus. 

Like  the  other  species  it  most  especially  affects  plantain  gardens 
and  cocoanut  trees,  and,  so  far  as  voice  and  flight  are  concerned, 
offers  nothing  to  remark  as  distinguishing  it  from  the  other 
nearly-allied  species. — W.  D.] 

In  this  species,  as  in  most  of  the  Arachnotheras,  the  males 
are  considerably  larger  than  the  females,  but  the  two  sexes  do 
not  differ  in  plumage  :  — 

Males. — Length,  7*0  ;  expanse,  10'25  to  105  ;  tail,  2-  to  2-12  ; 
wing,  325  to  337  ;  tarsus,  06  to  0*7  ;  bill  from  gape,  1*45  to 
1-55  j  weight,  0'75  to  0-85  oz. 

Female. — Length,  6*25  to  6'75  ;  expanse,  9  to  95  ;  tail,  1*62  to 
1-85  ;  wing,  2-8  to  2'9 ;  tarsus,  0'62  to  0'7  ;  bill  from  gape,  1-35 
to  1*4 ;  weight,  0-55  to  0*6  oz. 

The  legs  and  feet  vary  from  reddish  ochre  to  pale  reddish 
brown  ;  the  upper  mandible  is  black ;  the  lower  reddish  horny 
to  pale  reddish  brown ;  irides  brown. 

The  entire  upper  surface  (except  the  tips  of  the  primaries 
and  a  band  just  inside  the  tips  of  the  tail  feathers,  which  are 
hair  brown  like  the  inner  webs  of  all  the  quills,  and  almost  the 
whole  of  the  first  and  second  primaries)  is  a  moderately  bright 
olive  yellow  ;  the  feathers  of  the  forehead  and  crown  brown 
centred,  giving  a  scaly  appearance  to  those  parts  ;  lores,  cheeks, 
basal  portion  of  ear-coverts,  chin,  throat,  and  breast  dull  pale 
greyish  green  ;  all  the  feathers  of  the  chin,  throat  and  front  of 
the  neck  more  or  less  conspicuously  dark-shafted  ;  rest  of 
lower  parts  similar,  but  rather  paler  and  more  lutescent,  and  all 
the  under  tail-coverts  broadly  tipped  with  yellowish  white.  In 
many  specimens  the  greater  part  of  the  breast  is  darker  shafted, 
and  there  is  a  certain  amount  of  obscure  dark  striation  down 
the  centre  of  the  abdomen. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  177 

The  two  or  three  outer  tail  feathers  on  either  side  have  a 
dull  whitish  spot  or  band  on  the  inner  webs  close  to  the  tip  ; 
the  edge  of  the  wing  is  bright  yellow  ;  the  wing-lining  partly 
white  and  partly  greyish  brown  ;  axillaries  white,  tinged  with 
pale  yellow  towards  their  tips. 

224  tei\— Arachnothera  chrysogenys,  Tern.   (4). 

Mergui ;  Malewoon. 

Confined  to  the  southernmost  portions  of  the  province. 
[The  lesser  Yellow-eared  Spiderhunter  ranges  northwards,  at 
least  as  far  as  Mergui.  It  is  not  uncommon  in  the  many 
gardens  of  Mergui  Island,  and  from  thence  southward  I  have 
obtained  it  in  many  localities  down  to  the  extreme  southern 
point  of  the  Malay  Peninsula.  It  affects  gardens  more  than 
any  of  the  other  species  ;  in  fact,  all  our  specimens  were  ob- 
tained in  gardens,  and  none  about  cocoanut  groves  and  forest 
trees ;  and,  though  of  course  it  must  occasionally  occur  about 
these  also,  I  do  not  think  that  I  have  ever  observed  it  in 
forest,  or  scrub  jungle,  or  anywhere,  except  in  and  about 
villages.  In  all  its  habits,  &c,  it  resembles  the  other  species. — 
W.  D.] 

I  may  perhaps  here  add  that,  although  the  Rpiderhunters, 
like  all  the  Sunbirds  and  Flowerpeckers  do  feed  on  small 
insects,  such  as  flies,  &c,  still  dissection  shows  that  they  sub- 
sist chiefly  on  the  nectar  of  flowers. 

The  sexes  seem  to  differ  less  in  this  species  in  size  than  is  the 
case  with  the  other  Arachnotheras,  but  we  have  unfortunately 
measured  very  few  specimens  in  the  flesh.  One  male  measured  : — 

Length,  7  ;  expanse,  10'82  ;  tail  from  vent,  1*7  ;  wing,  3*5  ; 
tarsus,rJ0-75  ;  bill  from  gape,  1'65. 

Females. — Length,  6-75  ;  expanse,  10  to  10-25  ;  tail  from  vent, 
1-5  to  1-62  ;  wing,  3-12  to  3'25  ;  tarsus,  07  to  075 ;  bill  from 
gape,  0-62  to  0-65  ;  weight,  075  oz. 

Specimens  killed  in  November  had  the  legs  and  feet  fleshy 
white ;  the  bill  darker  horny  brown ;  the  edges  of  both  man- 
dibles to  within  0*6  of  tip,  dirty  yellow ;  gape  fleshy  white ;  irides 

brown. 

I  do  not  think  that  in  either  this  species,  or  the  nearly 
allied  flavigaster,  there  is  any  seasonal  change  in  the  colors  of  the 
soft  parts. 

The  vent,  lower  tail-coverts,  a  patch  at  the  base  of  the  lower 
mandible  involving  the  ear-coverts,  and  a  narrow  line  round  the 
anterior  portion,  and  encircling  the  whole  upper  portion  of  the 
eye  bright  pale  yellow;  abdomen  greenish  grey,  shaded  with 
this  same  yellow ;  chin,  throat  and  breast  greyish  green,  yellow- 
er on  the  throat,  greyer  on  the  breast;  forehead,    lores  beyond 

23 


178  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

yellow  line,  top,  back  and  sides  of  the  head,  excluding  the  yellow 
patch,  and  back  and  sides  of  the  neck,  dull  olive  green,  the  feathers 
of  the  head  faintly  browner  centred;  mantle,  back  and  upper  tail- 
coverts  a  somewhat  brighter  olive  green  ;  quills  hair  brown  ; 
primaries  narrowly,  secondaries  broadly,  overlaid  on  their  outer 
webs,  with  a  yellow  olive  ;  tail  like  the  outer  webs  of  the  secon- 
daries ;  the  inner  webs  browner  or  brown  ;  edge  of  the  wing  whit- 
ish ;  wing-lining,  yellowish  white. 

224  seat—  Anthreptes  hypogrammica,  Mull.  (3). 

Palaw-ton-ton  ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Confined  to  the  extreme  south  of  the  province,  and  even  there 
rare. 

[Found  in  Tenasserin  only,  so  far  as  I  know  in  the  vicinity  of 
the  Pakchan,  and  thence  it  occurs,  though  everywhere  a  rare 
bird,  southwards  to  Johore  and  Singapore. 

In  all  its  habits,  mode  of  flight  and  voice,  it  is  closely  allied  to 
Anthreptes  malaccensis,  being  more  of  an  insect-eater  and  less 
of  a  houeysucker  than  the  Araclmotheras  and  Arachnechthras. 
But  while  Anthreptes  malaccensis  swarms  in  every  garden,  the 
present  species  occurs  (mostly  in  pairs,  though  sometimes  singly), 
for  the  most  part  only  in  the  forest  or  on  its  outskirts  ;  occasion- 
ally of  course  it  does  occur  in  gardens  where  it  may  be  seen, 
haunting  trees  and  shrubs  that  are  in  flower,  feeding  on  the  nec- 
tar at  times,  but  often  hunting  the  foliage  also  for  insects.  The 
note  like  that  of  A.  malaccensis  is  a  feeble  chirrup. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males. — Length,  5*62  to  5'8  ;  expanse,  8  to  8'25  ;  tail  from 
vent,  2  to  2-12 ;  wing,  2'55  to  2-66;  tarsus,  055  to  0*7 ;  bill 
from  gape,  085  to  1*0  ;  weight,  0*4  to  05  oz. 

Females. — Length,  5*4  to  5'6  ;  expanse,  7*62  to  7*75  ;  tail  from 
vent,  1-85  to  2-12;  wing,  2-4  to  2'55  ;  tarsus,  0*6  to  0-62 ;  bill 
from  gape,  0"85  to  0-9;  weight,  0*4  to  05  oz. 

The  legs  and  feet  are  greenish  brown  or  dark  plumbeous  green  \ 
the  bill  is  horny  black,  and  in  the  male  the  gape  is  dull  yellow. 
This  may  be  the  case  also  in  the  female,  but  Davison  has  not 
noted  it  in  the  case  of  any  of  his  specimens  •  the  irides  are  dark 
brown. 

The  male  has  a  narrow  nuchal  collar,  the  rump  and  upper 
tail-coverts,  bright  metallic  steel  blue ;  the  whole  top  and  back 
of  the  head  olive  green,  the  feathers  obscurely  centred 
browner ;  the  sides  of  the  head,  back,  scapulars  and  coverts, 
a  rather  yellowish  olive  green  ;  the  quills  hair  brown,  margined 
on  the  outer  webs  witn  olive  green,  and  the  tertiaries  with 
the  whole  outer  webs  of  this  color  ;  tail  blackish  brown, 
obsoletely  rayed ;  the  two,  or  sometimes  three,  outer  feathers 


BIRDS   OP  TENASSERIM.  179 

on  each  side  narrowly  tipped,  generally  on  the  inner  webs 
only,  sometimes  on  part  of  the  outer  webs  also,  with  dull 
white.  In  some  specimens  a  trace  of  this,  a  mere  speck,  may  also 
be  observed  on  the  two  pairs  next  the  central  feathers.  Lores, 
cheeks  and  ear-coverts  a  rather  duller  greyer  green  ;  in  some  spe- 
cimens the  lores  more  decidedly  grey  ;  lower  parts  green,  palest  on 
the  chin  and  throat;  all  the  feathers  of  the  chin,  throat,  breast,  and 
abdomen  to  near  the  vent  margined  with  white,  yellowish  white,  or 
pale  yellow,  giving  a  striated  appearance  to  these  parts.  In  many 
specimens  the  lower  tail-coverts  are  much  yellower.  In  some  they 
are  almost  pure  yellow,  and  the  flanks  and  feathers  about  the 
vent  are  then  a  good  deal  fringed  with  yellow.  The  wing-lin- 
ing is  white,  a  little  tinged  with  pale  yellow  towards  the  edge, 
and  the  inner  margins  of  the  quills,  except  towards  the  tips,  are 
satin  white. 

The  females  are  precisely  like  the  males,  except  that  they 
have  the  parts  that  are  steel  blue  in  the  male,  colored  like  the 
back.  In  both  sexes  the  outer  webs  of  the  tail  feathers  towards 
their  bases  are  often  a  good  deal  suffused  with  the  color  of  the 
upper  surface,  and  in  many  cases  the  first  three  quills  and  their 
primary  coverts  and  the  winglet  show  very  faint  traces  of  the 
olive  green  margins. 

225  ter  — iEthopyga  cara,*  Hume.  (11).  Descr.  S.  F„ 
II.,  473^. 

{TongJioo,  Lloyd.)  Beeling  ;  Kaukaryifc,  Houngthraw  R. ;  Moulmein ;  Meetan  ; 
Lemyne  ;  Yea ;  Tavoy  ;  Shymotee  ;  Pabyin ;  Mergui ;  Tenasserini  Town. 

Occurs  throughout  the  province,  except  in  the  north  about 
Pahpoon  and  in  the  extreme  south. 

[I  obtained  this  species  everywhere  from  Mergui  north- 
wards, through  Tavoy  and  Moulmein  to  Beeling,  on  the  Thatone 
plains,  between  the  Sittang  and  the  Salween,  and  it  probably 
extends  somewhat  further  north  than  this  between  these  two 
rivers.  East  of  the  Salween  I  did  not  observe  it  much  further 
north  than  Moulmein.  South  of  Tenasserim  Town  I  have  not 
yet  observed  it. 

This  and  all  the  other  true  Honeysuckers  were  met  with  in 
gardens,  secondary  growth  (which  springs  up  on  forest  clear- 
ings), and  on  the  outskirts  of  forests  ;  once  only  a  little  south 
of  Tea  a  few  were  seen  in  thick  forest  in  a  dense  cane-  brake. 

Of  course,  they  are  most  abundant  where  flowers  are  most 
numerous,  and  eocoanut  palms  when  in  flowerf  are  a  particularly 
favorite  resort  for  this  and  other  closely-allied  species. 

*  For  key  to  all  known  species  of  JEthopyga,  vide  S.  I\,  V-,  71. 
f  As  they  almost  always  are,  for  they  throw  out  a  new   inflorescence  spike  almost 
every  month. — A.  0.  JE.  ' 


180  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

The  Darling  Honey  sucker  was  generally  seen  singly  or  in 
pairs;  sometimes  three  or  four  would  visit  the  same  tree  at 
the  same  time,  but  more  than  a  pair  never  act  in  concert. 

The  song  is  very  feeble,  only  a  few  twittering  notes  uttered 
generally  when  the  birds  move  about  from  one  bunch  of  flowers 
to  another.  Only  on  a  very  few  occasions  have  I  seen  this 
species  hovering  in  front  of  a  flower,  and  then  only  for  a  few 
seconds,  rather  as  if  looking  for  a  convenient  perch  than  as 
attempting  to  feed.  When  feeding,  it  alights  sometimes  above  the 
flower,  and  head  downwards  turns  its  head  up  into  the  flower, 
and  sometimes  below  the  flower,  when  it  thrusts  its  bill 
straight  up  into  the  latter.  It  generally  seems  to  require  half 
a  dozen  successive  sips  to  exhaust  the  nectar  in  each  flower. — ■ 
W.D.]  

This  species  differs  conspicuously  from  siparaja  in  its  larger 
bill  and  longer  tail,  and  in  the  much  greater  extent  of  the 
metallic  cap  which  is  green  instead  of  violet ;  in  the  absence  of  the 
yellow  bases  to  the  throat  feathers  which  in  siparaja  often  show 
through  recalling  vigorsi ;  in  the  absence  of  the  black  line  inside 
the  violet  throat  stripes,  and  in  the  color  of  the  upper  tail- 
coverts,  green  in  the  present  species,  violet  in  siparaja. 

Males. — Length  (according  to  length  of  tail),  4*6  to  5*25  ; 
expanse,  6-62  to  7*2 ;  tail  from  vent  175,  to  235  ;  wing,  2*05  to 
2-35  ;  tarsus,  0'46  to  0-6 ;  bill  from  gape,  07  to  075  ;  weight, 
075  oz. 

The  legs  and  feet  are  dark  horny  ;  in  some  greenish  brown, 
the  soles  reddish  yellow  ;  the  upper  mandible  is  dark  horny 
brown  ;  in  some  almost  black ;  the  lower  mandible  pale  reddish 
brown  ;  the  irides  dark  brown. 

Female. —  Length,  4*3  ;  expanse,  6*25  ;  tail  from  vent,  1*45  ; 
wing,  2;  tarsus,  05  ;  bill  from  gape,  065;  weight,  ?  0*25  oz. 

The  legs  and  feet  in  this  female  were  a  dark  reddish  brown. 

227  Ms.— iEthopyga  dabryi,  Verr.  (7). 

(Karennee,  4,000  feet,  Earns.)    Mooleyit. 

Confined  in  Tenasserim,  so  far  as  is  yet  known,  to  the  summit 
of  Mooleyit  and  the  higher  portions  of  Karennee. 

[I  only  met  with  this  beautiful  species  in  one  locality,  and 
that  was  near  the  summit  of  Mooleyit.  I  never  observed  it 
much  below  an  elevation  of  6,000  feet.  It  was  frequenting 
a  number  of  large  flowering  forest  trees,  at  that  time  covered 
with  masses  of  red  bell-like  blossoms.  Its  habits  were 
precisely  those  of  all  the  yEthopygas.  Even  at  Mooleyit  it  was 
decidedly  rare,  and  I  myself  only  succeeded  in  shooting  four 
males  and  one  female ;  but  I  saw  perhaps  a  dozen  more.  They 
were  very  difficult  to  procure,  because  they  did  not  permanently 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  181 

hang  about  the  trees  on  whose  nectav  they  were  feeding",  but 
suddenly  emerging  from  the  surrounding  deep  forest,  in  which 
it  was  quite  impossible  to  see  or  find  them,  would  appear  about 
one  of  the  blossoming  trees,  hover  about  it  for  a  few  seconds,  and 
then  dart  away.  This  was  in  February,  and  on  dissection  they 
exhibited  no  signs  of  breeding.  — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions,  &c,  of  five  adult  males  : — ■ 

Length,  5'6  to  5'8  ;  expanse,  6'6  to  7*0 ;  tail,  from  vent, 
2-55  to  275;  wing,  211  to  2'28  ;  tarsus,  0'55  ;  bill  from  gape, 
07  ;  weight,  0-25  oz. 

The  legs  and  feet  dark  horny  brown  ;  bill  dusky  black  ;  irides 
deep  brown.  In  a  younger  male,  whose  plumage  I  shall  describe 
presently,  the  lower  mandible  was  a  very  dark  brown. 

The  lores  and  a  narrow  oval  patch  occupying  the  greater 
portion  of  the  chin  non-metallic  black  ;  the  rest  of  the  chin 
and  throat  metallic  puce  color ;  cheeks  and  ear-coverts  dark 
hair  brown,  a  little  tinged  sanguineous  under  the  eye,  and  the 
longest  ear-coverts  tipped  with  the  same  color  as  the  throat ; 
forehead,  crown,  occiput,  metallic  puce,  like  the  throat,  bluer  in 
some  lights,  purpler  in  others;  scapulars,  back,  nape,  sides  of 
the  neck,  a  stripe  on  the  sides  of  the  head  running  over  the 
eye  almost  to  its  anterior  angle,  and  another  stripe  dividing 
the  ear-coverts  and  posterior  portion  of  the  cheeks  from  the 
metallic  throat  patch,  a  deep  blood  red  ;  entire  breast  crimson 
scarlet;  upper  abdomen  the  same,  a  little  mingled  with  bright 
yellow  ;  middle  abdomen  bright  yellow ;  lower  abdomen,  vent, 
and  lower  tail-coverts,  successively  paler,  and  a  little  pencilled 
with  olive;  rump  intense  yellow  ;  upper  tail-coverts  and  broad 
margins,  in  fact  nearly  the  whole  webs,  of  the  basal  three- 
fourths  of  the  central  tail  feathers,  and  the  extreme  margins  of 
the  next  two  or  three  feathers  towards  their  bases,  steel  blue  ; 
rest  of  tail  deep  hair  brown,  almost  black;  the  three  outer 
feathers  on  each  side  more  or  less  tipped  with  sordid  white  ;  a 
trace  of  the  same  on  the  fourth ;  wing-lining  and  axillaries 
and  margins  of  inner  webs  of  quills  towards  their  bases,  pure 
white ;  a  few  of  the  axillaries,  and  the  feathers  just  under 
the  carpal  joint,  with  the  faintest  possible  yellow  tinge;  sides 
and  flanks  and  sides  of  the  rump  deep  grey  brown  ;  the  feathers 
fringed  broadly  with  yellow  or  slightly  olivaceous  yellow 
towards  their  tips  ;  there  is  a  small  puce-colored  metallic  spot 
on  the  breast,  on  either  side,  just  at  the  base  of  the  neck. 
The  wings  are  deep  hair  brown ;  the  quills  and  their  greater 
coverts  margined  with  yellowish  olive,  and  the  rest  of  the 
coverts  more  or  less  margined,  or  in  some  cases  completely  over- 
laid, with  the  color  of  the  back. 

In    a   younger   male   the   metallic    portion  of  the    chin    and 
throat  are  replaced  by  pale  dull  greyish  yellowish  white  feathers. 


182  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

The  whole  metallic  portion  of  the  head  is  here  grey  brown,  and 
this  is  the  color  of  the  nape  and  upper  back  also.  The  central 
tail  feathers  are  not  fully  developed,  but  the  visible  portions  of 
them  about  1*25  in  inch  length  show  no  metallic  colors. 

The  lores,  cheeks,  ear-coverts  are  black,  with  a  little  grey 
speckling  under  the  eye  ;  only  one  or  two  of  the  very  longest 
uppermost  ear-coverts  exhibit  specks  of  metallic  puce  color ; 
in  other  respects  the  bird  does  not  differ  from  the  adults. 

Unfortuuately,  I  have  no  female  to  describe.  I  sent  the 
only  one  we  procured  to  Captain  Shelley,  and  I  quote  his  de- 
scription, which,  although  our  descriptions  of  the  males  do  not 
exactly  agree,  is,  I  doubt  not,  most  complete: — 

"  Adult  Female. — Upper  parts  olive-green,  rather  browner  on 
the  head  and  neck ;  wings  dark  brown  ;  the  feathers  broadly 
edged  with  olive-green  of  a  yellow  shade  on  the  quills ;  a 
broad  dull  patch  on  the  lower  back  ;  tail  dark  brown  ;  the  fea- 
thers edged  with  olive  and  tipped  with  white,  most  broadly 
towards  the  outer  feathers;  under-parts  uniform,  very  pale 
olive;  under-surface  of  the  wings  dark  brown,  with  the  inner 
margins  of  the  quills  and  the  coverts  white  ;  bill  and  legs  dark 
brown.  Total  length,  3-5  inches;  culmen  06;  wing,  1*7  ;  tail, 
1-3;  tarsus,  0'55." 

231    his. — iEthopyga   sanguinipectus,   Wald.     (9). 
Descr.  S.  E.,  Ill,  402;  V.,  51,  71  ».* 

(Karennee,  2,500— 3,000 feet,  Earns.)   Mooleyit. 

Confined  apparently  in  Tenasserim  to  the  higher  portions  of 
Mooleyit  and  Karennee. 

[I  only  observed  this  species  on  the  higher  slopes  of  Mooleyit, 
not  below  3,000  feet  elevation.  It  is  a  forest  bird,  frequenting 
flowering  trees,  with  much  the  same  habits  as  cava,  not  nearly 
so  shy  as  dabryi,  and  much  more  given  to  settling  quietly.  Where 
I  met  with  it,  it  was  moderately  common.  Its  note  is  the  usual 
JEawpyga  "  chirp."  I  noticed  nothing  in  any  way  peculiar  about 
its  habits.— W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males. — Length,  5'3to5'9  to  end  of  central  tail  feathers; 
expanse,  6"4  to  6-5  ;  tail  from  vent,  2'55  to  2*9  to  end  of  central 
feathers;  wing,  2*05  to  2*12  ;  tarsus,  0"55  ;  bill  from  gape,  0*75 
to  0-82;  weight,  0-2  to  0-25  oz. 

Female. — Length,  39 ;  expanse,  5-7  ;  tail  from  vent,  1*1 ; 
wing,  1\8;  tarsus,  0*5  ;  bill  from  gape,  075  ;  weight,  0"2  oz. 

*  I  renamed  this  species  2E.  waldeni.  The  Marquis  of  Tweeddale  has  recently 
been  pleased  to  sneer  at  me  for  this.  This  is  noteworthy,  because  it  was  solely  the 
extreme  incorrectness  of  his  own  original  description,  that  led  me  to  believe  that  I 
had  secured  a  new,  though  nearly  allied  species. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  183 

Legs  and  feet  very  dark  reddish  or  purplish  brown  ;  bill  black  ; 
i rides  very  deep  brown. 

231  ^.— Chalcostetha  insignis,  Gould.  (2).  Eemale, 
Descr,  S.  F.,  Ill,  319  n. 

Patoe  Island  ;  Malewoon. 

A  rare  straggler  to  the  extreme  south  of  the  province,  but 
perhaps  extending  somewhat  further  north  amongst  the  islands 
of  the  Mergui  Archipelago. 

[This  species  swarms  in  the  cocoanut  plantations  at  Singapore. 
Any  number  were  procurable  there,  in  August,  September,  and 
October  ;  but  I  observed  it  nowhere  else  in  the  Malay  Penin- 
sula except  at  Copah  (Junk  Ceylon),  where  I  saw  several  haunt- 
ing the  mangrove  swamps  on  the  4th  December,  the  man- 
groves being  then  in  flower.  Curiously  enough  I  searched  in 
vain  for  this  species  day  after  day  in  the  extensive  cocoanut 
plantations  of  Malacca  aud  its  neighbourhood,  and  other  locali- 
ties intervening  between  Copah  aud  Singapore. 

Further  north  again,  on  the  18th  of  November,  I  saw  a  pair 
of  this  species,  and  shot  the  female,  as  usual  feeding  on  cocoanut 
flowers,  at  the  north-western  corner  of  the  island  of  Patoe, 
immediately  opposite  of  Mergui.  Later  I  obtained  a  male  at 
Malewoon  in  a  mangrove  swamp. 

At  Singapore  it  was,  excluding  Anthreptes  malaccensis,  the 
most  common  Sunbird.  All  that  has  been  said  of  the  habits  of 
JE.  cara  would  equally  apply  to  this  species,  but  its  note  differs 
considerably,  being  a  sharper  one,  sounding  like  the  word,  chin, 
chin,  chin,  very  often  repeated. — W.  D.] 

We  only  procured  a  single  pair  of  this  species  in  Tenasserim, 
a  male  at  Malewoon  in  April,  a  female  at  Patoe  Island  in  the 
Mergui  Harbour  in  November,  seeing  the  male  at  the  same  time ; 
but  Davison  shot  and  preserved  between  sixty  and  seventy  speci- 
mens in  the  Malay  Peninsula,  and  I  am  therefore  able  to  give  the 
dimensions  of  a  very  large  series  of  measurements  recorded  in 
the  flesh  :— 

Males. — Length,  5*25  to  5-75  ;  expanse,  7-35  to  7'75  ;  tail  from 
vent,  2  to  275;  wing,  235  to  2-5  ;  tarsus,  05  to  0*6 ;  bill  from 
gape,  0*8  to  09  •  weight,  0'35  to  0*4  oz. 

Females. — Length,  4*85  to  5*25  ;  expanse,  6*75  to  7*12;  tail  from 
vent,  1-75  to  1-95  ■  wing,  2'12  to  2*35  ;  tarsus,  0-5  to  0-55;  bill 
from  gape,  0'8  to  0-85  ;  weight,  0"25  to  033  oz. 

The  legs  and  feet  are  black  or  bluish  black  ;  the  bill  black  ; 
the  irides  dark  brown. 

Mr.  Gould,  B.  of  Asia,  Pt.  XIX,  PI.  6,  figures  what  I  suppose 
to  be  this  same  species,  but  he  omits,  alike  in  the  plate  and 
in  the  description,  the  most  characteristic  feature  in  the  bird's 


184  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

plumage,  viz.,   the   magnificent   golden   bronze   of  the   central 
portion  of  the  throat  and  upper  breast. 

The  male  has  the  entire  cap  emerald  metallic  green,  some- 
what darker  than  in  L.  braziliana ;  the  lores,  sides  of  the  head 
and  neck,  interscapulary  region,  and  upper  back  velvet  black  ; 
lesser  and  median  coverts,  scapulars,  lower  half  of  back,  rump 
and  upper  tail  coverts,  metallic  green  in  one  light,  more  or  less 
puce  color  in  another  ;  tail  black,  with  a  violet  tinge,  becoming 
puce  in  all  lights  on  the  margins  of  the  feathers,  especially  to- 
wards their  bases  ;  chin,  and  sometimes  a  little  of  the  middle  of 
the  upper  throat  joining  the  chin,  black;  rest  of  the  middle  of 
the  throat,  front  of  the  neck,  and  upper  breast,  a  magnificent 
golden  bronze;  more  bronzy  in  one  light,  redder  in  another,  es- 
pecially on  the  upper  part  of  the  throat ;  a  line  running  down 
from  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible  on  either  side  bounding  the 
golden  bronze,  lower  part  of  breast  and  upper  part  of  abdomen 
metallic,  more  or  less  violet  in  one  light,  puce-colored  in  another ; 
axillary  tufts  bright  yellow ;  wing-lining,  sides  (a  little  streaked 
with  greyish  white) ,  lower  abdomen,  vent,  and  lower  tail-coverts 
black  or  dusky  black ;  quills  and  their  greater  coverts  blackish 
brown,  paling  on  the  inner  webs,  and  the  coverts  with  a  faint 
purplish  reflection. 

In  some  specimens  the  margins  to  the  tail  feathers  are  decided- 
ly green ;  in  others  patches  of  green  are  intermingled  with  the 
violet  or  puce. 

Of  the  female  a  very  careful  description  will  be  found,  S.  F., 
III.,  319  n,  and  it  will  be  noticed  that  she  has  conspicuous 
white  tips  to  the  lateral  tail  feathers,  of  which  there  is  no  trace 
in  the  male. 

In  a  young  male  the  top  and  sides  of  the  head,  back  and  sides 
of  the  neck  and  upper  back  are  grey  brown,  with  a  few  green 
feathers  breaking  through  on  the  occiput,  a  few  black  ones  on 
the  middle  of  the  back  and  sides  of  the  neck,  and  the  ear-coverts 
are  entirely  black  ;  on  the  lower  parts  there  are  only  a  few  puce- 
colored  feathers  ;  the  parts  usually  of  this  color  being  yellowish 
white.  The  golden  bronze  patch  is  less  in  extent,  and  the  cen- 
tral tail  feathers  are  not  fully  developed  3  otherwise  the  bird  is 
like  the  adult. 

233  bis.— Leptocoma  braziliana,*  Om.  (33). 

Moulmein  ;  Amherst ;  Yea;  Om-a-gwen;  Tavoy  ;  Pabjin  ;  Mergui ;  Choung- 
thanoung  ;  Baukasoon  ;    Malewoon. 

Occurs  from  Moulmein  southwards,  rare  at  first,  becoming 
more  common  lower  down  the  province. 


*  For  reasons  for  adhering  to  this  name,  vide  S.  F.,  V.j  278 . 


BIRDS   OF   TENA&SEUIM.  185 

[The  head-quarters  of  this  lovely  species  seems  to  ine  to  be 
the  extreme  south  of  Tenasserim.  About  Mergui,  and  between 
Mergui  and  the  Pakchau  Estuary,  it  was  common  to  a  degree ; 
frequenting  principally  the  gardens  and  cocoanut  palms,  but 
found  also  occasionally  in  forest  where  this  is  not  too  thick,  and 
in  the  mangroves  that  everywhere  about  Mergui  fringe  the 
interminable  labyrinths  of  creeks.  Northwards  I  obtained  it  at 
Tavoy  and  Yea,  but  did  not  observe  it  further  north  in  Tenasse- 
rim, though  it  has  been  obtained  at  Moulmein,  where  however  it 
is  rare. — W.  D.] 

Neither  have  I  received  it  from  Pegu,  but  it  again  appears 
in  the  Arracan  Hills,  Chittagong,  and  Hill  Tipperah,  where  I 
have  obtained  it,  and  whence  many  specimens  were  sent  me  long 
ago  by  the  late  Mr.  Irwin. 

As  far  as  I  can  judge  from  our  very  large  series  killed  at 
different  times,  this  species  has  no  distinctive  non-breeding 
plumage. 

This  species  is  a  true  Honeysucker,  feeding  almost  exclusive- 
ly on  nectar,  and  its  note  like  that  of  the  rest  of  its  congeners 
is  only  a  very  feeble  chip,  chip,  uttered  as  its  flies  from  flower  to 
flower. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  fjesh : — 

Males. — Length,  3*8  to  4'12  ;  expanse,  5*85  to  6-25  ;  tail  from 
vent,  1-1  to  1*45;  wing,  1*75  to  1'95  ;  tarsus,  0*45  to  05  ; 
bill  from  gape,  06  to  0*65;  weight,  0'2  to  025  oz. 

Females. — Length,  3*75  to  3-85  ;  expanse,  5*82  to  6'12  ;  tail 
from  vent,  2"  12  to  2'25;  wing,  T75  to  1-85  ;  tarsus,  0'5  ;  bill 
from  gape,  0-62  to  0-65  ;  weight,  0*2  to  0-25  oz. 

The  bill,  legs  and  feet  are  black ;  irides  deep  brown. 

The  adult  male  has  the  entire  cap  and  nape  intensely 
bright  metallic  green ;  lores,  ear-coverts,  sides  and  back  of 
neck,  and  upper  back,  tips  of  the  longest  scapulars  and  median 
wing-coverts,'  velvet  black;  lesser  wing-coverts,  greater  part 
of  the  scapulars,  middle  of  back,  rump  and  upper  tail-coverts 
bluish  metallic  green,  with  purplish  reflections  in  certain  lights ; 
chin,  throat,  front  of  the  neck,  and  just  the  upper  margin  of  the 
breast,  intense  rich  metallic  purple,  redder  in  one  light,  bluer  in 
another.  In  dried  specimens,  a  slight  rumpling  of  the  feathers 
of  the  chin  and  the  middle  of  the  upper  part  of  the  throat 
produce  the  effect  of  a  black  patch,  but  there  is  really  nothing 
of  the  kind,  the  metallic  purple  is  unbroken  to  the  base  of  the 
bill;  breast  and  sides  of  the  base  of  the  neck  and  upper  ab- 
domen deep  blood  red,  with  a  maroon  tinge;  wing-linino-  (ex- 
cept towards  the  edge  of  the  wing  where  it  is  black),  sides, 
flanks,  lower  abdomen,  vent  and  lower  tail-coverts,  dusky,  pen- 
cilled especially  on  the  flanks  with  grey ;  tail  black,  with 
faint  violet  reflections  on  the  central  feathers,  and   the  outer 

24 


186  BIRDS   OF  TENASSEEIM. 

margins  of  the  others  ;  quills  and  greater  coverts  blackish  brown  ; 
the  former  with  excessively  narrow  paler  margins  on  the  outer 
webs,  scarcely  perceptible. 

The  female  is  a  dull  olive  green  above  ;  the  wings  pale  hair 
brown  ;  the  coverts  margined  with  olive  green  ;  the  quills,  especi- 
ally some  of  the  secondaries,  with  more  rufescent  olive  ;  the  tail 
blackish  brown  with  bluish  reflections,  margined  towards  the 
bases  with  olive,  and  the  exterior  tail  feathers  broadly,  and 
the  rest,  excepting  the  central  tail  feathers  which  have  a  mere 
trace  of  it,  more  and  more  narrowly  margined  at  the  tips  with 
dull  white ;  entire  lower  parts  pale  greenish  yellow;  purer  yel- 
low on  the  middle  of  the  abdomen,  and  more  richly  colored,  per- 
haps with  the  faintest  tinge  of  orange,  on  the  breast. 

233  iter.— Anthreptes  malaccensis,  Scop.  (37). 

Amherst ;  Tliayetchoung  ;  Shymotee  ;  Mergui ;  Patoe  Island  ;  Sadyin  ;  Choun- 
pyah. 

Common  along  and  near  the  coast  line  southwards  from 
Amherst. 

[I  never  met  with  this  species  north  of  Amherst ;  and  thence 
southwards  until  Mergui  is  reached  the  species  must  be 
accounted  a  rare  one.  Southwards  from  Mergui,  in  our 
own  territory,  and  along  the  western  coast  of  the  Malayan 
Peninsula  to  its  extremity  at  Johore,  it  is  one  of  the  most, 
if  not  actually  the  most,  common  of  all  the  Sunbirds,  occurring 
in  numbers  in  every  garden  and  cocoanut  plantation,  amongst 
the  mangroves  that  fringe  the  shores,  and  almost  wherever 
flowers  are  to  be  seen  ;  only  it  seems  to  shun  the  denser  por- 
tions of  the  forest  and  the  dense  scrub  jungle. 

Both  this  species  and  nuchalis,  which  is  truly  an  Anthreptes 
in  all  its  habits,  differ  somewhat  from  the  true  Honeysuckers, 
in  feeding  more  largely  on  insects,  and  less  on  nectar,  and  in 
making  more  use  of  their  feet  and  less  of  their  wings  when 
moving  about  among  the  flowers  and  foliage. 

The  male  of  this  species  occasionally  utters  a  feeble  song, 
if  its  few  twittering  notes  can  be  dignified  by  this  appellation, 
but  it  is  very  distinctly  more  of  a  song  than  the  chirruping 
of  an  JEthopgga. — W.  D.] 

Although  in  Tenasserim  this  species  has  not  yet  been  observed 
north  of  Amherst,  yet  it  occurs,  I  know,  along  the  Arracan 
coast,  and  I  have  received  specimens  of  it  from  Akyab.  It  seems 
to  me  to  be  a  sea-coast  loving  bird,  and  hence  probably  does  not 
get  above  Amherst,  the  most  northerly  point  on  the  Tenasserim 
coast,  to  which  the  pure  sea  extends ;  above  that  the  whole  head 
of  the  Gulf  of  Martaban  is  just  a  great  common  estuary  of  a 
number  of   huge  rivers.     Again,   the  whole   southern  coast  of 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  «        187 

Pegu  is  a  mere  network  of  the  mouths  of  the  Irrawaddy,  and 
it  is  not  till  you  round  the  corner  at  Cape  Negrais,  that  you 
get  real  pure  sea  again,  and  not  till  then  that  you  again  meet 
with  this  pretty  species.  Such  at  least  is  my  present  theory, 
and  I  propound  it  tamquam  valeat. 

This  species  has  no  special  breeding  plumage ;  this  we  can 
pretty  confidently  assert,  having  obtained  it  at  all  seasons. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh : — 

Males. — Length,  512  to  5'4;  expanse,  8*12  to  8'fi2;  tail  from 
vent,  1-75  to  2-0;  wing,  2'5  to  275;  tarsus,  0*62  to  0'65  ; 
bill  from  gape,  075  to  0-8  ;  weight,  0-4  to  0*5  oz. 

Females. — Length,  4*75  to  5-12;  expanse,  7*9  to  8"12  ;  tail 
from  vent,  1-5  to  175  ;  wing,  2'37  to  25  ;  tarsus,  0-55  to  062  ; 
bill  from  gape,  07  to  0-8. 

Colors  of  the  soft  parts  are  variable ;  the  legs  and  feet  are 
generally  a  dark  sap  green,  or  dirty  green,  with  the  feet  slight- 
ly lighter  colored,  and  the  soles  pale  yellowish  green,  but  the 
feet  have  sometimes  a  yellowish  tinge,  and  are  sometimes  orange, 
barely  tinged  with  green,  and  with  the  soles  a  clear  orange  ; 
the  claws  are  generally  green  ;  the  bill  is  dark  horny  brown,  in 
some  nearly  black ;  the  gape  orange;  the  irides  vary  most  of 
all — equally  in  both  sexes  and  killed  at  the  same  season, — from 
light  red  to  dark  brown.  Neither  does  this  appear  to  be  due 
to  age,  as  we  have  some  clearly  adult  full-plumaged  males,  with, 
light  red  irides. 

The  male  has  the  lores,  cheeks,  ear-coverts  and  sides  of  the 
head  behind  the  eye  dull  yellow  olive;  a  narrow  metallic  puce- 
colored  stripe  from  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible  on  either 
side  right  to  the  breast ;  the  chin  and  rest  of  the  space  enclosed 
between  these  two  stripes  pale  reddish  brown  ;  forehead,  crown, 
occiput,  nape,  sides  of  the  neck  behind  the  olivaceous  face  patch, 
entire  interscapulaiy  region,  and  all  but  the  longest  scapulars,  me- 
tallic green,  glossed  with  pinkish  purple ;  lesser  and  some  of  the 
median  wing  coverts,  rump  and  upper  tail-coverts  metallic  vio- 
let, glossed  with  purple  or  puce  color  ;  median  coverts  and 
longer  scapulars  ferruginous  olive ;  quills  and  greater  coverts  dull 
hair  brown  ;  primaries  excessively  narrowly,  secondaries  and 
tertiaries  and  their  greater  coverts  more  broadly,  margined  with 
olive  yellow  ;  breast  and  entire  rest  of  lower  parts  clear  yellow, 
shaded  with  olive  on  the  flanks  and  sides,  and  sometimes  a  little 
on  the  breast  ;  edge  of  the  wing  brown  ;  wing-lining  white, 
tinged  brownish  towards  the  edge  of  the  wing,  and  faintly  with 
olive  elsewhere  ;  tail  feathers  hair  brown,  blackish  on  the 
central  ones,  and  on  the  outer  webs  of  the  next  two  or  three 
pairs,  and  all  these  like  the  central  ones  more  or  less  margined 
metallic  on  the  outer  webs,  dull  blue  in  most  lights,  a  little 
greenish  in  some. 


18S  BIRDS    OF   TENASSEItlM. 

In  the  female  a  narrow  line  from  the  nostrils  to  the  anterior 
angle  of  the  eye,  and  eyelid  feathers,  greenish  white  ;  entire  up- 
per parts,  except  wings  and  tail,  dull  olive  green,  greyer  about 
the  nape,  yellower  on  the  upper  tail-coverts  ;  feathers  of  the 
crown  obscurely  brown-centred  in  some  specimens,  producing 
a  slight  scaly  appearance  ;  wings  aud  tail  hair  brown  ;  cheeks, 
ear-coverts,  and  sides  of  the  neck  unicolorous  with  the  nape, 
but  with  traces  of  a  dark  line  under  the  orbit ;  entire  lower 
parts  dull  pale  yellowish  green,  brightening  to  pale  yellow  on 
the  middle  of  the  breast  and  abdomen  ;  wing-lining  nearly  pure 
white,  with  here  and  there  a  faint  yellow  tinge  ;  wings  and  tail 
hair  brown,  the  feathers  narrowly  margined  on  the  outer  webs 
with  an  olive  yellow,  much  the  color  of  the  upper  tail-coverts. 

The  young  males  are  very  like  the  females,  but  are  a  darker 
and  more  olive  green  above  ;  the  wing  margins  are  more  rufes- 
cent,  and  the  chin,  throat  and  upper  breast  are  overlaid  with 
a  faint  ochreous  shade,  and  they  want  the  pure  yellow  of  the 
middle  of  the  abdomen. 

233  quat. — Anthreptes     simplex,   S.  Mull.  (6).  ? 
Descr.  S.  F.,  III.,  320  n. 

Pabyin  ;  Tenasseriin  Town ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Confined  to  the  extreme  south  of  the  province. 

[A  very  rare  bird,  whose  habits  I  have  had  no  opportunity  of 
observing  as,  unlike  many  of  the  rarer  Tenasserim  forms,  I 
never  met  with  this  further  south  in  the  Malay  Peninsula. 
One  I  shot  was  hunting  about  in  the  topmost  branches  of  a 
large  tree  in  open  jungle.- — TV.  D.] 

The  specimen  described  by  me,  loc.  tit.  sup.  as  A.  xaathoclilora, 
has  been  pronounced  by  Captain  Shelley  to  be  the  female  of 
this  species.  Another  female  subsequently  obtained  is  still 
smaller,  and  has  the  wing  only  2'0.  It  seems  almost  incre- 
dible that  this  tiny  bird  should  be  the  female  of  simplex,  but 
it  may  be  a  young  female. 

The   adult   males  are   much   larger. 

Length,  4*75  to  5*25  ;  expanse,  7*37  to  7'75  ;  tail  from  vent, 
1-82  to  2-0  ;  wing,  2-38  to  2'4;  tarsus,  0'6  ;  bill  from  gape, 
0-65  to   0-67. 

The  legs  and  feet  were  pale  dirty  green  ;  the  bill  dark  horny 
brown  ;  the  irides  wood  brown. 

As  for  the  plumage,  the  description  given  in  the  case  of  the 
female,  will  apply  precisely,  except  that  the  lower  surface  of  the 
male  is  pale  greenish  grey,  rather  than  pale  green,  and  that  the 
male  has  a  small  black  frontal  patch,  glossed  with  metallic 
green.  Note  that  the  outermost  pair  of  tail  feathers  are  0"15 
shorter  than  the  rest,  and  not  105  as  misprinted  loc.  cit. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  189 

233  sext— Chalcoparia  singalensis,*  Gm.  (42).  Descr. 
S.  F.,  Ill,  86. 

{Tonghoo,  Rams.)  Pahpoon;  Sal  ween  R  ;  Kaukaryifc,  Houngthraw  R  ;  Moul- 
rnein  ;  Pabyouk  ;  Yea-boo  ;  Amherst ;  Tavoy ;  Mergrti  ;  Tenasserim  Town  ; 
Pakchan  ;  Bankasoon ;  Malewoon. 

Found  throughout  the  province,  but  not  ascending  the 
hills. 

[In  its  habits  this  species  differs  conspicuously  from  all  its 
congeners,  reminding  one  very  much  of  the  White-eyed  Tit 
(Zosterops  palpebrosus) ,  or  again  of  Timalia  {Cyanoderma) 
erythroptera.  Except  perhaps  during  the  breeding  season,  it  goes 
about  in  small  parties  of  from  five  to  ten  in  amongst  the  un- 
der-growth,  or  the  skirts  of  the  forest,  or  in  scrub  jungle, 
hunting  amongst  the  foliage  and  roots  of  the  trees  for  insects 
on  which  it  chiefly  subsists,  and  keeping  up  the  while  an  in- 
cessant twittering. 

Of  other  species'  of  Sunbirds  a  dozen,  or  even  at  times 
fifty,  may  be  seen  about  a  single  tree  ;  but  in  the  case  of  these 
there  is  never  any  concerted  action  between  more  than  a  single 
pair.  They  do  not  go  about  in  flocks,  though  many  individuals 
may  happen  to  collect  in  a  single  place,  but  the  present  species, 
when  not  breeding,  is  almost  always  seen  in  flocks  workino-  to- 
gether in  concert,  invariably  moving  away  from  one  place  to 
another  at  the  same  time,  and  hunting  some  high  and  some  low 
just  as  a  mob  of  our  Titmice  on  the  Himalayas  may  often  be 
seen  doing. — W.  D.] 

The  most  northerly  point  from  which  this  species  has  been 
obtained  is  the  Bhootan  Doars ;  thence  it  stretches  southwards 
along  the  Brahmapootra,  and  eastwards  across  them  into  Assam, 
the  Khasia  Hills,  Mymensing,  Sylhet,  Cachar,  Dacca,  Tipperah, 
Chittagong,  Arracan,  and  Pegu,  avoiding  however  the  dry 
northern  portion  of  the  latter  province,  but  beino-  common 
enough  about  Rangoon  and  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Sittauo* 
(where  Mr.  Oates  has  found  it  breeding,  and  has  taken  many 
nests),  throughout  the  entire  length  of  Tenasserim,  from 
Tounghoo  to  the  Pakchan,  and  thence  southwards  throughout  the 
Malay  Peninsula  (I  mean  of  course  the  western  half  of  this, 
of  the  eastern  transmontane  portion  I  know  as  yet  nothino-) 
to  Johore  and  Singapore. 

In  the  lower  portions  of  Pegu,  about  Moulmein  and  south- 
wards to  the  Pakchan  Estuary,  it  is  common  and  abundant  • 
but  it  is  much  rarer  both  northwards  and  southwards  of  this  tract 
of  country,  which  appears  to  be,  on  the  mainland  at  any  rate,  its 
head-quarters. 


*  For  reasons  for  the  retention  of  this  name,  vide  S.  F.,  V.,  978. 


lyO  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

Male. — Length,  4*25  to  4*62  ;  expanse,  675  to  7  ;  tail,  1*5  to 
1-75  ;  wing-,  2-  to  2*12  ;  tarsus,  0'62  to  0*75  ;  bill  from  gape,  0'6 
to  0-62 ;  weight,  0-25  to  0'3  oz. 

Female. — Length,  4*25  to  4'3  ;  expanse,  6"5  to  6*75  ;  tail,  1*6  ; 
wino-,  1-85  to  2*12  ;  tarsus,  0'6  to  0'62  ;  bill  from  gape,  0*55  to 
0-6." 

The  legs  and  feet  are  a  dark  brownish  green  or  greenish 
horny  ;  the  feet  sometimes  paler  ;  the  claws  dirty  green  ;  the  bill 
black,  or  dark  horny  brown,  paler  at  the  angle  of  the  gonys  ; 
the  gape  yellowish  ;  the  base  sometimes  reddish  brown;  the  irides 
in  some  dark  brown,  in  others  crimson  lake.  This,  as  in  An- 
threptes  malaccensis,  not  dependent  apparently  either  on  sex 
or  age. 

234.— Arachnechthra  asiatica,  Lin.  (17). 

(Tonghoo,  Karennee,  Earns.)  Kyouknyat;  Pahpoon;  SnlweenR. ;  Theinzeik  ; 
Wimpong ;  Thoungsha  Gryne  K.  j  Kanee  ;  Moninenzeik ;  Ngabeemah. ;  Amherst ; 
Lemyne. 

Confined  to  the  northern  and  central  portions  of  the  pro- 
vince, not  ascending  the  hills  or  entering  the  thick  forests. 

[This  species  occurs  from  Pahpoon  to  about  Yea,  but  does  not 
apparently  occur  any  where  south  of  that  place  even  as  a  strag- 
gler. I  have  kept  a  special  look-out  for  it,  but  the  most  southernly 
point  at  which  I  saw  it  or  obtained  it,  was  Lemyne,  about 
one  day's  march  north  of  Yea,  so  that  we  may,  I  think,  safely 
take  the  northern  bank  of  the  Yea  river  as  its  most  southern 
range.  When  it  does  occur  it  is  found  in  gardens  and  culti- 
vated ground,  and  in  the  uncultivated  parts  in  places  that  are 
only  thinly  wooded  or  quite  bare,  with  the  exception  of  a  iew 
bushes  studded  about.  It  appears  to  avoid  entirely  the  more 
densely-wooded  portions  of  the  country.  As  is  well  known 
the  male  of  this  species  in  the  non-breeding  plumage  is  very 
similar  to  the  female,  but  has  a  dark  stripe  running  down  from 
the  chin  to  the  lower  abdomen. — W.  D.] 

This  pretty  species  has  been  rather  hardly  treated  by  us  in 
India  of  late  years ;  first  I  divided  off  the  larger  billed,  more 
brilliant  colored  eastern  and  southern  birds  as  intermedia,  and 
more  recently  Mr.  Blanford  has  separated  the  rather  smaller 
shorter  billed  western  birds  (which  moreover  have  the  under- 
surface  in  the  winter  plumage  paler  and  whiter)  as  brevirostris. 

In  my  opinion  neither  of  these  species  merit  retention,  but 
certainly  of  the  two,  intermedia  is  the  most  strongly  character- 
ized ;  brevirostris  appears  to  me  to  be  nothing  but  the  ordinary 
asiatica  of  the  whole  of  the  dry  plains  portion  of  India,  and 
I  think  I  understood  Mr.  Blanford  himself  to  say  that  Sindh 
specimens  were  probably  not  separable  from  brevirostris. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  191 

I  have  measured  the  hills  of  a  considerable  number  of  speci- 
mens and  with  the  following-  results  : — 

Length  of  bill.     Localities  from  which  the  specimens  were  obtained. 

06  Sehwan,  Sindh  ;  Larkhana,  Sindh  ;   Sambhur  ; 

Lahore ;  near  Moulmein. 
0-62  Rangoon  ;  Kuteh  ;  Mt.  Aboo. 

0-63  Dera  Ghazi  Khan ;  Muttra ;  Sambhur ;  Seh wan ; 

Goorgaon ;  and  brevirostris,  Rampur,  Beloo- 
chistan. 
0*64  Goorgaon. 

0-65  Bombay  ;     Goorgaon  ;    Sambhur  ;    Mussoorie ; 

Attaran  River,  Burma ;  Pahpoon,  Burma. 
0*67  Goorgaon  ;  Raipoor  ;  Rangoon. 

0'68  Muttra;  the  Guj,  Sindh;  Raipoor;  Ootacamund. 

0'69  Kyoukphyoo;  Tuticorin  ;  Simla;  Agra. 

0'7  Tipperah ;      Mynal,     Travancore ;     Tipperah  ; 

Ootacamund  ;     Raipoor  ;  Dacca ;  Matheran  ; 
„  Salween  District,  Burma. 

072  Salem  ;  Sumbulpoor. 

073  Raipoor ;   Salem ;  Tipperah  ;  Dacca ;  Tipperah. 
0-74               Raipoor. 

0*75  Raipoor;  Dacca. 

All  these  specimens  are  perfect  adult  males ;  other  dimensions 
vary  somewhat  similarly,  but  not  quite  proportionally.  I 
cannot  see  myself  how  the  difference  in  dimensions  will  assist 
any  one  to  divide  this  species.  Brevirostris  is  said  to  have  a 
green  instead  of  a  purple  gloss  on  the  upper  parts ;  but  so  have 
at  least  three-fourths  of  the  Indian  birds,  from  the  drier  plains 
portions  of  the  country.  I  have  a  dozen  specimens  from  different 
parts  of  India  absolutely  inseparable  in  every  respect,  from 
one  of  the  types  of  brevirostris  obtained  from  Mr.  Blanford. 
To  see  the  purple  gloss  in  its  perfection  you  must  get  a  Rangoon 
or  Commilla  bird.  In  my  opinion  all  that  can  be  said  is,  that 
the  western  birds  from  the  dry  plains  country  run  smaller  and 
greener,  while  those  from  the  well-watered,  eastern  and  south- 
ern  regions  run  as  a  rule  larger  and  purpler. 

I  should  unhesitatingly  suppress  intermedia  myself,  and  I 
think  that  brevirostris  should,  a  fortiori,  be  suppressed. 

As  to  distribution  I  need  only  say  that  it  extends  far  into  the 
Himalayas,  that  I  have  obtained  it  in  the  valley  of  the  Beas, 
almost  at  the  foot  of  the  Rohtung  Pass,  in  the  valley  of  the 
Sutlej  as  far  as  Chini.  In  the  valley  of  the  Ganges  or  rather 
Bhagarutti  to  within  four  or  five  marches  of  Gungootri,  but 
eastward  of  this  I  do  not  remember  observing  it,  at  any 
great  distance  from  the  plains.  Westward,  if  I  am  correct  in 
unitiug  brevirostris,  it  extends  to  the  borders  of  Persia.  Eastwards 
it  is  found  far  up  in  the  valley  of  Assam,   and   thence  extends 


192  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

through  the  Burmese  countries  and  British  Burma  to  Arracan, 
Pegu,  and  the  northern  and  central  portions  of  Tenasserim,  but 
the  river  Yea  appears  to  be  here  its  absolute  southern  boundary, 
beyond  which  Davison  has  never  observed  a  single  specimen. 

234  ter.— Arachnechthra  flammaxillaris,  Blyth.  (41). 
Dbsor.  S.  1\  IV.,  314. 

Sal  ween  R  ;  Wimpong  ;  Kanee  ;  Kaukaryit,  Houngthraw  R. ;  Mesaloon  ; 
Moulmein ;  Yea-boo  ;  Meetan  ;  Amherst ;  Yea  ;  Pabyin  ;  Zadawoon  ;  Mergui ; 
Kolan  Island  ;  Tenasserim  Town  ;  Ghoungthanoung  ;  Palaw-ton-ton  ;  Malewoon. 

Almost  confined  to  the  southern  and  central  portions  of  the 
province.     Rare  in  the  north. 

[At  Mergui  and  alone-  the  coast  to  Malewoon  it  is  extremely 
abundant,  at  any  rate  in  December  and  January,  and  it  was 
then  in  full  breeding  plumage.  Like  asiatica  the  males  put  off 
the  breeding  plumage,  and  assume  a  dress  precisely  similar  to 
that  of  the  female,  except  in  so  far  that  they  retain  a  gular 
stripe.  Specimens  killed  at  the  close  of  April  had  nearly  com- 
pleted the  change. — W.  D.] 

The  exact  limits  of  this  species  have  yet  to  be  defined.  All 
I  can  say  certainly  about  it  is  that  it  occurs  in  Arracan  south- 
wards of  Akyab,  that  it  occurs  in  the  southern  half  of  Pegu, 
in  Central  and  Southern  Tenasserim,  and  thence  again  along  the 
west  coast  of  the  Peninsula  at  Tonka  and  Peuang.  Further 
south  than  this  I  have  not  obtained  it. 

Males  measured. — Length,  4*4  to  4*5  ;  expanse,  6*3  to  6-8  ; 
tail  from  vent,  1*45  to  1*55  ;  wing,  1*95  to  2*12;  tarsus,  0*5 
to  0'55 ;  bill  from  gape,  0  7  to  0'8;  weight,  a  little  over,  0*25 
oz. 

Females.— Length,  4*27  to  4*37  ;  expanse,  6*25  to  6-5  ;  tail 
from  vent,  P3  to  1*45  ;  wing,  2'  to  2-05  ;  tarsus,  0*45  to  0'5  ; 
bill  from  gape,  0-7  to  075. 

Legs,  feet,  bill  and  claws,  black  ;  irides  dark  brown. 

236.— Dicseum  cruentatum,  Lin.  (45). 

{Tonghoo,  Rams.)  Wimpong  ;  Kaukaryit,  Houngthraw  R.  ;  Thatone  ;  Moulmein  ; 
Monmenzeik  ;  Pabyouk  ;  Yea-boo  ;  Letet ;  Karope ;  Amherst ;  Yea ;  Meeta  Myo  ; 
Taroy;  Shymotee;   Pabyin;  Mergui;  Patoi  Is.;  Tenasserim  Town;  Malewoon. 

Apparently  confined  in  Tenasserim  proper  to  the  central  and 
southern  portions  of  the  province,  but  re-appearing  again  in  the 
extreme  north. 

[From  Moulmein  to  the  Pakchan  this  is  a  common  species 
occurring  in  gardens,  cocoanut  plantations,  scrub  jungle,  and 
wherever  there  are  any  flowers. 

In  habits  this  and  the  other  species  of  Burman  Flowerpeckers 
quite  resemble  the  Indian  ones,  D.  concolor,  and  erythror- 
hyncha. 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM.  193 

They  have  a  sharp  note,  or  rather  series  of  notes  (which  might 
be  most  nearly  imitated  by  drawing  the  point  of  a  nail  or  hard- 
pointed  substance  in  a  series  of  jerks  over  a  pane  of  glass)  which 
they  utter  at  short  intervals.  They  are  particularly  fond  of 
frequenting  the  dense  clumps  of  parasitical  plants  growing  on 
other  trees,  and  feeding  on  the  fruit,  especially  of  the  Loranthus. 
They  also  feed  on  minute  insects  and  on  the  nectar  of  flowers, 
as  is  shown  by  the  forehead  and  crown  being  often  coated  with 
pollen.— W.  D.] 

Count  Salvadori  (U.  de  B.)  seems  disposed  to  accept  ignitwn 
of  Begbie  from  Malacca  as  distinct  on  the  strength  of  Lord 
Walden's  remark,  P.  Z.  S.,  1866,  544,  that  the  specimens  he  had 
seen  from  the  Peninsular  differed  in  being  smaller  and  having  a 
shorter  bill,  and  by  the  black  portion  of  the  plumage  being  a 
deep  blue  rather  than  a  deep  green  black  ;  the  red  plumage  also 
being  of  a  richer  tone. 

We  have  an  enormous  series  of  these  from  all  parts  of  Tenasse- 
rim,  from  Malacca,  from  Akyab  and  Rangoon,  Calcutta,  Commilla, 
Dacca,  aud  Assam,  and  I  must  confess  my  inability  to  discover 
the  slightest  difference  in  coloration  between  the  birds  as  a  body 
from  these  different  localities. 

Individual  'specimens  in  each  locality  differ  a  little  in  the 
points  noticed  by  Lord  Walden,  and  this  is  due  apparently  to  the 
season  at  which  they  are  killed. 

As  regards  size  of  bill  again  I  cannot  detect  the  smallest 
constant  difference,  but  it  seems  to  me  that  in  Malayan  speci- 
mens the  wings  do  perhaps  average  from  3  to  5-hundreths  of  an 
inch  shorter  than  Indian  ones.  There  is  no  such  thing,  however, 
as  discriminating  Straits  specimens  from  Indian  ones  by  mea- 
surement ;  some  Indian  specimens  have  the  wing  only  1*8,  and 
none  of  the  Straits  specimens  that  I  possess  have  smaller  wings 
than  this.  I  speak  of  course  of  males,  and  the  wings  of  these 
in  the  Straits  run  up  to  1'95  against  2*0  as  a  maximum  of 
Indian  specimens.  Most  certainly  the  Malaccan  birds  are  not 
distinct.  I  do  not  think  that  they  are '  even  a  distinguishable 
race. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &cv  recorded  in  the  flesh  of 
Tenasserim  specimens  : — 

Males.—  Length,  35  to  3*82  ;  expanse,  6-25  to  6'5  ;  tail  from 
vent,  I/O  to  1-6  ;  wing,  1'85  to  2*0  ;  tarsus,  0'45  toO'55  ;  bill 
from  gape,  0"4  to0'5 ;  weight  0'25oz. 

Females. — Length,  3*5  to  4*82  ;  expanse,  6'0  to  6*25 ;  tail 
from  vent,  0-82  to  1"12  ;  wing,  1-75  to  2*0  ;  tarsus,  0'45  to  05; 
bill  from    gape,  0*42  toO'5  ;  weight,  about  0*2  oz. 

Legs,  feet  aud  claws  black  or  blackish  brown  ;  bill  black;  irides 
dark  brown. 

25 


194  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

236  bis.— Dicaeum  trigonostigma,  Scop.  (18). 

{Karen  Mils  at  3,000  feet,  Rama.)  Moulmein;  Amherst  j  Uskeetherrpone ; 
Mergui;  Bopyin;  Bankasoon. 

Only  observed  in  Tenasserim  proper,  southwards  of  Moul- 
mein, but  re-appearing  in  the  Karen  hills  in  the  extreme  north. 

[To  the  north  of  Mergui  this  species  is  but  seldom  met  with, 
but  at  Mergui  and  to  the  south  of  this  place  to  the  Pakchan  it 
is  by  no  means  uncommon.  Amherst  was  the  most  northerly 
point  in  Tenasserim  at  which  I  procured  it. 

In  its  habits,  the  localities  it  frequents,  &c,  it  quite  resembles 
the  more  common  D.  cruentalum. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimension s,  &c,  of  this  species  recorded  in 
the  flesh  : — 

Males. — Length,  3-45  to  3*75  ;  expanse,  6  to  6-5;  tail  from 
vent,  0*82  to  1-0;  wing,  1*76  to  2-05;  tarsus,  0*5  to  0*52  ;  bill 
from  gape,  0-49  to  0-55 ;  weight,  0'23  to  0-28  oz. 

Female. — Length,  3"62;  expanse,  6-12;  tail  from  vent,  1*0  ; 
wing,  1-82;  tarsus,  0*5  ;  bill  from  gape,  0"55  ;  weight,?  05  oz. 

The  males  have  the  legs  and  feet  horny  black  ;  the  bill  black  ; 
irides  brown. 

The  females  have  the  legs,  feet,  and  claws  greenish  to  dark 
plumbeous;  the  upper  mandible  from  tip  to  nostril,  and  tip  of 
lower  mandible,  blackish  horny  ;  base  of  upper  mandible  reddish 
brown;  lower  mandible  (except  the  tip)  and  gape  pale  orange 
brown  to  orange  vermilion;  irides  grey  to  dark  brown. 

The  male  has  a  broad  line  through  the  lores  dusky  blackish ; 
forehead,  crown,  occiput,  nape,  and  a  small  portion  of  the  upper 
back,  upper  portion  of  sides  of  the  neck,  scapulars  and  wing- 
coverts,  dull  leaden  blue,  with  a  faint  glossy  sheen ;  cheeks  and 
ear-coverts  in  some  duskier,  in  some  rather  paler ;  chin,  throat, 
extreme  upper  portion  of  breast  and  lower  half  of  sides  of  the  neck 
very  pale  clear  grey;  breast,  abdomen  and  rest  of  lower  parts 
bright  orange  yellow,  more  fiery  on  the  breast  and  upper  abdo- 
men ;  wing-lining  and  axillaries  pure  white ;  inter  scapulary  re- 
o-ion,  where  not  blue,  and  part  of  middle  of  the  back,  flame 
colored  ;  rest  of  back  and  upper  tail-coverts,  more  or  less  fiery 
orange ;  quills  hair  brown,  edged  with  the  same  color  as  the 
coverts;  tail  blackish  brown,  margined  similarly ;  the  longest 
of  the  upper  tail-coverts  are  also  generally  of  this  same  leaden 
or  dark  slaty  blue. 

The  female  has  the  crown,  occiput,  nape,  mantle,  lores,  cheeks, 
ear-coverts  and  upper  part  of  sides  of  the  neck,  dull  olive  green, 
more  or  less  greyish  in  some  specimens,  with  generally  a  certain 
ferruginous  orange  tinge  in  the  middle  of  the  back  ;  the  rump  is 
yellow,  slightly  orange,  slightly  pencilled  with  olivaceous,  and  all 
but  the  longest  upper  tail-coverts  a  decided  orange. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  195 

The  upper  surface  in  some  birds  is  greyer,  and  the  orange  tinge 
m  the  middle  of  the  back  is  almost  wanting-,  but  I  have  seen 
"°  mlf$  sVf™en>  any  thing  like  so  grey  as  the  figure  in  the 
XOis,  if  I.  A.,  1676,  and  the  bill  is  not  correctly  colored. 

The  chin  and  upper  part  of  the  throat  is  a  sordid  greenish 
white;  the  rest  of  the  throat  and  breast  and  lower  halves  of  sides 
ot  the  neck  grey  or  greyish  white,  with  a  greenish  tinge;  the 
middle  of  the  abdomen,  vent  and  lower  tail-coverts  bright 
yellow,  with  more  or  less  of  an  orange  tinge,  especially  in  some 
specimens  on  the  latter ;  wing-lining  and  axillaries  pure 
white;  sides  of  the  abdomen  and  flanks  greyish  olive  fringed  and 
shaded  with  yellow;  wing  dark  hair  brown  ;  coverts  and  ter- 
tiaries  margined  with  olive  green  or  olive  yellow ;  primaries  and 
secondaries  with  bluish  grey  to  greyish  white  margins;  tail  hair 
brown;  some  of  the  longest  upper  tail-coverts  are  sometimes 
olive  green,  with  only  a  faint  orange  tinge;  tibial  plumes  in 
both  sexes  whitish. 

237.—  Dicseum  chrysorrhseum,  Tern.  (15). 

Me^uT^iToo)nPahP°0a  J  ^^  *°™^<™  *■«  Shj^otee  ,  Pabjin  , 

Occurs  throughout  the  province,  but  sparingly,  and    does  not 
ascend  the  hills. 

[Occurs  throughout  Tenasserim,  except,  so  far  as  I  know,  in 
the  dry  deciduous  forests  south  of  Moulmein,  but  it  is  nowhere 
common  Like  the  other  species  of  the  genus,  it  feeds  much 
on  the  glutinous  fruit  of  the  Loranthus.  It  never  goes  far  into 
dense  forests,  though  I  have  shot  it  at  their  edges.— W  D  1 
Ihe  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh:*- 
Males r.—Length,  4-2  to  4-4  ;  expanse,  7«4  to  7-6  ;  tail  from 
vent,  1-2  to ,1-4  ;  wing,  2-35to2"4;  tarsus,  0-5  to  0'6;  bill  from 
gape,  0-48  to  0-55  ;  weight,  0-3  to  0-4  oz. 

females.— Length,  4-12  to  4-25  ;  expanse,  7-2  to  7-5;  tail  from 
vent,  1-25  ;  wing,  2-2  to  2-45;  tarsus,  0-45  to  0-6  ;  bill  from 
gape,  0-5  ;  weight,  03  to  0-4.  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  very  dark  plumbeous;  upper  mandible  and  tip 
or  lower  mandible  black;  rest  of  lower  mandible  plumbeous- 
lndes  orange  red  to  bright  crimson. 

237  ter.~ Dicseum  olivaceum,  Wald,  CI).  Desce.  S.  P 

III.,    403;  IV.,  498. 

M.Z7lh°°  miS'   Karen  mis'Bams^     Pal'POonj  Salween  B.  ,  Wimpong; 

Confined  to  the  northern  and  central  hilly  portions  of  the 


196  BIRDS    OF    TENASSERIM. 

The  specimens  entered  in  my  first  list  (S.  F.,  II.,  473)  as 
virescens,  Hume,  prove  on  examination  to  belong  to  this  present 
species. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  of  two  males  and  one 
female  recorded  in  the  flesh  :— 

Mules. — Length,  3'2  to  3*45  ;  expanse,  5*7  to  5*82  ;  tail  from 
vent,  0*9 ;  wing,  1*7  to  1*8  ;  bill  from  gape,  0"4  to  0'46. 

Female. — Length,  35;  expanse,  5"75  ;  tail  from  vent,  1*0; 
wing,  1*75. 

Legs  and  feet  very  dark  plumbeous  ;  upper  mandible  and  tip 
of  lower  mandible  very  dark  brown  or  black  ;  rest  of  lower 
mandible  pale  plumbeous  ;  irides  deep  brown. 

238.— Dicseum  erythrorhyncha,  Lath.  (l). 

Blyth  says  (B.  of  B.,  p.  143)  :  "Exceedingly  abundant  in  the 
jungles  near  Moulmein."  They  doubtless  must  be  so,  but  it  can 
only  be  at  one  particular  season,  as  Bingham  and  Davison 
have  hunted  these  jungles,  day  after  day,  for  weeks  at  a  time, 
the  former  only  obtaining  it,  and  then  only  a  single  specimen. 
Davison,  during  four  years  of  constant  collecting  work,  has 
never  seen  this  species  anywhere,  as  yet,  in  Tenasserim. 

240  quat.— Prionochilus  percussus,  Tern,,  (l) 

Bankasoon. 

A  mere  straggler  at  the  extreme  south  of  the  province. 

[Though  I  obtained  only  one  specimen  in  Tenasserim,  I  had 
ample  opportunities  of  observing  this  species  in  the  Malay 
Peninsula. 

It  has  much  the  same  sharp  note  as  the  Vicceums  have,  and 
very  similar  habits.  It  is  generally  seen  in  pairs  or  singly, 
never  in  flocks,  feeding  by  preference  on  the  fruit  of  various 
Loranths.  They  may  often  be  seen  working  in  and  out  amongst 
the  smaller  branches  of  trees,  and  the  tufts  of  parasites  hang- 
ing to  these  ;  but  I  have  never  seen  them  in  brushwood  or  near 
the  ground.  They  do  partly  eat  insects,  but  only  I  think  when 
they  can  find  no  small  berries,  for  though  they  vastly  prefer 
that  of  the  Loranth,  they  apparently  eat  any  small  fruit  that 
they  can  find — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions  recorded  in  the  flesh  :■ — 

Males. — Length,  3*6  to  4-0 ;  expanse,  6'25  to  7"0  ;  tail  from 
vent,  1*05  to  1'35;  wing,  2-05  to  2-2  ;  tarsus,  0-5  to  0'55  ;  bill 
from  gape,  0*4  to  0'5  ;  weight,  0*25  to  0'3  oz. 

A  fully  adult  female  measured : — 

Length,  3*75  ;    expanse,  6*4;  tail  from  vent,  1*0  ;  wing,  1*9; 
tarsus,  0'5 .;  bill  from  gape,  04;  weight,  0"26  oz. 
■    'The  male  has  a  patch  of  bright  scarlet,  beginning  about  the 
middle  of  the  forehead,  and  occupying  the  centre  of  the  crown. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM,  197 

The  size  of  this  patch  varies  in  different  specimens.  In  the 
finest  it  is  about  0*4  long-,  and  0-2  broad  in  front  to  0'3  behind. 
A  small  white  moustachial  stripe  at  the  base  of  the  lower  man- 
dible; lores  just  in  front  of  the  eyes  blackish  ;  rest  of  top,  back 
and  sides  of  the  head,  black ;  scapulars,  wing-coverts,  rump 
and  upper  tail-coverts,  dull  leaden  blue.  Sometimes  there  is  a 
very  narrow  black  frontal  band,  and  the  whole  lores  are  then  black ; 
sometimes  again  the  ear-coverts  and  cheeks  are  blackish  ;  but 
more  commonly  all  these  parts  are  as  above  described.  Quills 
and  tail  dark  hair  brown,  margined  except  towards  the  tips  of  the 
earlier  primaries,  with  the  color  of  the  back  ;  the  central  tail 
feathers  and  the  visible  portions  of  the  tertiaries  being  almost 
overlaid  with  this  color;  point  of  the  chin  white;  wing-lining  and 
the  immensely  developed  axillary  tufts,  satin  white  ;  lower  tail- 
coverts  yellowish  white  ;  rest  of  lower  parts  very  bright  yellow 
paling-  towards  the  vent,  a  little  lined  with  grey  on°the  flanks, 
and  with  a  scarlet  flame-colored  patch  at  the  base  of  the  neck 
in  front,  in  the  middle  of  the  upper  breast ;  a  narrow  dark  line 
divides  the  white  moustachial  stripe  from  the  yellow  of  the 
throat. 

In  somewhat  younger  males  the  throat  patch  is  paler  ;  a  little 
olive  green  is  mingled  with  the  blue  of  the  mantle,  and  the 
primaries  and  secondaries  are  margined  with  greenish  olive 
yellow. 

A  younger  male  still  has  the  whole  upper  surface  dark  olive 
green,  yellower  on  rump,  upper  tail-coverts  and  margins  of 
quills  and  tail.  Three  or  four  blue  feathers  on  the  head,"  where 
the  flame-colored  patch  is  only  about  0*15  in  diameter  ;  lower 
surface,  a  dark  sordid  olive  green,  mixed  with  grey,  and  one 
or  two  yellow  feathers  on  the  throat. 

Quite  young-  males  and  females  are  nearly  uniform  dull  olive 
green  above,  a  little  brighter  on  the  rump,  upper  tail-coverts 
edges  of  wing  and  tail.  The  whole  lower  surface  a  nearly  uniform 
greyish  olive  green,  a  little  greener  only  on  the  breast,  and  a 
shade  yellower  on  the  abdomen  ;  no  trace  of  yellow  or  blue  or  of 
crown  or  breast  patches. 

In  this  stage  the  bird  is  very  like  the  young  and  female  of 
thoracicus.  The  bill  of  this  latter  is  generally  broader  aud  more 
massive,  but  this  distinction  is  not  to  be  absolutely  relied  on  as 
the  size  of  the  bill  varies  in  both  species,  aud  a  large  bill  in 
percussus  is  not  always  to  be  distinguished  from  a  small  bill  in 
thoracicus.  In  this  latter,  however,  the  wing  is  longer,  and  there 
is  always,  alike  on  rump,  upper  and  lower  tail-coverts,  and  edges 
of  quills,  a  brighter  yellow  tinge  than  in  any  specimen  of 
percussus. 

The  adult  female  of  percussus  has  yet  to  be  described. 


198  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

She  is  above  a  rather  pure  dark  green,  tinged  yellower  on  the 
rump  and  upper  tail-coverts,  and  on  the  margins  of  the  se- 
condary greater  coverts.  In  the  middle  of  the  crown  there 
is  a  pretty  large  patch,  exhibiting  a  faint  reddish  tinge  ;  she  has 
a  pale  grey  moustachial  streak  shorter  than  in  the  male  ;  the 
chin  and  throat  are  grey,  pencilled  with  pale  yellow  and  dull 
olive  green  ;  the  breast  and  sides  of  the  abdomen  are  a  greyish 
greenish  yellow ;  in  the  middle  of  the  breast  is  a  tolerably  bright 
yellow  patch,  and  the  middle  of  the  upper .  abdomen  is  pale 
yellow  ;  the  middle  of  the  lower  abdomen,  vent,  and  lower  tail- 
coverts,  yellowish  white. 

I  may  mention  that  we  only  pi'ocured  a  single  specimen,  an 
adult  male,  in  Tenasserim.  The  above  description  and  measure- 
ments are  taken  from  a  large  series  of  this  species,  collected, 
sexed,  and  measured  in  the  flesh  by  Davison  and  his  staff  in 
different  parts  of  the  Malay  Peninsula. 

I  think  it  very  probable  that  the  nearly  allied  tlioracicus, 
Tern.,  may  also  occur  in  Tenasserim,  though  we  have  never  as 
yet  obtained  specimens  there ;  and  I  therefore  take  this  oppor- 
tunity of  adding  dimensions  and  a  brief  description  of  this  species 
also.  Unfortunately  but  few  of  our  specimens  were  measured  in 
the  flesh. 

Prionochilus  tlioracicus,  Tern.  Male. — Length,  4  ;  expanse,  7-5  ; 
tail  from  vent,  1*2  ;  wing,  2"4  ;  tarsus   0*6  ;  bill  from  gape,  0*5. 

Female. — Length,  4*0 ;  expanse,  7*12 ;  tail  from  vent,  1*0; 
wing,  2*2  ;  tarsus,  0*6;  bill  from  gape,  0'5. 

The  adult  male  has  the  bill  black  ;  a  younger  male  has  the 
lower  mandible,  (except  the  tip  and  gape,)  and  basal  part  of  upper 
mandible,  orange  yellow  ;  rest  of  upper  mandible  dusky.  An 
adult  female  has  the  upper  mandible  dull  black  ;  the  lower 
mandible  blackish  plumbeous.  Both  sexes  at  all  ages  appear 
to  have  the  legs,  feet,  and  claws  very  dark  plumbeous,  and  the 
irides  deep  brown. 

The  adult  male  has  a  small  patch  on  the  crown,  and  a  huge 
oval  patch  at  the  base  of  the  throat  and  on  the  breast,  brilliant 
crimson  ;  the  whole  of  the  rest  of  the  head  and  neck  all  round, 
uppermost   part   of    the   back    and   the    breast,   velvet   black. 

The  back  and  scapulars  rather  dull,  perhaps  slightly  olivaceous 
yellow ;  lesser  wing-coverts,  rump  and  upper  tail-coverts  intensely 
bright  yellow  ;  rest  of  coverts  and  tertiaries  and  tail  black  or 
blackish ;  primaries  and  secondaries  hair  brown,  more  or  less, 
but  always  very  narrowly,  margined  on  the  outer  webs  with 
pale  yellow  ;  middle  of  abdomen  and  lower  tail-coverts  clear 
yellow,  paler  and  not  near  so  intense  as  the  rump  and  upper 
tail-coverts;  rest  of  abdomen  and  flanks  greenish  olive,  mingled 
with  grey ;  wing-lining  and  large  axillary  tufts,  satin  white. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  199 

The  adult  female — I  rely  on  Davison's  sexing — has  the  entire 
forehead,  crown  and  occiput  dusky  greyish,  with  however  in  the 
middle  of  the  crown  a  greenish  olive  patch  ;  back,  scapulars, 
lesser  and  median  coverts  a  dull  greenish  olive  yellow  ;  rump 
and  upper  tail-coverts  yellow  ;  quills  and  greater  coverts  hair 
brown,  margined  on  the  outer  webs  with  olive  yellow  ;  chin  and 
centre  of  upper  throat  greenish  white  ;  rest  of  throat,  neck  in 
front,  and  sides  of  the  head,  grey  ;  the  breast  feathers  grey- 
ish at  their  bases,  mingled  olive  and  yellow  towards  the  tips, 
and  with  a  distinct,  though  ill-defined,  scarlet  tinge  at  the  base 
of  the  throat  in  front  ;  the  middle  of  the  upper  abdomen  and 
the  lower  tail  -coverts  pure  yellow  ;  vent  feathers  creamy  white 
or  yellowish  white  ;  flanks  and  sides  of  abdomen  mingled  grey 
and  dull  olive  green  ;  wing-lining  and  axillaries  as  in  the 
male. 

A  young  male  is  very  similar,  but  wants  the  dusky  on  the 
head  and  grey  on  the  sides  of  the  neck  ;  has  already  the  upper 
tail-coverts  a  much  brighter  yellow,  and  some  of  the  small 
coverts  also  bright  yellow  ;  has  the  whole  chin  and  middle  of 
the  throat  right  down  to  the  breast  greenish  white,  and  a  dark 
moustachial  stripe  running  from  the  lower  edge  of  the  lower 
mandible  under  the  cheeks  and  ear-coverts,  and  partly  round 
the  ends  of  these  ;  traces  of  a  shorter  similar  stripe  from  the 
gape ;  the  top  and  sides  of  the  head  are  olive  green. 

The  bill  is  as  already  described. 

240  quint. — Prionochilus  maculatus,  Tern.  (5). 

Uslieetherrpone  ;  Pakchan  ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

The  southern  portions  only  of  the  province,  not  extending 
many  miles  north  of  Mergui. 

[I  may  here  mention  that  in  their  habits  both  the  present 
species  and  P.  modestus,  Hume,  resemble  precisely  the  different 
species  of  Vicmim,  as  they  do  also  in  the  localities  they  fre- 
quent. There  is  really  nothing  further  to  be  said  about  them. 
The  present  species  was  only  met  with  occasionally,  and  may  be 
accounted  rare  in  Tenasserim.— -W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males.— Length,  3*8  to  3-82;  expanse,  6-82  to  6*9;  tail  from 
vent,  1-  to  1-2;  wing,  2'12  to  2-2  ;  tarsus,  0"5 ;  bill  from  gape, 
0-45  to  5-0  ;  weight,  0-25  oz. 

Female.— Length,  3-55 ;  expanse,  6 '6  ;  tail  from  vent,  0*95; 
wing,  2-0;  tarsus,  0*5  ;  bill  from  gape,  045. 

In  the  males  the  legs  and  feet  were  very  dark  plumbeous ;  in 
the  female  dirty  smalt  blue  ;  the  upper  mandible  and  lower 
mandible  to  angle  of  gonys  black  ;  rest  plumbeous  in  males  ; 
smalt  blue  in  the  female;  irides  dull  red. 


200  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

In  tLis  species,  the  sexes  apparently  differ  only,  so  far  as 
plumage  is  concerned,  in  the  males  having  a  brighter,  larger  and 
more  flame-colored  crown  patch,  which  in  the  females  is  smaller 
and  more  orange.  Here  again  I  trust  to  Davison,  who  only 
sexed  one  adult  female. 

The  lores  are  greyish  ;  the  whole  of  the  top  of  the  head,  (exclud- 
ing the  scarlet  or  flame-colored  crown  patch,)  the  back  and  sides 
of  the  neck,  back,  rump,  lesser  and  median  coverts  and  upper  tail- 
coverts,  a  moderately  bright  olive  green,  yellower  on  the  rump 
and  upper  tail-coverts  ;  quills  and  their  greater  coverts  and  tail 
feathers,  pale  hair  brown,  margined,  except  towards  the  tips  of 
the  earlier  primaries,  with  much  the  same  color  as  the  upper  tail- 
coverts.  In  some  specimens  there  is  a  distinct  narrow  white  line 
running  through  the  lores.  Cheeks  and  ear-coverts  somewhat 
greyer  olive  green ;  a  broad  white  mandibular  stripe  from  the 
base  of  the  lower  inaudible ;  chin  white,  continued  as  a  broad 
whitish  or  pale  yellow  streak  down  the  middle  of  the  throat ; 
lower  tail-coverts,  feathers  of  the  vent,  and  a  broad  stripe  down 
the  middle  of  the  body  clear  yellow,  much  brighter  in  some 
specimens,  duller  in  others,  always  more  iutense  on  the  breast  ; 
sides  of  the  throat,  sides  of  the  breast,  abdomen  and  flanks  dull 
greyish  olive  green,  more  or  less  streaked  with  pale  yellowish  or 
greenish  white. 

240  seat. — Prionochilus  modestus,  Hume.  (10).  Descr. 
S.  F.,  III.,  298. 

Amherst ;  Mergui ;  Malewoon. 

[This  species  is  also  confined  to  quite  the  south  of  the  province, 
occurring  only  at  Mergui  and  to  the  south  of  that  place.  It  was 
somewhat  more  common  than  the  preceding  species,  but  could 
not  be  accounted  a  common  bird.  I  never  met  with  it  myself  in 
the  Malay  Peninsula,  but  obtained  a  single  specimen  from  a 
dealer  in  Malacca. — W.  D.] 

241. — Myzanthe  ignipectus,  Rodgs.  (3). 

(Karennee,  4,000  feet,  Earns.)  Mooleyit. 

Only  found  near  the  summit  of  Mooleyit,  and  again  high  up 
in  the  continuation  of  the  same  range,  in  Karennee. 

[I  had  few  opportunities  of  observiug  this  species  ;  their  habits 
appeared  to  be  those  of  Dicceum,  and  their  sharp  note  precisely 
similar. — W.  D.J 

215.— Oerthia  discolor,  Blyth.  S.  F.,  V.,  7Q,  78. 

Obtained  by  Ramsay  in  Karennee  at  from  5,000  to  6,000  feet 
Not  as  yet  observed  elsewhere. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  201 

248  quaf. — Sitta  magna,  IF.  Ramsay.  Descr.  S.  P.,  V., 
343. 

Obtained  by  some  member  of  the  recent  Karennee  boundary 
expedition  ;  probably  hardly  occurs  within  even  the  Avide  limits 
now  assigned  officially  to  Tenasserim.  Note  that  the  bird  describ- 
ed was  a  female  and    not    a   male  as  misprinted  in  the  P.  Z.  S., 

1876,677. 

250  bis.— Sitta  neglecta,  Wald.  (7).  Descr.  S.  E.,  III. 

88. 

(Tonghoo,  Karennee,  Earns  )  Dargwin  ;  Head  waters  of  Thong  Yen;  Kan- 
karjit,  Houngthraw   R- ;  Larthorgeo  ;  E-poo. 

Confined  to  the  dry  forests  of  the  northern  aud  central  portions 
of  the  province,  and  rather  rare  even  there. 

[I  have  only  met  with  this  in  the  deciduous-leaved  Dillenia 
forests,  between  Kaukary  it  on  the  Houngthraw  river,  and  the  base 
of  the  northern  spurs  of  Mooleyit ;  but  I  obtained  a  specimen 
once  (in  the  flesh)  from  a  Burman  said  to  have  been  shot  some- 
where near    Dargwin.     It  is  usually  seen  in  pairs,    and   has  the 

same  note  and  habits  as  our  common  Himalayan  Nuthatches 

W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  of  five  males  and  two 
females  : — 

Males. — Length,  5-6  to  5 -8 ;  expanse,  9*5  to  10*1  ;  tail  from 
vent,  1  6  to  1'8 ;  wing,  3-05  to  33  ;  tarsus,  0*7 ;  bill  from  o>ape 
0-85  to  0-88;  weight,  062  to 07oz.  &      ' 

Females. — Length,  5'6  ;  expanse,  9'6to«9,8;  tail  from  vent 
1*6  to  1-65,  wing,  3*1  to  3-15  ;  tarsus,  07  to  075  ;  bill  from  <nXpe' 
0-8  to  0-91  ;  weight,  0-63  oz.  b       ' 

Legs  and  feet  deep  greenish   plumbeous,  or  greenish  black;  up- 
per mandible  tip  and  edge  of  lower    mandible,  along  commissure 
black;  rest  of  bill  plumbeous  ;  irides  deep  brown. 

253.— Dendrophila  frontalis,  Horsf.  (25). 

(Tonghoo,    Karennee,    Rams.)    Pine  forests,   Sal  ween  ;    Kyouk-nyat  ;  Dargwin; 
alipoon  ;    Sal  ween  R- ;    n 
Yea ;  Meeta  Myo  ;  Choun 


Pahpoon  ;    Salween  R. ;    Thntone ;    Wiinpong;    Kanee ;    Ngabeeiuah  ;   Meetan  • 
ngthapee;  Pakchan ;  Bankasoon. 


Common  everywhere  throughout  the  province,  but  does  not 
ascend  above  4,500—5,000  feet. 

[The  Velvet-fronted  Nuthatch  ranges  through  the  entire  extent 
of  Tenasserim  ;  but  is  nowhere  seen  in  such  numbers  as  in  the  Nil- 
gheris  and  other  places  in  Southern  India.  I  have  shot  speci- 
men from  Pahpoon  to  the  Pakchan  which  resembles  each  other 
precisely.  They  frequent  both  dense  and  deciduous  forests, 
usually  in    small    parties    of    four    or  more,   sometimes   singly 

26 


202  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

or  in  pairs.  They  are  always  busy,  working  up  and  down, 
and  round  and  round  the  branches  and  trunks  of  trees,  standing 
and  fallen ;  sometimes  even  foraging  in  brushwood  ;  always  like 
the  rest  of  the  Sittas  coming  down  head  foremost,  never 
tail  foremost,  as  some  Woodpeckers  will  •  feeding  exclusively 
on  insects  •  often  hammering  away  at  the  bark,  like  a  little  Sasia, 
and  constantly  uttering  a  sharp  chick,  chick,  chick,  rapidly  re- 
peated as  they  work  about,  but  not  as  they  fly. — W.  D.] 

254  bis.— -Upupa  longirostris,  Jerd.  (33).  Descr.  S.  P., 
III.,  89. 

(Tonglioo,    Rams.)   Eollidoo  j   Pahpoon  ;   Tlieinzeik;     Thatone;   Wiinpong ; 
Moulmein  ;  Amherst ;  Pakchan. 

Common  throughout  the  province  in  suitable  localities. 

[This  bird  entirely  avoids  forests,  and  even  the  more  densely- 
wooded  portions  of  the  cultivated  country.  It  is  spread  over 
the  whole  province,  but  keeps  to  the  open  gardens,  fields,  grass 
lands,  &c.  I  found  it  very  common  in  the  plains  country  lying 
between  the  Salween  and  Sittang  rivers ;  it  was  also  very  nu- 
merous on  the  banks  of  the  Pakchan  all  about  Nallansine 
(known  generally  as  Pakchan)  and  Kraw,  where  there  is  a  good 
deal  of  cultivation  and  waste  ground,  only  very  sparingly  dot- 
ted with  trees,  and  little  or  no  herbage  of  any  kind.  I  have 
not  yet  noticed  this  any  further  south  in  the  Malay  Penin- 
sula.—W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males.— Length,  12-13  to  12 "5  ;  expanse,  17-0  to  1825  ;  tail 
from  vent,  3-83  to  4*25;  wing,  5-15  to  5-62;  tarsus,  0'82;  bill 
from  gape,  2-62  to  2'8  ;  weight,  2'5  oz. 

Females. — Length,  11*5  to  11*75 ;  expanse,  16*25  to  17*35  ; 
tail  from  vent,  40  to  4*12  ;  wing,  5*25  to  5*35  ;  tarsus,  0-8  to 
0-95 ;  bill  from  gape,  22  to  2*46  *  weight,  2*5  to  2*75  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  pale  dull  slaty  or  plumbeous  blue  •  bill  horny 
brown ;  lower  mandible  to  angle  of  gonys  and  upper  mandible 
to  nostrils,  fleshy  pink  ;  irides  dark  red  brown. 

258.—-Lanius  tephronotus,  Vig.  (1). 

Kyouk-nyat. 

Only  a  straggler  to  the  northern  portion  of  the  province. 
Davison  never  saw  any  but  the  single  specimen  he  shot. 

259. — Lanius  nigriceps,  Frankl.  (5). 

(Tongfioo,  Rams.)  Pine  forests,  Salween ;  Pahpoon ;  Younzaleen  Creek ; 
Khyketo. 

Confined  to  the  northern  half  of  the  province,  and  even  there 
uncommon. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  203 

[I  met  with  this  bird  at  Pahpoon  and  the  hills  to*  the  north 
of  it,  as  far  as  the  skirts  of  the  pines.  I  also  saw  several  indivi- 
duals among'  the  kine  grass  between  Thatone  and  the  banks  of 
the  Sittang.  I  did  not  meet  with  it  elsewhere  in  Tenasserim. — 
W.  D.] 

260  ter.— Lanius  colluroides,  Less.  (4).  Descr.  S.  E., 
III.,  90. 

{TongTioo,  Karennee,  Rams.)  Kollidoo  ;  Moulmein  ;  Amherst. 

A  rather  rare  straggler  to  the  northern  and  central  portions 
of  the  province. 

[I  only  met  with  this  bird  on  one  occasion,  when  I  saw  a  pair 
among  some  kine  grass  below  Kollidoo,  and  secured  the  female, 
which  still  showed  signs  of  immaturity. — W.  D.] 

Capt.  Bingham  procured  a  couple  in  Moulmein. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  of  an  adult  female  mea- 
sured in  the  flesh :  — 

Length,  7*6  ;  expanse,  10*7  ;  tail  from  vent,  3*6  ;  wing,  3"5  ; 
tarsus,  093;  bill  from  gape,  0*80. 

Bill  dark  horny;  gape  and  base  of  lower  mandible  fleshy 
white ;  legs,  feet,  and  claws  black ;  irides  dark  brown. 

Dr.  Armstrong  also  sent  me  a  specimen  from  Amherst. 

260  quat. — Lanius  magnirostris,  Less.  (l). 

Bunkasoou. 

A  rare  straggler  to  the  extreme  south  of  the  province. 

[Though  very  rare  in  Tenasserim  I  found  this  plentiful  in 
the  Malay  Peninsula.  I  observed  nothing  special  in  its  habits. 
It  kept  in  open  county  and  about  cultivated  lands  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  villages,  and  comported  itself  precisely  after  the 
manner  of  L.  erythronotus.- — W.  D.] 

We  only  secured  one  specimen,  an  old  adult,  of  this  species 
in  Tenasserim,  but  I  am  able  to  supply  full  dimensions  and 
description  from  specimens  collected  by  Davison  in  the  Malay- 
an Peninsula. 

It  is  extraordinary  how  seldom  adults  are  met  with ;  out  of 
over  30  specimens  only  3  are  really  adult. 

The  sexes  do  not  differ  perceptibly  in  dimensions  or  plumage. 

Length,  6'75  to  6'85 ;  expanse,  10  to  10*5  ;  tail  from  vent, 
2-82  to  3-0;  wing,  3'12  to  3-37;  tarsus,  0'8to0  9;  bill  from 
gape,  0*85  to  9"0;  weight,  just  over  1  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  pale  plumbeous  blue,  lavender  blue,  sometimes 
almost  smalt  blue  ;  irides  deep  brown  ;  edges  of  eyelids  black  ; 
more  or  less  of  both  mandibles  pale  plumbeous  or  pale  dull 
blue. 

The  old  adult  has  a  narrow  frontal  band,  a  line  over  the  eye, 
a  streak  under   the  eye,    and   a  broad   patch   behind  the   eye, 


204  BIRDS   OF   TENASSEMM. 

involving  the  ear-coverts,  black ;  a  faint  white  Hue  over  the  eye, 
sometimes  continued  over  a  portion  of  the  black  ear  patch ;  the 
whole  of  the  rest  of  the  forehead,  crown,  occiput,  back  and 
sides  of  neck,  and  just  the  upper  portion  of  the  back,  very 
clear  pale  grey ;  rest  of  back,  rump  and  upper  tail-coverts, 
wing-coverts,  (except  the  greater  coverts)  pale  brownish 
chestnut ;  all  the  feathers  banded  with  narrow  black  bars, 
(the  first  interspace  generally  paler)  ;  the  general  color  rather 
browner  on  the  upper  back  and  more  rufous  on  the  rump 
and  upper  tail-coverts  ;  the  secondary  greater  coverts  and 
tertiaries  similar,  but  paler  and  browner,  tipped  somewhat  paler, 
with  one  sub-terminal  dark  band,  having  a  tendency  to  run  up 
as  a  dark  line  just  inside  the  outer  margin  ;  winglet,  primaries 
and  their  greater  coverts  hair  brown  ;  the  primaries  just  per- 
ceptibly margined  paler,  and  the  secondaries  obscurely  tipped 
paler,  and  the  margins  rnfescent ;  tail  dull  pale  brownish  chest- 
nut ;  all  but  the  central  feathers  narrowly  tipped  with  white, 
with  a  dark  very  narrow  sub-terminal  band  ;  all  the  tail  feathers 
obscurely  transversely  rayed  paler  and  darker. 

The  entire  under-parts  unmarked  and  unbarred  white;  a 
few  only  of  the  posterior  flank  feathers,  nearest  the  rump,  faintly 
rufescent  and  barred  ;  a  very  faint  creamy  tinge  on  the  throat. 

A  somewhat  younger  bird  has  the  whole  back  and  wings 
pure  chestnut,  a  distinct  creamy  tinge  over  the  whole  throat, 
breast  and  abdomen,  and  a  few  bars  on  the  sides  of  the  abdo- 
men, as  well  as  on  the  flanks. 

In  the  stage  in  which  the  bird  is  most  commonly  met  witli 
the  whole  of  the  parts  that  are  grey  in  the  adult  are  a  dull 
rather  deep  brownish  ferruginous  (except  on  the  sides  of  the 
neck,  which  are  fulvous  white),  the  whole  obscurely  but  narrow- 
ly banded  with  black  or  blackish  brown  ;  the  lores  and  frontal 
streak  are  fulvous  brown ;  ear-coverts  rufescent,  or  mingled 
rufescent  and  pale  fulvous  ;  the  sides  of  the  lower  mandible  and 
all  but  the  middle  of  the  breast  and  abdomen  barred  with  blackish 
brown,  the  whole  lower  parts  having  a  creamy  tinge,  more  ru- 
fescent on  the  sides  of  the  abdomen  and  flanks.  Gradually 
the  top  of  the  head  and  nape  become  a  uniform  brownish  red, 
black  feathers  begin  to  appear  in  the  lores,  and  amongst  the 
ear-coverts,  the  lateral  barrings  on  the  lower  surface  begin  to 
diminish  in  extent;  then  pale  blue  grey  feathers  begin  to 
appear  on  the  forehead  and  nape  ;  and  gradually  the  bird  passes 
into  the  comparatively  rare  adult  stage  already  described. 

261.— Lanius  cristatus,  Lin.  (23). 

(Karcnnse,  Earns.)  Kyonk-nyat ;  Pahpoon  ;  Thatone  ;  Megaloon  ;  Moulraoin  ; 
JSTgibceinah  ;  Amherst;  Tavoy ;  Mergui;  Pukchan. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  205 

Occurs  as  a  cold  weather  visitant  throughout  the  province, 
and  is  then  not  uncommon  in  gardens  and  the  more  open 
portions  of  the  country. 

261  bis. — Lanius  lucionensis,  Lin.  (l).  Descr.  S.  F., 
II.,  199. 

Malewoon, 

A  rare  straggler  to  the  southernmost  extremity  of  the 
province. 

263.— Tephrodornis  pelvica,  Eodgs.  (39).  S.  E.,  Ill, 
92. 

(Karen  Hills,  Rams.)  Kollidoo  ;  Pahpoon  ;  Myawadee  ;  Kaukaryifc,  Houngthraw 
R. ; Topee  ;  E-poo  ;  Moulrnein  ;  Pabyouk  ;  Ngabsemah ;  Paraduba;  Meetan  ; 
Amherst  ;  Yea  ;  Zadee  ;  Meeta  Myo  ;  Palaw-ton-ton  ;  Bankasoon.  Malewoon. 

Common  throughout  the  province,  but  not  ascending  the 
higher  hills. 

[This  Woodslirike  occurs  throughout  the  province  in  all 
kinds  of  localities  where  there  are  any  trees.  It  is  found  at 
times  in  pairs,  more  often  in  small  parties  of  from  six  to  eight. 
It  feeds  entirely  on  insects,  for  which  it  industriously  hunts 
the  leaves  and  branches  of  trees,  never  capturing  any  on 
the  wing.  It  is  an  extremely  stupid  bird,  not  minding  the 
report  of  a  gun  in  the  least;  so  that  when  you  meet  a  party 
you  may  shoot  the  whole  lot.  They  are  very  restless ;  always 
on  the  move,  and  such  silent  birds  that  I  cannot  remember 
ever  to  have  heard  their  note. — W.  D.] 

Although  I  have  entered  all  our  specimens  as  pelvica,  they 
a:  e  neither  all  quite  alike,  nov  are  any  of  them  quite  identical 
with  specimens  from  Nepal  and  Sikim.  Beginning  at  the 
north  at  Kollidoo  where  the  birds  are  largest,  the  majority 
are  somewhat  smaller,  and  specially  have  slenderer  bills  than 
Himalayan  examples  ;  as  you  proceed  southwards,  the  birds 
grow  distinctly  smaller  in  size,  and  begin  to  acquire  more  of 
an  ashy  tinge  on  the  back.  In  Sikim  specimens,  and  indeed 
in  those  from  Kollidoo,  the  grey  is  confined  to  the  head  and 
neck  ;  but  in  the  most  southerly  examples  from  Bankasoon  a 
certain  amount  of  grey  on  the  back,  which  is  characteristic  of 
the  more  southern  gularis,  begins  to  appear.  In  this  re- 
spect, however,all  our  specimens  are  nearer  to  pelvica  than  gularis ; 
but  as  regards  size  some  of  our  southern  birds  are  not  separable 
from  gularis.  I  have  little  doubt  that,  between  the  Pakchan  and 
Malacca,  the  most  northern  locality  in  the  Malay  Peninsula  from 
which  we  have  specimens,  the  two  species  will  be  found  to  grade 
perfectly  into  each  other.  Our  forty  specimens  from  various 
parts  of  Tenasserim  grade  so  absolutely  the  one  into  the  other, 
that  it  is  quite  impossible  to  separate  them. 


206  BIRDS    OF   TENASSEEIM. 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  of  the  specimens  measured 
in  the  flesh  by  us  from  various  parts  of  Tenasserim,  north  and 
south : — 

Males. — Length,  7*75  to  8*3  ;  expanse,  13*  to  14*35  ;  tail  from 
vent,  3  to  3*5  ;  wing,  4*2  to  4*6  ;  tarsus,  0*7  to  0*8  ;  bill  from 
gape,  1*1  to  1*2  ;    weight,   1*  to  1*3  oz. 

Females. — Length,  7*79  to  8'62  ;  expanse,  13  to  15*8  ;  tail 
from  vent,  31  to  3*5  ;  wing,  4*15  to  4*7  ;  tarsus,  0*75  to  0*85  ; 
bill  from  gape,  1*13  to  1*2;  weight,  1*4  to  1*5  oz. 

In  both  sexes  the  legs  and  feet  are  plumbeous,  (darker  in 
the  male)  and  the  irides  yellowish  brown,  passing  to  wax 
yellow ;  the  claws  we  have  recorded  as  black  in  the  male 
and  plumbeous  in  the  female,  but  we  have  only  noticed 
this  in  three  specimens,  and  it  may  not  be  constant. 

In  the  male  the  bill  is  black ;  in  the  female  the  bill  is 
darker  or  lighter  horny  brown,  paler,  and  sometimes  pinkish,  at 
the  base. 

In  younger  birds  the  legs  and  feet  are  dirty  green  or  green- 
ish brown. 

In  the  adult  male,  the  lores,  a  line  above  and  below  the  eye, 
and  a  broad  streak  behind  the  eye,  enveloping  the  upper  portion 
of  the  ear-coverts,  are  velvet  black. 

In  the  females  these  parts  are  brown,  darker  behind  the  ear 
and  on  the  lores.  In  the  young  male  they  are  as  in  the 
female. 

Gularis  from  Sumatra  and  the  Straits  only  differs  in  its 
smaller  size,  greyer  back,  nearly  unicolorous  with  the  head, 
much  more  marked  grey,  pectoral  band,  and  purer  and  darker 
brown  tail  and  wing. 

A  fine  adult  female  shot  at  Johore  measured : — Length, 
7*35,  expanse,  12*75;  tail  from  vent,  3*0;  wing,  4*25;  tarsus* 
0*7  ;  bill  from  gape,  1*1  ;  and    weight,  1  oz. 

A  young  male  had  precisely  the  same  dimensions,  except 
that  the  wing  was  only  4*0.  It  had  the  legs  and  feet  pale 
lavender;  claws  and  lower  mandible  pale  horny  brown,  and 
the  upper  mandible  dark  brown. 

265. — Teplirodornis  ponticeriana,  Gm. 

Obtained  at  Tonghoo  by  Ramsay.  Not  observed  elsewhere 
as  yet  in  Tenasserim. 

266.— Muscitrea  grisola,  Blyth.  (5).  Descr.  S.  F.,  II, 
201;   V.,  101. 

Thatone ;  Eolan  Is. 

A  rare  visitant  to  the  proviuce ;  if  common  any  where,  only 
in  the  islands  of  the  Mergui  Archipelago. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  207 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  of  one  male  and  three 
females  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Male. — Length,  6  5  ;  expanse,  10  5;  tail  from  vent,  2 '9  ;  wing, 
3-5  ;  bill  from  gape,  08  ;  weight,  0"75  oz. 

Females. — Length,  6'12  to  66;  expanse,  10"2  to  10*5  j  tail 
from  vent,  2'5  to  2-75  ;  wing,  3*2  to  3-37;  tarsus,  0"76  to  0-8  ; 
bill  from  gape,  0'76  to  0'8 ;  weight,  just  over  0'75  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  dull  dirty  smalt;  claws  paler;  in  the  male  the 
bill  was  black ;  in  the  female  the  upper  mandible  was  pale  brown  ; 
the  lower  mandible  fleshy  brown,  in  one  pale  plumbeous ;  irides 
deep  brown  or  dark  red  brown. 

266  bis.— Muscifcrea  cyanea,  Hume.  (2).  Descr.  S.  F., 
V.,  101.     June  1877. 

Niltava  (!)  leucura,  Tweed.  A.  &  M.  N.  H.,  August  1877,  p.  95. 
(Taoo  5,000  ft.,  Limborg.)     Meetan. 

A  rare  straggler  to  the  forests  of  the  lower  eastern  hills,  pro- 
bably from  Siam. 

[This  is  eminently  a  forest  bird.  I  only  met  with  it  on  the 
lower  south-western  spurs  of  Mooleyit. 

I  only  saw  males  singly.  They  live  on  insects,  which  I  have 
once  or  twice  seen  them  seize  on  the  wing  like  Flycatchers. 
They  are  very  restless  birds,  and  move  about  through  the  trees 
constantly,  never  descending  to  the  ground.  When  resting  for 
a  moment  they  have  a  habit  of  rapidly  expanding  the  tail 
so  as  to  show  the  white  in  it,  much  as  Myiomela  leucura  does. 
I  did  not  hear  them  utter  any  note,  and  I  never  saw  a  female. — 
W.  D.] 

Although  the  Marquis  of  Tweeddale  has  called  his  bird  a  Nil* 
tava,  to  which  genus  the  species  cannot  possibly  be  assigned, 
(see  my  remarks  at  the  bottom  of  p.  103,  vol.  Y),  the  dimen- 
sions and  description  leave  no  doubt  that  his  bird  and  mine, 
both,  by  the  way,  collected  within  a  score  of  miles  of  each 
other,  are  identical. 

267. — Hemipus  picatus,  Syhes.  (18). 

{Tongfioo,  Karennee  at  1,500  feet,  Earns.)  Kyouk-nyat;  Pahpoon ;  Salween  R. » 
Myawadee ;   Meetan  ;  Amherst ;  Lemyne  ;  Tavoy ;  Bopyin  ;  Pakchan  ;  Bankasooir 

Generally  diffused  throughout  the  province,  but  nowhere 
very  abundant. 

[Generally  met  with  in  pairs  or  small  parties  of  four  to 
six  on  the  outskirts  of  forests,  or  in  thin  tree  jungle,  and  occa- 
sionally in  gardens    when  these  are  near  the  forest. 

They  are  rather  Flycatchers  than  Shrikes  in  their  habits,  mov- 
ing about,  no  doubt,  amongst  the  leaves  at  the  tops  of  trees  like 


208  BIRDS    OF   TENASSEIUM. 

the    Woodshrikes,  but     continually   darting-    out     and    seizing 
insects  on  the  wing  which  the  Woodshrikes  never,  I  think,  do. 

They  continually  call  to  each  other,  uttering  a  soft  sharp 
note.— W.  JD-] 

If  H.  capitalis,  McClelland,  H.  pic&color,  Hodgs.,  isreally  dis- 
tinct from  picahis,  the  distribution  of  the  two  species  is,  to  say  the 
least,  remarkable. 

Bly th  says  of  capitalis  that  it  li  is  larger  with  a  proportion- 
ately longer  tail  and  has  a  brown  back/'  As  regards  size  I  can 
discover  no  difference  between  specimens  from  Ceylon,  Anjango, 
and  typical  capitalis  from  Assam ;  but  I  notice  that,  whereas 
in  Southern  Indian  birds,  and  again  in  our  very  numerous  Tenas- 
serim  specimens,  almost  without  exception  birds  that  have  black 
heads  have  also  black  backs.  In  Assam,  Sikkim,  and  Kumaon  spe- 
cimens they  have  as  a  rule  brown  backs  ;  out  of  ten  males  from 
Darjeeling  one  only  has  the  back  jet  black  ;  two  have  the  backs 
mingled  black  and  very  dark  brown,  and  the  remaining  seven 
have  them  a  darker  or  lighter  shade  of  brown.  The  only  male  I 
have  from  Kumaon  has  the  back  a  very  light  brown.  It  seems 
difficult  to  suppose  that,  out  of  eleven  apparently  adult  birds, 
only  one  should  be  really  so.  On  the  other  hand  a  male  shot  iu 
the  OudhTeraihas  the  back  glossy  black,  and  so  have  two  males 
from  Commilla,  Tipperah.  Again  from  Assam  I  have  only  one 
male  from  Shillong,  and  that  has  the  back  brown,  a  little  inter-  ■ 
mingled  with  black  in  the  middle  of  the  back.  Again  I  have  two 
from  Suddya,  one  has  the  back  brown,  the  other  brown,  with  a 
decided  admixture  of  black.  From  Assam  and  the  Himalayas, 
therefore,  I  have  fourteen  males,  all  with  glossy  black  heads ;  of 
these,  only  one  has  a  glossy  black  back,  four  have  brown  backs, 
more  or  less  intermingled  with  black,  and  nine  have  brown  backs 
of  varying  shade  ;  thirteen  out  of  the  fourteen,  therefore,  must  be 
more  or  less  immature,  and  this  is  a  far  greater  proportion  of 
immature  birds  than  we  should  expect  to  procure  ;  unless,  indeed, 
we  suppose  that  the  majority  of  the  adult  males  do  assume  the 
black  backs. 

Though  I  have  at  present  apparently  in  my  museum  only  one 
fully  black-backed  male  from  Darjeeling,  I  have  had  others 
and  seen  several  others ;  still  the  specimens  we  have  are  prima 
facie  evidence  that  these  are  very  rare  at  Darjeeling  as  compared 
with  the  brown-backed  ones. 

Can  it  be  that  both  species  occur  in  the  Himalayas,  the  brown- 
backed  as  the  resident  one,  the  black-backed  as  a  straggler  from 
below  (the  birds  from  the  Oudh  Terai,  it  will  be  remembered,  has 
ajet  black  back)  ? 

Or  is  it  a  case  similar  to  that  of  lora  typhia  already  fully  dis- 
cussed, S.  F.,  V.,  428,  et  seq.}  in  which  in  one  part  of  the  couutry 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  209 

the   males   always  assume    a   more   or   less  black    upper    plu- 
mage, and  in  other  localities  very  rarely  ? 

Unfortunately,  I  do  not  possess  a  sufficient  series  of  specimens 
to  decide  the  point,  but  I  will  note  the  species  now  for  special 
observation,  and  shall  hope  to  be  able  to  settle  the  question  be- 
fore very  long. 

267  bis. — Hemipus  obscurus,  Horsf. 

Blyth  records  this  species  from  Mergui  (B.  of  B.,  p.  122),  I 
know  not  on  what  authority  ;  and,  as  the  neighbourhood  of 
Mergui  and  the  whole  country  south  of  this  has  been  exhaust- 
ively worked  fcr  years  by  Davison,  and  when  he  was  elsewhere, 
by  some  of  his  assistants  without  its  ever  being  obtained  or  seen, 
I  now  consider  the  occurrence  of  this  species  within  our  limits 
very  doubtful. 

However  in  case  it  should  occur,  I  append  dimensions  and 
description  taken  from  specimens  collected  by  Davison  in  the 
Malay  Peninsula :  — 

Males. — Length,  5*62  to  5 -75  ;  expanse,  8-62  ;  tail  from  vent, 
2-25  j  wing,  2-5  to  2-7;  tarsus,  0*45;  bill  from  gape,  075  to 
0*85  ;  weight,  nearly  0*5  oz. 

Females. — Length,  5-35  to  5*8;  expanse,  8*75  ;  tail  from  vent, 
2*12  to  2-5;  wing,  2'65  ;  tarsus,  045  to  0-5  ;  bill  from  gape,  08 
to  0-85. 

The  legs  and  feet  are  dark  purplish  brown  to  black ;  bill 
black  in  the  male  ;  paler,  especially  on  the  lower  mandible,  in  the 
female  ;     irides  dark  brown. 

The  male  has  all  but  the  longest  upper  tail-coverts  and  the 
tips  of  the  posterior  rump  feathers,  chin  and  throat,  lower 
abdomen,  vent  and  lower  tail-coverts,  pure  white ;  top  and  sides 
of  the  head  and  neck,  and  the  rest  of  the  upper  plumage,  in- 
cluding wings  and  tail,  glossy  black,  with  more  or  less  of  a  dull 
greenish  reflection ;  breast  and  upper  abdomen    brownish  grey. 

The  female  differs  in  having  the  black  of  the  male  every- 
where replaced  by  a  more  or  less  dark  brown. 

The  outer  web  of  the  exterior  tail  feather  is  in  some  specimens 
entirely  white,  in  others  narrowly  edged  with  white;  sometimes 
there  is  barely  a  trace  of  this,  and  sometimes  the  inner  webs 
of  the  outer  tail  feathers  are  also  margined  with  white. 

This  species  differs  from  picatus  in  its  larger  bill,  absence  of 
white  on  collar  and  on  wings,  by  the  want  of  the  conspicuous 
white  tippings  to  the  lateral  tail  feathers,  and  by  the  more 
pronounced  and  much  darker  pectoral  band. 

268  bis.— Volvocivora   avensis,  Blyth.   (2).  Descr. 
S.  E.,  III.,  93. 

Kaukaryit,  Houngthraw  E.  j  Moulmein. 

27 


210  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

A  rare  straggler  to  the  dry  portions  of  Central  Tenasserim . 

268  quat.— Volvocivora  neglecta,  Hume.  (15).  Descr. 
S.  F.,  V.,  203. 

Mergui ;  Tenasserim  Town  ;  Pakchan  ;   Bankasoon  ;   Malewoon. 

Confined  to  the  more  southern  portions  of  the  province, 
where  it  replaces  intermedia. 

269  Ms. — Volvocivora     intermedia,    Hume.  (28). 
Descr.  S.  E.,  V.;  205. 

Pine  forests,  Salween  ;  Kollidoo  ;  Kyouk-nynt ;  Pabpoon  :  Salween  Pv.  j 
Khyketo ;  Wimpong ;  Moulraein  ;  Pabyouk  ;  Yea-boo;  Mooleyit ;  Meetan  ; 
Quanlah ;  Amherst;  Yea;  Zadee ;  Mergui. 

Very  common  throughout  the  province,  except  south  of  Mergui, 
where  it  is  replaced  by  neglecta. 

[The  habits  and  voice  (which  by  the  way  one  seldom  hears, 
as  they  are  very  silent  birds)  of  all  these  Volvocivoras  are 
much  the  same. 

I  have  found  them  in  the  densest  forests,  in  thin  jungle,  in 
gardens,  in  fact,  wherever  there  were  trees.  They  are  usually 
met  with  singly,  never  in  parties ;  rarely  I  have  seen  a  pair 
together.  They  never  descend  to  the  ground  to  feed  ;  but  if  you 
are  sitting  about  mid-day  near  a  stream,  you  are  sure  to  see  two 
or  three  of  these  birds  come  down  to  bathe  and  drink.  As 
indeed  do  all  the  Bulbuls  and  Malacopterons,  and  scores  of 
others.  When  feeding,  they  hunt  about  the  leaves  and 
branches,  occasionally  seizing  insects  on  the  wing. — W.  D.] 

270— Graucalus  macii,  Less.  (33). 

(Tonc/hoo  Hills,  Karennee,  from  2,500  to  4,000  feet,  Earns.)  Kollidoo ; 
Pabpoon  ;  Thatone  ;  Kuukaryit,  Houngthraw  E..  ;  Mouhnein  ;  Pabyouk ;  Ka- 
rope  ;  Amherst ;  Tavoy  ;  Sbymotee  ;  Tenasserim  Town  ;  Pakchan. 

Generally  distributed  throughout  the  less  densely  wooded  por- 
tions of  the  province. 

[Although  occurring  throughout  the  province,  this  species 
is  very  rare  indeed  in  the  extreme  south.  From  Tavoy  north- 
wards it  is  comparatively  common,  keeping  to  the  thinner  por- 
tions of  the  forest,  and  occasionally  venturing  into  gardens. 
It  has  a  fine  whistling  call,  uttered  chiefly  as  it  flies  from  tree 
to  tree,  but  occasionally  when  seated.  It  is  never  seen  in 
parties,  usually  singly,  sometimes  in  pairs.  It  is  generally 
seen  quietly  seated,  not  threading  through  the  branches  like 
Volvocivora,  nor  capturing  insects  on  the  wing.  In  fact,  while 
it  undoubtledly  does  live  on  insects,  I  am  rather  puzzled  as  to 
how    it    gets  them,  and  I  have  seen  and  watched  hundreds 


BIRDS   OF  TBNASSEEIM.  211 

not  only  in  Tenasserim,  but  also  in  the  Andamans,  where  they 
are  extremely  abundant. — W.  D.] 

271  ter.— Pericrocotus elegans,  Mc.Clell.  (20).  Descr. 
S.  F.,  III.,  95  ;  V.,  194. 

(Tonglioo,  Karennee,  Rams.)  East  Karennee ;  Kyouk-nyat ;  Pahpoon ; 
Tkoungsheyen  Sakan ;  Kaukaryit,  Houngthraw  R.  ;  E.-poo  5  Moulmein ; 
Pabyouk  ;  Meetan  ;  Lemyne ;  Malewoon. 

Pretty  common  in  the  northern  and  central  sections  of  the 
province,  but  very  rare  in  the  southern. 

[From  the  Karennee  frontier  in  the  north  to  Tavoy  this  spe- 
cies is  not  uncommon,  occurring  in  all  the  well-wooded  portions 
of  the  country  in  small  flocks,  or  sometimes  in  pairs.  I  have 
occasionally  met  with  them  in  well-wooded  gardens. 

All  the  species  of  Pericrocoti  have  the  same  habits  and  much 
the  same  note ;  going  about  in  small  flocks,  usually  amongst 
the  tops  of  trees,  they  hunt  for  insects,  which  they  not  unfre- 
quently  seize  on  the  wing ;  they  keep  much  together  and  are 
usually  very  active. 

I  have  at  times  in  the  case  of  this  and  other  species  met  with 
parties  composed  entirely  of  males  or  females,  but  usually  the 
flocks  contain  both  sexes  in  about  equal  proportions. — W.  I).] 

273.— Pericrocotus  brevirostris,  Vig.  (l). 

{Karennee  at  3,000  feet,  Rama.)     Pine  forests,  Sal  ween. 
A  single  imperfect  specimen,  which  may  possibly  belong  to 
neglectus,  as  indeed  may,  not  improbably,  Ramsay's  specimens. 

273  Us.—  Pericrocotus  igneus,  Blyth.  (3).   Descr. 
S.  F.,  V.,  190. 

Choungthanoung  ;  Pakchan;  .^ 

Confined  to  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Pakchan. 

273  ter.— Pericrocotus  neglectus,  Hume.  (2).  Descr. 
S.  F.,  V.,  771, 189.  _ 

Mooleyit ;  Meetan- 

Confined  apparently  to  the  hill  forests  of  the  central  portion 
of  the  province. 

273  quat.—  Pericrocotus  flammifer,  Hume.  (U).Desgr. 
S.  F.  III.,  321  n.,  and  V.,  195. 

Pakchan ;  Bankasoon. 

Common  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Pakchan ;   but   not  yet 
observed  further  north. 


212  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

Since  my  article  on  the  Pericrocoti  was  written  S.  F.,  V.,  195, 
I  have  received  12  more  specimens  of  this  species  correspond- 
ing- entirely  with  the  original  specimens,  and  fully  confirming,  if 
this  was  necessary,  the  distinctness  of  the  species.  The  wings 
of  7  adult  males  are  3-49;  3-5;  3  5  ;  36;  3.5;  3*52  ;  347.  Of  a 
young  male  3-42  ;  this  is  just  changing  from  the  yellow  to  the 
red  plumage,  and  accordingly  a  narrow  line  of  red  is  just  begin- 
ing  to  show  on  the  outer  web  of  the  fourth  primary.  The  wings 
of  four  females  are  355  ;  3'3  ;  3'4  ;  3'5. 

These  taken  with  the  dimensions  previously  given  at  page  196, 
males,  3-5  ;  3*47  ;  females  3"35  ;  3*42  ;  sixteen  specimens  in  all, 
suffice  to  show  the  limits  within  which  the  species  varies.  In  all 
the  specimens,  the  first  three  primaries  in  the  adult  male,  and  the 
first  four  in  the  adult  female  lack  the  bright  colored  patch. 

274.— Pericrocotus  Solaris,  Blyth.  (5).  S.  F.,  V.,  186. 

[Thatone  ;  Paraduba  ;  Mooleyit. 

Only  observed  at  the  base  and  on  the  slopes  of  Mooleyit  and 
near  Thatone. 

275.— Pericrocotus  roseus,  Vieill.  (15).  S.  F.,  V.,  184. 

{Tonghoo,  Earns.)  Pahpoon  ;  Salween  R.  ;  Beeling  ;  Kaukaryit,  Houngthraw  E. ; 
Amherst;   Mergui. 

Occurs  everywhere  throughout  the  province  in  suitable  localities 
except  south  of  Mergui,  but  is  nowhere  very  abundant. 

276.— Pericrocotus  peregrinus,  Lin.  (10).  S.  F.,  I., 
178;  V.,  179. 

{Tonghoo,  Lloyd  ;  Karennee,  Earns.)  Thatone ;  Pabyouk  ;  Yea-boo  ;  Amherst ; 
Sadyin. 

Irregularly  distributed  (in  Tenasserim  proper  chiefly  near  the 
coast),  and  by  no  means  common. 

[I  have  noticed  both  in  Tenasserim  and  the  Andamans  that 
this  species  is  specially  partial  to  mangrove  swamps,  in  which 
I  have  never  once  seen  a  specimen  of  any  of  the  other  species. — 
W.  D.J 

277  Us. — Pericrocotus  albifrons,  Jerd.  Descr.  S.  F., 
III.,  96. 

Procured  at  Tonghoo  by  Major  Lloyd.  Not  yet  observed  else- 
where in  Tenasserim. 

277  ter—  Pericrocotus  ?  cinereus,  Lafres.  (8),  ?— mo- 
destus,  S trick.  ? — immodestus,  Hume.  Descr.  S.  F., 
V.,  175-7. 

Mergui ;  Hankachin  ;  Baakasoon. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  213 

Not  uncommon  in  the  southernmost  district  of  the  province. 

[Within  our  limits  from  Mergui  southwards  to  the  Pakchan, 
this  was  not  an  uncommon  species,  though  not  very  abundant. 
In  its  habits,  &c,  it  resembles  the  other  species  of  the  genus, 
but  is  perhaps  more  often  met  with  in  scrub  jungle  than  in  the 
forests.— W.  D.] 

278.— Buchanga  atra,  Herm,  (18). 

(Tonghoo,  Karennee,  Rams.)  Moulmein  ;  Amherst ;  Taroy  ;  Mergui ;  Pakchan  ; 
Malewoon. 

Apparently  does  not  occur  east  of  the  Sittang  ;  south  of  Moul- 
mein  it  is  not  rare,  and  extends  to  the  Pakchan. 

[This  Drongo  was  most  numerous  about  gardens  in  both 
towns  and  villages,  and  numbers  might  always  be  seen  in  the 
extensive  ground  attached  to  Salween  House,  Moulmein — • 
W.  D.] 

I  quite  agree  with  Mr.  Sharpe  that  the  various  races  of 
this  type  of  Black  King  Crow  so  grade  into  each  other  that 
it  is  inexpedient  to  make  more  than  one  species  out  of  them. 

279.— Dicrurus  annectans,  Hodgs.  (20). 

Shymoteej   Mergui;   Tenasserim  Town ;   Palaw-ton-ton ;  Bankasoon;   Male- 


woon. 


Confined  to  the  southern  third  of  the  province,  and  here  not 
uncommon. 

280.— Buchanga  longicaudata,  Hay.  (21). 

Moulmein  ;  Yea-boo  ;  Amherst ;  Tavoy  ;  Me'gui. 

Met  with  throughout  the  province  and  not  rare. 

Mr  Sharpe,  in  his  admirable  Catalogue,  Vol.  III.,  250, 
remarks  : — "  Mr  Hume  would  unite  B.  pyrrhops  and  B.  inter- 
media to  B.  longicaudata,  as  he  has  examples  of  all  three  forms 
from  Dacca.  Although  it  is  possible  that  at  Dacca  the  ranges 
of  these  races  may  coalesce,  I  agree  with  Lord  Tweeddale  that 
they  should  not  be  specifically  united." 

Now  I  must  first  point  out  that  Mr.  Sharpe  is  here  using 
intermedia  of  Blyth  as  synonymous  with  Zeucophaa,  Vieillot, 
cineracea  of  Horsfield. 

I,  however,  judging  both  from  the  relics  of  the  type  and  the 
description,  considered  intermedia,  Blyth,  to  be  simply  a  small 
specimen  of  the  race  designated  pyrrhops  by  Hodgson,  and 
this  apparently  was  the  view  subsequently  taken  by  Lord 
Walden  (Birds  of  Burma,  extra  No.  J.  A.  S.  B.,  1875,  p.  130), 
when  he  says  of  pyrrhops  : — "  In  coloration  they  do  not  differ 
from  B.  intermedia,  but  their  dimensions  are  considerably 
larger/' 


214  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

Cineracea,  or  leucophcea,  the  Grey  Drongo  of  Malayana,  of 
which  we  have  a  very  large  series,  differs  very  markedly  in 
color  from  pyrrhops,  being  very  much  paler  and  greyer,  and 
indeed  in  some  old  specimens  making-  a  decided  approach 
towards  the  coloration  of  leucogenys,  though  always  distin- 
guishable from  even  the  young  of  that  species  by  its  black 
lores. 

Certainly/ 1  have  never  ventured  to  question  the  distinctness 
of  this  species.  The  two  races,  whose  specific  distinctness  I 
have  doubted,  are  the  larger  and  smaller  forms  which  both  lie 
intermediate  in  color  between  cineracea  and  longicaudata. 

Mr.  Sharpe  does  not  give  longicaudata  from  Burma,  but 
as  will  have  been  seen  above,  we  have  obtained  this  species 
in  numerous  locatities.  And  here  I  must  explain  thab 
whatever  my  own  views  may  be  on  the  subject,  I  have, 
in  deference  to  Mr.  Sharpe's  opinion,  entered  under  longi- 
caudata only  absolutely  typical  specimens.  I  took  Madras  and 
Southern  Indian  birds  as  typical  longicaudata,  and  then  I  turned 
out  of  my  supposed  Tenasserim  longicaudata  every  specimen 
that  I  could  not  precisely  match  with  Southern  Indian  speci- 
mens. I  did  not  even  allow  myself  to  include  in  the  com- 
parison Northern  Indian  specimens,  as  I  find  that  many  of 
these  are  slightly  paler  in  color  then  the  Southern  Indian  birds, 
and  not  unfrequently  have  a  faint  greyish  tinge  on  the  mar- 
gins of  the  tail  feathers  towards  their  bases  ;  not  a  well-marked 
grey  shade  as  in  typical  pyrrhops,  but  a  sort  of  representative 
indication  of  this. 

All  the  specimens  entered  by  me  as  longicaudata  are  truly 
identical  with  Southern  Indian  birds,  while  all  the  intermediate 
forms,  which  resemble  the  Northern  Indian  birds,  referred  to, 
have  been  entered  under  pyrrhops  in  the  sub-division  non- 
typical. 

Conceding  at  once  that  the  large  typical  pyrrhops  with  the 
strong  grey  shade  on  the  tail,  and  much  paler  underparts  and  some- 
what paler  upper  surface,  is  a  very  different-looking  bird  to  longi- 
caudata, I  yet  submit  that  throughout  Tenasserim,  Burma,  East- 
ern Bengal  and  Sikim,  innumerable  specimens  occur  intermedi- 
ate between  these  two  forms,  and  that  to  me,  therefore,  it  seems 
doubtful  whether  they  can  be  properly  considered  distinct 
species. 

Amongst  the  specimens  which  I  have  entered  as  non-typical 
are  specimens  that  only  differ  from  longicaudata  of  Southern 
India  in  having  in  certain  lights  a  just  perceptible  greyish  shade 
on  the  extreme  outer  edges  of  the  tail  feathers  towards  their 
bases,  and  between  these  incipient  pyrrhops,  and  the  fully  de- 
veloped form,  every  possible  intermediate  gradation  of  coloration 
occurs. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSEMM.  215 

On  the  other  band  the  specimens  that  I  recognize  as  belong- 
ing to  cineracea  are  unmistakably  distinct,  and  would  be  picked 
out  by  a  novice  without  a  moment's   hesitation. 

I  find  no  intermediate  forms  between  these  and  pyrrhops.  Bu~ 
changa  longicaudata  of  Southern  India  grades  by  absolutely 
insensible  degrees  into  pyrrhops,  but  pyrrhops  does  not  grade 
into  leucophcea,  or  as  Mr.  Sharpe  calls  it,  cineracea. 

This  being  understood,  there  is  no  objection  to  retaining  pyrr- 
hops as  a  sub-species,  but  it  should,  I  think,  be  placed  under  longi- 
caudata, and  not  under  cineracea. 

I  note  that  in  my  opinion  intermedia  of  Blyth  is  identical 
with  pyrrhops,  rather  than  with  cineracea ;  and  I  also  remark 
that  long  and  short-winged  birds  of  the  pyrrhops  type  co-exist 
everywhere,  and  that  it  is  impossible  in  this  sub-species  to  make 
any  second  division  founded  on  dimensions. 

Cineracea  comes  up,  absolutely  unchanged,  from  the  extreme 
south  of  the  Malayan  Peninsula,  keeping  however  to  the  hills  or 
near  to  their  bases,  to  the  extreme  northern  extremity  of  Tenas- 
serim  at  Kollidoo.  I  have  seen  no  specimens  of  this  as  yet 
from  Pegu,  Arracan,  or  Eastern  Bengal. 

The  most  typical  examples  of  pyrrhops  that  I  have  seen  have 
been  from  the  Sikim  Terai,  Bootan  Doars,  Dacca,  and  Lower 
Pegu  ;  but  the  form  exists  as  a  recognizable  race  throughout 
Eastern  Bengal,  the  whole  of  British  Burma,  and  the  greater 
portion,  I  believe,  of  the  western  part  at  any  rate  of  the  Malay 
Peninsula ;  and  wherever  it  occurs,  both  large  and  small  speci- 
mens are  found,  and  along  with  these  occur  typical  longicau- 
data, and  numerous  forms,  more  or  less  intermediate  between 
longicaudata  and  pyrrhops. 

In  Southern  India  only  typical  longicaudata  as  a  rule  occurs, 
though  I  have  one  specimen  from  Travancore  with  a  great  deal 
of  grey  on  the  sides  of  the  tail  feathers,  and  with  a  somewhat 
paler  tone  of  plumage ;  but  in  Upper  India,  and  especially  in  the 
Himalayas,  distinctly  intermediate  forms  occur;  and  it  was  to 
one  of  these,  according  to  the  type  in  Col.  Ty  tier's  Museum,  that 
the  late  Capt.  Beavan  applied  the  name  of  waldeni. 

I  may  add  that  it  was  to  another  of  these  intermediate  forms 
that  Tytler  applied  his  name  of  himalayensis,  which  is  therefore 
a  synonym  of  longicaudata  or  pyrrhops  (though  the  type,  which 
I  have,  is  nearer  the  former)  but  under  no  circumstances  of 
atra  (or  albirictus)  as  Mr.  Sharpe  makes  it,  Cat.  III.,  p.  246. 

I  have  never  seen  specimens  of  the  Javan  form,  to  which 
the  name  leucophcea,  of  Vieillot,  applies,  nor  can  1  discover 
where  Mr.  Sharpe  assigns  this  name  in  his  Catalogue. 

Lord  Walden,  loc.  cit.  sup.,  seems  to  considerit  as  only  differing 
in  size  from  pyrrhops,  in  which  case  this  name  would  have  prece- 
dence both  of  pyrrhops,  and  if  I  am  correct  in  uniting  intermedia 


216  BIRDS    OF    TENASSERIM. 

with  this,  of  Blyth's  name  also ;  but  I  had  considered,  judging1 
from  pi.  170  of  Le  Vailliant's  Oiseaux  d'  Afrique,  that  leucophaea, 
Vieill.,  founded  on  this  plate,*  was  identical  with  cineracea,  Hors- 
field. 

Anyhow  it  will  tend  to  explain  what  I  have  said  above  to 
state  that  Le  Vailliant's  plate  above  referred  to  represents  by  no 
means  badly  as  Le  Vailliant's  plates  go,  the  species  that  I  have 
above  identified  as  leucophaa,  Vieill.,  cineracea  of  Horsfield.  It 
wants  the  dark  lores,  but  the  general  colour  and  shape  of  tail  are 
tolerably  close ;  quite  as  much  so  as  his  representations  usually 
are. 

280  bis.— Buchanga  pyrrhops,  Hodgs.  (Typical,  8, 
non-typical,  8.) 

Kollidoo  ;  Pahpoon  ;  Wimpong  ;  Monlmein  ;  Pabyouk ;  Yea-boo  ;  Assoon  ; 
Amherst  ;  Yea ;  Malewoon. 

Occurs,  though  nowhere  very  abundant,  throughout  the  pro- 
vince. 

I  have  already  dealt  with  this  sub-species  when  treating  of 
longicaudata. 

280  ter.— Buchanga  leucophaea,  Vieill.  (14). 

Kollidoo  ;  Kyouk-nyat ;  Pahpoon  ;  Thatone  ;  Tenasserim  Town  ;  Malewoon. 

Occurs  but  very  sparingly  throughout  the  province. 

This  species  also  I  have  fully  discussed  under  longicaudata. 

280  quat.— Buchanga  leucogenys,   Wald.  (36).  Juv. 
Descb.  S.  P.,  II.,  210. 

Mergui ;  Patoe  Is.  ;  Tenasserim  Town  ;  Bopyin  ;  Pakchan  ;  Palaw-tou-ton  ; 
Bankasoon ;  Malewoon. 

Confined  to  the  southernmost  district  of  the  Province,  but 
there  most  abundant. 

[I  first  met  with  this  species  on  the  Island  of  Mergui,  and 
both  there  and  thence  to  the  southern  limit  of  our  territory  I 
found  it  very  abundant. 

This  is  much  more  of  a  forest  species  than  any  of  the  other 
King  Crows,  but  it  also  occurs  in  clearings,  and  occasionally  in 
gardens. 

Its  note  and  habits  are  much  the  same  as  that  of  the  other 
species,  and  like  them  it  is  fond  of  perching  on  the  top  of  some 

*  No  doubt,  Le  Vailliant  says,  Le  Drongri  is  from  Ceylon,  but  then  he  gives  the 
very  next  species,  Drongri  a  ventre  Blanc,  as  from  Java,  and  as  Sundeval  points 
out  this  is  not  impossibly  from  Ceylon,  and  the  localities  of  the  two  may  have 
been  transposed.  This  latter  species,  however,  is  not  the  young  of  leucopygialis, 
which  has  less  white,  Hr.ldsworth  says,  than  the  adult ;  but  it  may  be  the  young 
of  ccsrulescens,  incorrectly  represented. 


BIRDS    OF    TENASSERIM.  217 

dead  tree,  or  other  commanding  station,  from  which  it  constantly 
makes  short  sallies  after  passing-  insects,  It  is  always  seen  sin- 
gly.-W.  D.J 

The  following-  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males.—Length,  10*5  to  115 ;  expanse,  16"12  to  175; 
tail  from  vent,  5*4  to  5-9;  wing,  5-36  to  5'8;  tarsus,  0-65  to 
0-75;  bill  from  gape,  I'l  to  1*15;  weight,  1-34  to  1*75  oz. 

Females.— Length,  10*12  to  11-0;  expanse,  16-5  to  16-75 ; 
tail  from  vent,  4-82  to  5'62;  wing,  5'45  to  5'62;  tarsus,  063 
to  0-75  ;  bill  from  gape,  1*1  to  115  ;  weight,  1*45  to  1*5  oz. 

Legs,  feet,  claws,  bill,  and  eyelids  black ;  hides  pale  lake  to 
crimson. 

Lores,  eyelid  feathers,  a  line  above  and  below  the  eye,  and  a 
broad  patch  behind  the  eye  silky  white  ;  a  narrow  frontal  band 
black ;  crown,  back  and  sides  of  the  neck,  and  the  whole  of  the 
rest  of  the  upper  surface,  (except  the  first  and  second  primaries 
and  the  tips  of  the  later  ones,  and  the  outer  webs  of  the  outer 
tail  feathers,  which  are  black  or  blackish  dusky,  and  the  shafts  of 
the  tail  feathers  and  quills  which  are  brown),  a  beautiful  clear 
pale  blue  grey  ;  a  little  darker  and  bluer  on  the  crown,  where 
there  are  faint  traces  of  reflections,  and  paler  and  clearer  on 
the  tail  and  wings  ;  extreme  point  of  the  chin,  and  feathers  at 
the  base  of  the  lower  mandible,  just  in  front  of  the  gape, 
dusky  ;  the  rest  of  the  lower  parts  the  same  delicate  pale 
grey,  becoming  almost  white  on  the  middle  of  the  abdomen  j 
flanks  and  lower  tail-coverts,  axillaries  and  wing-lining  pure 
white,  with  the  faintest  possible  grey  tinge. 

Younger  birds  are  darker  coloured  both  above  and  below ; 
in  fact,  have  more  of  a  plumbeous  shade  on  the  upper  surface. 
They  want  the  white  ear  patch,  but  the  lores,  even  in  the 
youngest  birds  that  I  have  seen,  were  still  sordid  white,  by 
which  they  are  distinguished  at  once  from  what  I  take  to  be  the 
true  cineracea  of  Horsfield,  which  has  dusky  or  black  lores. 

The  young  birds  of  this  present  species  were  described  by 
Blyth  under  the  name  of  cineracea,  and  his  description  will  be 
found,  S.  F.,  II,  210  n. 

When  writing  the  note  referred  to,  I  said  that  cineracea, 
Horsfield,  was  probably  the  same  species,  but  I  now  know  that 
there  is  quite  a  distinct,  extremely  light  grey,  species,  leucophaa, 
which  was  probably  Horsfield's  bird,  and  to  which  I  have 
referred  more  in  detail  when  dealing  with  B.  longicaudala. 

282.— Chaptia  senea,  Vieill.  (25). 

{Tongfioo,  Karen  Hills,  Karennee,  Rams.)  Pahpoon ;  Tlieinzeik ;  Tbatone ; 
Moulmein  ;  Meetan  ;  Letet  ;  Amherst ;  Yea  ;  Meeta  Myo  ;  Tavoy. 

If  distinct  from  the  next,  confined  to  the  northern  and  central 
sections  of  the  province. 

28 


218  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

282  bis.— Chaptia  malayensis,  Blyth.  (8). 

Amherst,  Meeta  Myo  ;  Pabyin  ;  Pukchan  ;  Bankasoon. 

If  distinct  from  the  preceding,  whose  range  it  overlaps,  con- 
fined to  the  southern  half  of  the  province. 

Although  specimens  from  Malacca  on  the  one  hand,  and  Sikirn 
or  the  Nilgheris  on  the  other,  are  readily  separable,  the 
Malayan  bird  being  brighter  and  somewhat  smaller,  and  the 
Indian  birds  being  somewhat  larger,  with  a  perceptible  grey 
dulness  on  the  rump,  and  grey  tinge  on  the  abdomen,  still  in 
Tenasserim,  forms  so  entirely  intermediate  occur  that  I  for  one 
have  considerable  doubts  as  to  the  real  value  of  these  two 
generally  accepted  species.  Under  the  present  species  I  have 
entered  only  those  specimens  in  which  the  abdomen  is  black, 
and  the  glittering  feathers  continue  unbroken  over  back,  rump 
and  upper  tail-coverts.  Under  cenea  I  have  entered  not  only  those 
specimens  from  Northern  Tenasserim,  which  agree  fairly  well 
with  Indian  examples,  but  also  the  more  or  less  intermediate 
forms  which  occur  in  Central  Tenasserim. 

^jEnea,  as  above  defined,  does  not  occur  at  or  south  of  Mergui ; 
both  forms  occur  at  Tavoy,  Meeta  Myo,  Amherst,  but  the  Ma- 
layan form  does  not  appear  to  get  north  of  this.  More  or  less 
intermediate  forms  seem  to  occur,  so  far  as  we  can  judge,  every- 
where from  Moulmein  southwards  to  some  point  intermediate 
between  Tavoy  and  Mergui. 

283.— Bhringa  remifer,  Tem.  (8). 

(Totiffhoo,  Karen  Hills,  Bams.)  Pahpoon ;  Kaukaryifc,  Houngthraw  R.  ; 
Mooleyit ;  Amherst. 

Sparingly  distributed  throughout  the  province,  but  only  as  far 
south  as  Amherst.     Rarer  even  in  the  plains  than  in  the  hills. 

This  is  of  course  purely  a  forest  species,  never  coming  into 
gardens  or  cultivated  lands  ;  moving  about  singly  and  catching 
insects  on  the  wing  like  other  Drongo  Shrikes,  turning  rapidly 
and  returning  to  the  same  perch.  It  is  very  odd  to  see  this 
bird,  as  we  both  often  have,  passing  high  over  head.  You  see 
the  black  bird  and  apparently  two  large  black  bees  steadily 
pursuing  it,  never  losing,  never  gaining  ground,  always  main- 
taining the  same  relative  position. 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males. — Length,  10*1  to  10'5,  to  end  of  central  tail  feathers  ; 
24  0  to  end  of  long  lateral  feathers;  expanse,  16'25  to  17-0  ; 
tail  from  vent,  4-9  to  5-72,  to  end  of  central  tail  feathers ;  wing, 
5*25  to  5*6  ;  tarsus,  0'6  ;  bill  from  gape,  U9  to  1*15  ;  weight,  2  oz. 

Bill,  legs,  feet  and  claws  black ;  irides  deep  brown. 

284— Dissemurus  malabaroides,  Hodgs.  (l). 

Kollidoo. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  210 

Gut  of  the  enormous  series  of  Dissemuri  which  we  have  col- 
lected, only  one  single  specimen  from  Kollidoo,  the  northernmost 
point  of  Tenasserim  (excluding  Tonghoo,  Karen  nee,  &c),  is  refer- 
able to  the  Northern  Nepalese  and  Sikim  long-crested  long- 
winged  form  christened  malabaroides  by  Hodgson.  This  speci- 
men has  the  wing  69,  and  the  longest  crest  feathers  195  inches 
in  length,  and  must  I  think  be  referred  as  above. 

285  bis.— Dissemurus  paradiseus,  Lin.  (82). 

(Karennee,  Tonghoo,  Rams.)  Pahpoon  ;  Sittang  R. ;  Thatone ;  Wimpong  ;  Monl- 
mein  ;  Pabyouk  ;  Yea-boo  ;  Karope;  Amherst;  Yea  5  MeetaMjo ;  Tavoy ;  Thajet- 
choung;  S&jmofcee  ;  Mergui;  Tenasserim  Town  ;  Pakckan  ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Common  throughout  the  province,  alike  in  hills  and  plains. 

[Very  common  throughout  Tenasserim,  frequenting  chiefly  the 
forests,  but  occurring  also  in  gardens,  scrub  jungle,  &c. 

The  variety  of  notes,  and  the  power  of  imitating  the  notes  of 
other  birds,  that  this  species  possesses  is  perfectly  marvellous. 
Its  normal  note  is  a  harsh  metallic  one,  but  there  is  scarce- 
ly a  single  note  heard  in  the  forests  that  it  does  not  imitate 
to  perfection.  I  have  heard  it  take  off  Garrulax  belangeri,  so  that 
I  am  sure  the  birds  themselves  would  not  have  detected  the  im- 
posture. These  Babbling  Thrushes  by  the  way  always  associate 
with  other  kindred  species  in  large  flocks,  hunting  straight  on  end 
right  through  the  forest,  and  you  will  invariably  find  two  or  more 
of  the  Dissemuri  following  or   accompanying  each  such  flock. 

Whenever  there  is  a  flight  of  white-ants,  you  are  sure  to  see 
numbers  of  these  Rocket-tailed  Drongos  hawking  them,  till  it  is 
quite  dark,  in  company  with  Rollers,  Night  Jars  and  other  birds. 

They  are  very  bold  birds,  not  in  the  least  afraid  of  men  or 
guns,  and  could  be  shot  by  hundreds. — W.  D.] 

In  Tenasserim  proper  the  present  species  commences  from 
Pahpoon,  only  some  40  or  50  miles  south  of  Kollidoo.  No  doubt, 
some  of  the  Pahpoon  birds  average  rather  larger  and  have  rather 
longer  crests,  but  they  are  much  nearer  paradiseus  than  mala- 
baroides. Further  north  in  Tonghoo  and  Karennee,  this  preseut 
species  {vide  Lord  Tweeddale)  also  occurs. 

Commencing  now  at  Pahpoon,  and  travelling  southward  to  the 
Pakchan  Estuary,  the  southern  boundary  of  Tenasserim,  we  ob- 
serve no  important  variation  in  size  till  we  reach  Mergui.  There 
is  perhaps  a  slight  diminution  in  size,  and  certainly  an  appreci- 
able decrease  in  the  length  and  amount  of  crest,  as  we  proceed 
southwards,  but  it  is  not  until  we  get  to  Mergui  that  any  very 
marked  chauge  in  these  respects  is  observable. 

To  show  the  decrease  in  size,  I  subjoin  measurements  of  the 
wings  of  adults  from  north  to  south  : — 

Pahpoon,  6-5  ;  6'2  ;  6-4  ;  5  8;  6-5  ;  62  ;  6-2 ;  6-4  ;  6'2  J  61  ;  6-1  ; 
(H. 


220  BIRDS   OP   TENASSERIM. 

Sittang  River,  near  Guaybenzike  Channel,  6*4 ; 
Thatone,  6*3. 

Wimpong,  6-27 ;  6;  6'2  ;  6*6;  62  ;  frG. 
Moulmein,  5'85  j  6-2  ;  6-25. 
Yea-boo,  Attaran  R.,  6'3. 
Pabyouk,  Attaran  R.,  6-25. 

Amherst,  6-45,  5*6  \  6-4  ;  6-3  \  6-3  ;  6'6  ;  6'3 ;  62  ;   5'9  ;  5"9  ; 
6-2. 

Karope,  6  "4  ;  61. 
Yea  6"2. 

Tavoy,  6-0  ;  6-0  ;  6'27  ;  6-0  ;  6-1 ;  61 ;  60  ;  6-0  ;  6-25  ;  5*8  ; 
6-1;  6-1. 

(Hills)  Meeta  My o,  6-4;  5-9;  6-1. 
Shymootee,  6' 15. 

Tenasserim  Town,  6"3 ;  6'3;  5*95. 
Mergui,  5-8 ;  5-85. 

Pakchan,  5-8;  5'9 ;  5'85;  5/8;  577;  5-8. 
I  add  for  purposes  of  comparison  the  dimensions  of  a  few  spe- 
cimens from  the  south  of  the  Malay  Peninsula. 
Malacca,     5'6  ;  5-7;  5-8;  5'6  ;  5-7;  5"5. 
It  will    be  observed  that  the  specimens  from  Pahpoon  to  far 
below  Tavoy  continued  pretty  uniform  in  dimensions,  but  that 
from  Mergui  they  are  much  reduced  in  size,  scarcely  exceed- 
ing at  all  the  dimensions  of  Malayan  platurus  ;  but  though  thus 
reduced  in  size,  and  though  exhibiting  very  much  smaller  crests 
than  birds  from  the  rest  of  Tenasserim,   they  yet  have  a  very 
appreciable  frontal  crest  which  divides  them  at  a  glance  from 
birds  obtained  in  the  south  of  Malay  Peninsula. 

With  this  large  Tenasserim  series  I  have  compared  an  equally 
large  series  from  Southern  India  and  the  Malabar  Coast,  and  I 
am  quite  convinced  that  these  are  not  separable,  and  that  mala- 
baricus  must  be  united  with  paradiseus. 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  of  wings  of  a  small  number  of 
specimens  of  the  Malabar  bird,  taken  at  random. 
Hills  north  of  Khandeish,  66. 
Mysore,  5'8. 
Nilghiris  *  6  3  ;  6'2. 
Kotagherry,  6*1. 
Kullar,  59  ;  6'0  ;  6'4. 
Coonoor,  6  "05. 
Goodalore  Wynaad,  5'9. 
Coorg,  6*25. 

Tra  van  core,  Anjanjo,  5'9  ;  5' 8. 
Mynaal,  6'2  ;  6. 

*  Exact  locality  not  specified — Kotagherry,  Kullar  and  Coonoor,   are  of  course  all 
on  the  Nilgherris. 


BIRDS   OF   TBNASSBRIM.  221 

Out  of  our  large  Burmese  series  we  can  match  every  single 
Malabar  and  Southern  Indian  specimen,  as  to  size,  size  of  crest 
of  bill,  and  size  and  shape  of  racket. 

Mr.  Sharpe  unites  all  the  species  of  Dissemurus,  but  recog- 
nizes certain  difference  of  race. 

I  notice  that  he  lays  some  stress  upon  the  flatness,  or  twisted 
character  of  the  racket.  I  believe  this  character  to  be  perfectly 
worthless,  and  to  depend  to  a  great  extent  upon  the  mode  in 
which  the  skin  has  been  put  up.  I  observe  from  every  locality, 
whence  I  have  large  series,  some  specimens  with  twisted,  and 
others  with  flat  rackets.  Perhaps  the  most  curious  instance  of 
this  is  a  specimen  from  Pahpoon,  of  which  one  racket  is  per- 
fectly flat,  as  figured  by  Mr.  Sharpe  (Cat.  III.,  262  fig.  5)  for 
formosus,  and  the  other  twisted  exactly  as  figured  (loc.  cit,  fig.  4) 
as  characteristic  of  platurus. 

We  have  been  collecting  birds  of  this  species  vigorously  for 
some  years,  and  have  over  two  hundred  specimens  from  all  parts 
of  India,  Burma,  the  Malay  Peninsula,  the  Andamans  and 
Nicobars,  and  I  am  quite  convinced  that,  as  regai'ds  individual 
specimens,  neither  the  size  nor  the  amount  of  the  curve  in  the 
racket  is  of  any  value  as  a  diagnosis.  It  may  be  that  in  parti- 
cular races,  as  in  brachyphorus  from  Borneo,  the  rackets  are 
invariably  small,  and  that  this  may  afford  grounds  for  the  separa- 
tion of  this  race  ;  but  I  can  show  individuals  apparently  adult 
too,  from  India  north  to  south,  from  Burma,  and  from  the  An- 
damans and  Nicobars,  with  rackets  quite  as  small  as  that 
figured  by  Mr.  Sharpe  (op.  cit.,  263,  fig.  8)  for  brachyphorus. 

The  Andaman  and  Nicobar  birds  (c.  f.  S.  F.,  II,  212)  as 
a  body  no  doubt  have  larger  bills  and  smaller  crests  than  mala- 
baricus  from  Southern  India,  and  paradiseus  from  Tenasserim  ; 
but  putting  huge  series  from  these  three  localities  side  by  side, 
it  is  quite  clear  that  the  birds  cannot  be  specifically  separated,  as  a 
good  many  birds  in  each  can  be  absolutely  matched  by  others 
from  the  two  other  localities. 

In  this  genus  nothing  can  be  made  out  of  a  few  isolated 
specimens  from  each  locality,  such  as  Mr.  Sharpe  had  to  deal 
with  ;  and,  as  it  is  only  from  India,  Burma,  the  Malay  Peninsula, 
the  Andamans  and  Nicobars  that  I  possess  really  large  series, 
it  is  only  with  the  races  inhabiting  these  divisions  that  I  can 
pretend  to  deal,  and  in  regard  to  these  my  conclusions  differ 
from  Mr.  Sharpe's. 

I  consider  that  there  are  three  fairly  recognizable  species 
within  the  limits  above  indicated,  viz. : — 

1st. — D.  malabaroides,  Hodgs.,  with  a  very  large  crest,  and 
wing  from  6"75  to  7,  from  the  Himalayas,  Assam,  Lower  Bengal, 
Chota  Nagpur,  the  Tributary  Mehals,  Sumbulpore,  and  the 
extreme  north  of  Pegu  and  Tenasserim. 


222  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

2nd. — Dissemurus  paradiseus,  Lin.,  with  medium-sized  crest, 
and  wing  about  6  to  6'6,  from  the  whole  of  Sonthern  India  and 
Ceylon,  the  Western  Ghauts,  as  far  north  as  Khandeish,  the  great- 
er part  of  Burma  and  Tenasserim,  the  Andamans  and  Nicobars. 

3rd. — D.  platurus,  Vieill.,  from  the  southern  portion  of  the 
Malay  Peninsula,  practically  without  any  crest,  and  with  a  wing 
about  5*4  to  5-8. 

Ceylonensis  is  certainly  not  separable,  and  the  specimen  from 
which  Mr.  Sharpe  took  his  figure  of  the  racket  of  this  species 
is  certainly  not  a  fair  average  one.  So  again  the  head  that 
he  figures  of  D.  qffinis  is  clearly  immature.  Old  adults  have  crests 
quite  as  long  as  the  majority  of  Central  Tenasserim  speci- 
mens, though  never  as  long  as  the  longest  crested  specimens 
of  these  latter. 

Javan  and  Sumatran  races  seem  to  be  universally  admitted 
(I  have  too  few  specimens  of  my  own  to  offer  any  opinion  on 
the  subject)  to  be  inseparable  from  that  inhabiting  the  south 
of  the  Malay  Peninsula,  and  the  only  question  that  appears  to 
me  to  remain  for  decision  is,  whether  the  Bornean  race  bracliy- 
phorus,  Tem.,  is  or  is  not  entitled  to  specific  separation  on 
account  of  its  alleged  constantly  smaller  racket. 

286.— Chibia  hottentota,  Lin.  (8). 

{TongTioo  Sills,  Karen  Hills,  Earns.)  Pahpoon  ;  Salween  R. ;  Amherst  ; 
Mergui;  Bopjin. 

Rather  sparsely  distributed  throughout  the  province,  except 
in  the  southernmost  district,  where  it  has  not  been  observed. 

[This  bird  is  very  rare  as  a  whole  ;  and,  though  in  one  parti- 
cular spot  you  may  see  20  or  even  50,  you  may  march  as 
many  miles  further  through  precisely  similar  localities  without 
catching  a  glimpse  of  another.  It  is  in  fact  excessively  locally 
distributed.  About  a  couple  of  days'  march  north  of  Kaukaryit, 
on  the  road  to  Pahpoon,  I  found  it  excessively  common  in  a 
narrow  tract  of  country  about  half  a  mile  long,  and  almost 
entirely  covered  with  bamboo  ;  neither  to  the  north  nor  south  of 
this  tract  for  some  50  miles  did  it  again  occur,  except  as  a  strag- 
gler usually  singly.  On  another  occasion  to  the  north  of  Pahpoon 
I  found  great  numbers  frequenting  some  large  silk-cotton  trees 
that  were  in  flower.  To  the  south  of  Moulmein  I  met  with  it  occa- 
sionally, but  never  in  any  numbers.  The  furthest  point  south  at 
which  I  obtained  it  was  Bopyin,  about  half  way  between  Mergui 
and  Moulmein. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  of  two  males  and  two  females 
recorded  in  the  flesh : — 

Males. — Length,  12-0  to  13*25;  expanse,  19*5  to  21*12  j 
tail  from  vent,  5*5  to  6*62 ;  wing,  6'46  to  7*0;  tarsus,  1*1  to 
1-12;  bill  from  gape,  1-62  to  175. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  223 

Females. — Length,  120  to  12-25  ;  expanse,  18-75  to  19;  tail 
from  vent,  5'0  to  5-75 ;  wing,  6'25. 

Bill,  legs,  feet,  and  claws  black  ;  irides  dark  brown. 

287. — Artamus  fuscus,  Vieill.  (2). 

(Tonghoo,  Karen  Hills,  Rams.)  Amherst. 

Only  occurs  as  a  rare  straggler  in  Tenasserim  proper. 

[I  never  once  saw  the  bird  during  more  than  four  years  in 
Tenasserim,  but  Dr.  Armstrong  shot  and  sent  us  specimens 
from  Amherst. — W.  D.] 

289.— Muscipeta  affinis,  Hay.  (34).  S.  E,  III.,  102. 

(Karen  Hills,  Rams.)  Mooleyit  ;  Laynali ;  Ohoungthanoung  ;  Pakchan  ;  Palaw- 
ton-ton  ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Apparently  confined  to  the  evergreen  forests  of  the  southern 
and  central  sections  of  the  province,  but  reappearing  iu  the 
Karen  Hills. 

Note  that  the  specimen  entered  in  one  of  my  former  lists 
as  M.  paradisi  proves  on  careful  re-examination  to  be  referable 
rather  to  M  affinis. 

[This  species  was  not  uncommon  in  the  forests  of  the  south- 
ern portion  of  the  province.  I  met  with  them  singly,  or  in 
pairs.  Their  note  is  very  similar  to  that  of  Myiagra  azurea, 
but  louder  and  harsher.  Three  males  that  I  obtained,  one  in 
the  white,  and  two  in  the  chestnut  garb,  had  the  eye  surrounded 
by  a  thick  fleshy  scalloped  ring  from  0'06  to  0-1  in  width, 
of  a  bright  smalt  blue,  a  brighter  and  clearer  blue  even  than 
that  of  the  bill.  Numerous  other  specimens  had  not  this  ring. 
It  was,  I  should  say,  seasonal,  as  these  birds  were  obtained 
in  March,  April  and  May,  while  others  killed  in  November, 
December  and  January  were  without  it.  Dr.  Jerdon  says 
nothing  about  the  existence  of  this  ring  in  either  the  present  or 
Southern  Indian  species. — W.  D.] 

289  ter. — Philentoma  pyrrhopterum,  Tern.  (9). 

Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Confined  entirely  to  the  extreme  south  of  the  province. 

[This  specie?  appears  to  occur  only  in  the  evergreen  forests 
of  the  extreme  south,  about  Bankasoon  and  Malewoon,  though 
I  saw  one  specimen  at  Laynah.  Its  habits  are  similar  to 
that  of  the  next  species,  but  its  note  more  resembles  that  of 
Hypothymis  azurea.  It  is  a  true  Flycatcher,  not  at  all  wary  or 
shy,  catching  its  food  entirely  on  the  wing,  and  never  descend- 
ing to  the  £  .mind. — W.  D.] 


224  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males. — Length,  6'8 ;  expanse,  10"  to  10'12;  tail  from  vent, 
2-75  to  2-85  ;  wing,  3-12  to  3'27;  tarsus,  0-65  to  07  ;  bill  from 
gape,  0*9  ;  weight,  06  oz. 

Females. — Length,  6*75;  expanse,  9-82  to  10;  tail  from 
vent,  2*62  to  3*0 ;  wing,  3  to  3*12  ;  tarsus,  065  to  7  ;  bill  from 
gape,  0-32  to  095;  weight,  0-5  to  0'6  oz. 

In  tlie  males  the  legs,  feet,  and  claws  were  pale  purplish  blue; 
bill  black  ;   irides   crimson. 

In  an  adult  female  the  legs,  feet,  and  claws  were  plumbeous 
olive ;  the  upper  mandible  pale  horny  brown  ;  the  lower  man- 
dible fleshy  white;  iris  dull  red.  In  a  younger  female  the  legs 
and  feet  were  pale  horny  red,  and  the  iris  pale  red,  speckled 
with  white. 

The  male  has  the  entire  head  and  neck  all  round,  the  upper 
back  and  upper  part  of  breast,  and  most  of  the  lesser  and 
median  coverts,  pale  dirty  indigo  blue,  brightening  a  little  on 
the  lores  and  more  so  in  a  stripe  over,  and  extending  a  short 
distance  behind  the  eye ;  a  trace  of  a  dusky  spot  at  the  gape 
and  base  of  the  lower  mandible  ;  rest  of  breast  and  lower  parts 
sordid  white,  with  more  or  less  of  a  fulvous  or  creamy  tinge,  and 
shaded  with  earth  brown  on  the  sides  ;  middle  of  back  mingled 
blue  and  dull  pale  earth  brown  ;  tips  of  some  of  the  scapulars, 
rump  and  upper  tail  coverts,  pale  earthy  brown ;  secondary  greater 
coverts,  tertiaries,  outer  webs  of  secondaries,  and  tail,  clear  light 
chestnut ;  primary  greater  coverts  dull  bluish  ;  primaries  and 
inner  webs  of  secondaries  hair  brown,  the  former  margined  on 
their  outer  webs  with  pale  greyish  rusty. 

The  female  has  the  top,  back,  sides  of  the  head  and  nape,  an 
extremely  dull  bluish  greenish  grey  ;  the  entire  back,  scapulars, 
lesser  and  median  wing-coverts,  and  upper  tail-coverts,  dull 
earth  brown,  slightly  olivaceous  on  the  upper  back  and  wing- 
cc verts;  chin,  throat  and  breast  fulvous  white,  more  distinctly 
bufly  at  the  base  of  the  throat  ;  rest  of  the  lower  parts  as  in 
the  male,  but  rather  more  fulvescent ;  rest  of  wings  and  tail 
as  in  the  male. 

Edge  of  the  wing  and  coverts  immediately  under  it  blue  ; 
rest  of  wing-lining  in  the  male  mingled  grey  aud  creamy  white  ; 
entire  wing-lining  of  the  female  pale  pinkish  buff. 

289  quat.— Philentoma  velatum,  Tern.  (18). 

Meetan  ;  Yea  ;  Tenasseriin  Town  ;  Palaw-ton-tou  ;  Bankasoon  j  Malewoon. 

Occurs  almost  throughout  the  entire  southern  half  of  the 
province  in  suitable  forests,  but  rare,  except  in  the  extreme  south. 

[This  species  ranges  considerably  to  the  north  of  Tavoy.  I 
shot   a   specimen   at  Meetan.    Towards   the  south  it  was   not 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM.  225 

uncommon.  It  keeps  entirely  to  the  evergreen  forests,  never  that 
I  know  of  straying  even  to  their  outskirts.  I  have  always  met 
with  it  in  pairs ;  it  has  a  harsh  grating  metallic-sounding  note. 
Like  the  preceding  it  is  a  true  Flycatcher  in  all  its  habits. — 
W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  of  this  species  : — ■ 

Males. — Length,  7*5  to  8-25  ;  expanse,  11*5  to  12-25;  tail 
from  vent,  337  to  3-82;  wing,  3-63  to  39;  tarsus,  0'6  to075; 
bill  from  gape,  0*85  to  l'O  ;  weight,  08  to  nearly  1  oz. 

Females. — Length,  7-5  to  8-2 ;  expanse,  10'75  to  12'12;  tail 
from  vent,  3-2  to  3'62 ;  wing,  3*5  to  3*75 ;  tarsus,  0-7  ;  bill 
from  gape,  0*9  to  0-95  ;  weight,  07  to  0-8  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  bluish  or  purplish  black  ;  bill  black  j  irides  lake 
to  crimson. 

The  male  has  the  lores,  a  moderately  broad  frontal  band,  a 
line  round  the  eye,  cheeks  and  greater  parts  of  ear-coverts,  chin 
and  extreme  upper  parts  of  throat,  velvet  black  ;  rest  of  throat 
and  upper  parts  of  breast  dull  deep  maroon  ;  the  whole  of 
the  rest  of  the  plumage,  except  the  inner  webs  of  quills  and 
lateral  tail  feathers,  which  are  blackish  brown,  a  rather  pale 
clear  leaden  blue ;  the  breast  and  abdomen  are  a  shade  darker 
and  the  white  bases  of  the  feathers,  even  in  the  best  specimens 
show  through  a  good  deal  on  the  flanks  and  towards  the  vent. 

The  female  is  rather  smaller,  and  has  the  black  and  maroon 
of  the  male  replaced  by  dusky  blackish  cyaneous ;  everywhere 
the  color  is  somewhat  duskier  and  duller. 

290.-— Hypothymis  azurea,  Bodd.  (28). 

Pahpoon  ;  Dargwiu  ;  Wirapong  ;  Topee  ;  Moulmein  ;  Yea-boo  ;  Meetan  ■  Am- 
herst ;  Pabyin ;  Mergui;  Tenasserim  Town  ;  Baukasoou. 

Common  almost  everywhere  thoughout  the  province  and 
thence  south  along  the  Malay  Peuinsula  to  its  southernmost 
extremity. 

291.— Leucocerca  albicollis,  Pieill.  (5). 

(Karennee  Rills,  4,000  feet,  Rams.)  Near  Pahpoon  ;  Kyouk-nyafc;  2.000  feet 
above  Paraduba  ;  Mooleyit. 

Confined  apparently  to  the  forests  of  the  outer  Tenasserim 
range  and  adjacent  spurs,  at  elevations  of  from  2,000  to  6,000 
feet. 

292.— Leucocerca  albofrontata,  Frarikl. 

Blyth  notes  this  from  Tonghoo  ;  we  have  met  with  it  nowhere 
in  Tenasserim  proper. 

29 


226  BIRDS    OF    TENASSKRIM. 

293  bis.— Leucocerca  javanica,   Sparrm.  (5).  Descr. 
a  F.3  I.,  455. 

Tavoy ;  Mergui. 

Confined  apparently  to  the  coast  region  of  the  southern 
portion  of  the  province. 

[This  species  occurs  in  the  province  from  Tavoy  south- 
wards ;  it  is  not  abundant,  and  I  have  noticed  that  it  seems  to 
prefer  the  mangrove  and  Nipa  swamps  to  almost  any  other 
locality  ;  but  I  have  seen  and  shot  it  in  bushes  on  the  banks  of 
streams  and  edges  of  paddy  flats  ;  but  never  to  my  knowledge 
have  I  seen  it  far  from  the  coast. — W.  D.] 

I  described  this  species,  loc.  cit.,  from  Acheen.  My  Sumatran 
specimen  had  an  abnormally  long  bill,  and  I  proposed  for  it,  if 
new,  the  name  of  infumata.  I  have  now  no  doubt  that 
it  is  properly  referable  to  the  present  species.  I  have  only 
to  add  to  my  former  description  that  the  entire  throat,  and  not 
merely  the  central  portion,  is  often  white,  and  to  subjoin  cer- 
tain measurements  recorded  in  the  flesh  from  Tenasserim 
specimens. 

Males. — Length,  7*5  to  7*62  ;  expanse,  9*5  to  10  ;  tail  from 
vent,  3-62  to  3-82  ;  wing,  3  to  3'25  ;  tarsus,  076  to  0-8;  bill 
from  gape,  0*6  to  075  ;  weight,  0*5  to  0-55  oz. 

Female. — Length,  7-12  ;  expanse,  9'25  ;  tail  from  vent,  3*5  ; 
wing,  3  ;  tarsus,  076  ;  bill  from  gape,  07. 

29i. — Chelidorhynx  hypoxantha,  Bly. 

Obtained  by  Ramsay  in  the  Tonghoo  Hills. 

295. — Culicicapa  ceylonensis,  Swains.  (8). 

(Karennee,  at  3,500  feet,  Earns.)  Pahpoon,  Salween  E.  ;  Wimpong  ;  Moo- 
leyit;  Meetun  ;  Ckoungthanoung  ;  Bankasoon. 

Generally  distributed  throughout  the  whole  province. 

[This  little  Flycatcher  occurs  sparingly  throughout  Tenasserim 
in  pairs,  about  gardens,  thin  jungle,  and  forest.  It  extends 
the  whole  way  down  the  Malayan  Peninsula  and  to  Singapore 
Island. 

It  is  a  permanent  resident. — W.  D.] 

296  — Hemichelidon  sibericus,  Gm.  (5). 

{Tonghoo  Bills,  Karennee  Bills,  at  700  feet,  Earns:)  Thoungsheyen  Sakan  j 
Mergui  ;  Ckoungthanoung  ;  Malewoon. 

Very  sparsely  distributed  during  the  cold  season  throughout 
the  province. 

[I  met  with  this  species  occasionally  on  the  outskirts  of  the 
forest,  and  in   clearings   about  Mergui  and  the  Pakchan,    and 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  22? 

again  on  a  large  clearing  ou  the  road  to  Mooleyit.     It  is  never 
seen  far  away  from  forests,  and  is  everywhere   scarce. — W.  D.] 

297.— Alseonax  latirostris,  Baffi,  (13).  S.  E.,  II., 
219. 

(Tonghoo,  Rams.)  Pabyouk;  Meetan;  Moulmein;  Amherst;  Meeta  Myo;  Pa- 
byin;  Mergui ;  Tenasserim  Town. 

Only  observed  by  us  as  yet  in  the  southern  half  of  the  province, 
and  not  common  even  there,  but  probably  occurring-  sparingly, 
in  all  the  more  open  parts  of  the  province  up  to  an  elevation 
of  3,500  feet. 

299.— Alseonax  ferrugineus,  Hodgs.  (l). 

Bankasoon. 

I  give  this  species  rather  doubtfully  ;  cur  only  specimen  is  a 
nestling  ;  it  is  clearly  a  Hemichelidon ;  it  is  not  H.  fuliginosuSj 
and  from  its  general  ferruginous  tint  it  appears  to  belong  to 
this  species,  but  it  is  not  in  the  same  stage  as  other  nestlings 
of  ferrugineus  which  we  have.  It  very  possibly  belongs  to  some 
species  new  to  our  avifauna. 

301.— Stoporala  melanops,  Vig.  (18). 

(Karennee,  from  700  to  5,000  feet,  Hams.)  Kollidoo  5  Kyouk-nyat ;  Palipoon  ; 
Mooleyit ;  Amherst ;  Mergui ;  Tenasserim  Town  ;  Bopyin  ;  Pakchan  ;  Banka- 
soon ;  Malewoon. 

Generally  distributed  during  the  cold  season  alike  in  hills 
and  plains  throughout  the  province. 

[This  species  chiefly  frequents  the  outskirts  of  the  forest 
clearings  and  secondary  scrub  jungle.  It  is  a  migratory  species, 
I  think,  as  I  have  not  noticed  it  after  February. — W.  I).] 

304.— Cyornis  rubeculoides,  Vigors.  (26). 

(Tongfioo  Hills,  Karen-nee,  from  600  to  2,000  feet,  Bams.)  Pine  forests, 
Salween  ;  Kollidoo;  Kyouk-nyat  ;  Dargwin  ;  Pahpoon  ;  Thatone  ;  Wimpong-; 
Kuukaryit,  Houngthraw  B.  ;  Monmenzeik  ;  Meetan  ;  Yea  ;  Choungtlianoung  ; 
Bankasoon ;  Malewoon. 

A  permanent  resident  throughout  the  province,  but  not  as- 
cending the  highest  hills. 

[Not  an  uncommon  bird  throughout  Tenasserim,  but  most 
abundant  in  the  north.  It  chiefly  confines  itself  to  the  ever- 
green and  bamboo  forests,  and  is  usually  found  in  pairs,  occa- 
sionally singly. — W.  D.] 

Although  I  enter  all  the  specimens  as  rubeculoides,  I  am  by 
no  means  convinced  that  the  Tenasserim  specimens  are  identical 
with  Indian  ones.     Following  Blyth,  I  considered  the  somewhat 


228  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

larger  race  found  in  Burmah  to  be  elegans,  but  assuming  elegans 
to  be  the  species  from  Borneo  and  Sumatra  described,  Ibis,  1872, 
374,  as  follows,  it  is  quite  clear  that  the  Tenasserim  birds 
are  not  elegans. 

"  Chin,  the  entire  throat,  forehead,  superciliary  stripe,  upper 
tail-coverts,  and  shoulders  of  the  wiug,  bright  cobalt  blue. 

A  patch  of  pale  rufous  on  the  breast;  flanks,  very  dilute  rufous  ; 
lower  breast,  belly  and  under  tail-coverts  pure  white ;  lores 
and  under  surface  of  rectrices  black  ;  remainder  of  plumage  rich 
indigo  blue." 

This  is  the  Marquis  of  Tweeddale's  description  of  a  Bornean 
specimen,  and  he  assures  us,  Ibis,  1877,  p.  316,  that  Sumatran 
specimens  (and  TemminckV  type  came  from  Sumatra)  are 
identical.  This  does  not  agree  over  well  with  Temminck's  des- 
cription or  picture. 

Temminck  says  :  "  A  bright  and  brilliant  azure  blue  covers 
the  chin  and  the  cheeks,  and  extends  as  a  frontal  band  and 
in  broad  eyebrows  above  the  eye,  and  is  exhibited  on  the 
shoulder  of  the  wings  and  the  rump  ;  the  rest  of  the  upper 
parts,  wings  and  tail  are  indigo  blue ;  the  breast  has  a 
golden  reddish  tint ;  the  flanks  are  a  very  light  rufous,  and  the 
rest  of  the  lower  parts  are  pure  white ;  the  under  surface  of 
the  tail,  feet,  and  bill  black.     Length,  about  5*75  English  inches, 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  first  description  gives  the  chin 
aud  entire  throat  as  bright  cobalt  blue,  not  the  cheeks,  while  the 
second  description  gives  the  chin  and  cheeks,  and  not  the  throat. 
as  brilliant  azure. 

Under  any  circumstances,  however,  though  some  of  our 
Tenasserim  specimens  are  brighter  than  Indian  ones,  and  though 
the  wings  in  some  of  them  run  to  over  3*1  against  2*9,  a  maxi- 
mum according  to  my  experience  for  Indian  specimens,  it  is 
quite  clear  that  our  Tenasserim  birds  cannot  properly  be  ideuti- 
iied  with  elegans — a  species  which,  accepting  Lord  Tweeddale's 
description,  we  have  from  near  Malacca. 

Not  only  do  the  males  differ  as  above  indicated,  but  the 
females  are  of  a  much  warmer  olivaceous  tint  than  the  Indian 
ones,  and  generally,  though  not  universally,  both  sexes  seem  to 
have  larger  bills. 

The  amount  of  rufous  on  the  throat  is  also  greatly  in  excess 
of  what  is  observable  in  Indian  specimens. 

In  Indian  specimens  in  about  one  in  every  twenty  adult  males 
the  rufous  of  the  breast  is  continued  upwards  as  a  narrow  stripe 
towards,  and  in  rare  instances  quite  to,  the  chin. 

In  the  Tenasserim  birds  this  stripe  exists  in  twelve  out  of 
fifteen  adult  males.  In  several  specimens  the  stripe  is  broad, 
and  in  one  the  entire  chin  and  throat  are  concolorous  with 
the  breast. 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSER1M.  229 

Certainly  the  birds  are  not  altogether  the  same  as  the  Indian 
rubecitloides ;  even  the  color  of  the  breast  differs,  being,  as  a  rule, 
more  of  a  golden  rufous  than  in  the  Indian  birds,  but  for  the 
present  at  any  rate  it  seems  best  to  retain  them  under  Vigors' 
name  of  rubeculoides. 

305  &  306.— Cyornis  tichelU,  Bly. 

This  species  is  said  by  the  Marquis  of  Tweeddale  to  have  been 
obtained  in  Karenuee  by  Ramsay.  This  is  utterly  out  of  the 
range  (very  well  defined)  of  this  species,  and  I  cannot  avoid 
suspecting  that  there  has  been  some  accidental  oversight  in  the 
identification  of  the  specimen  referred  to. 

307  ter. —Cyornis  olivacea,  Hume.  (7).  Descr.  S.  I\, 
V.,  338. 

Tenasserim  Town  ;  Bankasoon ;  Malewoon. 

Confined  to  the   southernmost  portions  of  the  province. 

[This  species,  like  its  other  congeners,  keeps  to  the  forest  or 
its  outskirts,  and  is  usually  seen  singly.  True  Flycatchers  they 
perch  on  commanding  twigs,  whence  they  capture  passing  in- 
sects with  short  sharp  flights,  returning  to  the  same  perch.  Not 
unfrequently  they  may  be  seen  flying  from  branch  to  branch, 
evidently  not  feeding,  and  as  they  alight,  lowering  their  wings, 
jerking  their  tails,  and  uttering  their  peculiar  prolonged  chir-r-r. 

I  have  never  seen  one  ton  the  ground,  though  often  in  low 
brushwood. — W.  D.] 

308.— -Cyornis  magnirostris,  Blyth.  (6). 

Laynah  ;  Hankachin  ;  Bankasoon  j  Malewoon  ;  Victoria  Poinb. 

Confined  to  the  extreme  south  of  the  province,  and  rare  there. 
[Habits  precisel}'  those  of  its  congeners. — W.  D.] 

309  bis.— Cyornis  vivida,  Swinh.  (9). 

Mooleyit. 

Only  met  with  on  the  highest  portions  of  Mooleyit. 
[This  is  not  quite  so  much  of  a  Flycatcher  as  the  other  Cy- 
ornis,though  it  also  captures  its  prey  on  the  wing.  I  have  seen  it 
moving  about  the  tops  of  the  trees  by  short  flights,  and  sitting 
about  like  Niliava  grandis.  I  never  saw  a  pair  together  or 
even  two  males.  I  always  met  with  them  singly.  On  Mooleyit 
they  were  very  eommon,  but  I  unfortunately  mistook  them  for 
Niltava  sundara,  and  only  shot  a  few.  Those  I  dissected  had 
eaten  nothing  but  insects.  They  were  very  often  in  low  bushes ; 
but  never,  so  far  as  I  saw,  actually  descending  to  the  ground. 
They  were  not  in  the  least  shy  or  wild  ;  on  the  contrary  very 
tame.     I  never  heard  them  utter  any  note. — W.  D.] 


230  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

I  must  first  premise  that  the  figure  of  this  species  iii  the  Ibis, 
1866,  pi.  11,  is,  at  any  rate  in  my  copy,  so  extremely  wrongly 
coloured  that  it  thoroughly  convinced  me  that  my  bird  was  not 
vivida.  Luckily  I  remembered  that  I  had  specimens  of  vivida 
from  Mr.  Swinhoe  (from  Formosa  and  Fungshan),  and  a  com- 
parison with  these  specimens  showed  that  mine  were  true  Cyornis 
vivida. 

The  best  general  description  1  can  give  my  Indian  readers 
of  this  species  is  to  say  that  males  and  females  are  marvel- 
lously like  those  of  Niltava  sundara,  but  they  are  rather 
larger  birds  and  have  conspicuously  larger  and  basally  broader 
bills  ;  the  blue  of  the  head  and  rump  is  a  little  more  violet,  the 
ferruginous  orange  of  the  breast  runs  in  a  tongue  a  little  way 
up  the  middle  of  the  throat,  and  all  the  rest  of  the  feathers  of 
the  throat  are  tipped  with  dull  cyaneous  instead  of  being  plain 
black  as  in  sundara.  The  female  wants  the  blue  patch  at  the 
base  of  the  neck  on  either  side,  has  a  longitudinal  pale  buff 
stripe  down  the  front  of  the  lower  part  of  the  throat  instead  of 
the  transverse  white  band  that  sundara  has,  and  has  the  whole 
upper  parts  greyer  and  less  olivaceous. 

Males. — Length,  7  to  8*1  ;  expanse,  11'3  to  12*35  ;  tail  from 
vent,  3  to  35 ;  wing,  3*75  to  4'05 ;  tarsus,  0*7  to  0-75  ;  bill  from 
gape,  0'8  to  085  ;  weight,  1  to  1*12  oz. 

Females. — Length,  71  to  7  6;  expanse,  11*7  to  12;  tail  from 
vent,  3-1  to  33;  wing,  3-75  to3"95;  tarsus,  07  to  0"8  ;  bill 
from  gape,   0"8  to  0*82  ;  weight,  1*12  oz. 

The  legs  and  feet  are  dark  brown,  purplish  brown,  purplish 
plumbeous  ;  bill  black;  irides  deep  brown. 

The  male  has  the  lores  and  a  narrow  frontal  band  velvet  black ; 
cheeks  and  ear-coverts  dull  black,  with  in  some  specimens  a  faint 
purplish  shade  ;  chin  and  tlvroat  (except  a  tongue  running  up  for 
about  0*5  in  the  middle  of  the  basal  portion  of  the  latter,  which 
tongue  is  colored  like  the  breast)  black  ;  all  the  feathers  tipped 
with  dull  purplish  blue  ;  forehead,  crown,  occiput  and  nape, 
rump,  and  all  but  the  longest  upper  tail-coverts  cobalt  blue, 
brightest  perhaps  on  the  forehead,  and  with  a  certain  amount 
of  violet  tinge  ;  a  transverse  band  on  either  side  of  the  neck  ; 
behind  the  ear-coverts  the  same  color  but  duller;  lesser  and  basal 
portion  of  the  median  coverts  similar  ;  interscapulary  region 
and  scapulars  dull  dusky  purplish  blue  in  most  lights,  a  richer 
blue  in  certain  lights  ;  quills  and  their  greater  coverts  hair  brown, 
some  of  the  latter  margined  towards  the  tips  with  purplish 
blue;  tail  hair  brown;  the  feathers  margined  and  suffused  on 
their  outer  webs,  and  the  central  feathers  with  the  greater  portion 
of  both  webs,  deep  blue  with  a  violet  tinge  ;  breast,  axillaries, 
wing-liniug,  abdomen,  and  lower  tail-coverts  orange  ferruginous, 
very  much  as  in  Niltava  sundara,  but  not  quite  so  bright. 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM.  231 

The  female  bas  the  lores,  chin,  and  feathers  at  the  base  of  the 
lower  mandible  mingled  grey  and  pale  fulvous,  and  there  is  a 
very  narrow  pale  fulvous  frontal  band.  The  vest  of  the  fore- 
head, crown,  and  occiput  are  somewhat  olivaceous  grey;  the 
feathers  margined  paler,  producing  a  scaly  appearance.  The 
entire  mantle  olivaceous,  becoming  rusty  on  the  upper  tail- 
coverts;  tail  feathers  dull  brownish  chestnut,  margined  more  rusty 
towards  their  bases  ;  wings  hair  brown,  the  feathers  maro-ined 
externally  with  a  rusty  olivaceous;  throat,  sides  of  the  neck, 
and  breast,  greyish  olivaceous,  with  a  broad  pale  creamy  lono-ihi- 
dinal  band  towards  the  base  of  the  throat ;  abdomen,  sides  and 
flanks  like  the  breast,  but  more  albescent  and  greyer ;  lower  tail- 
coverts  pale  creamy  buff,  with  narrow  longitudinal  pale  brown 
central  stripes ;    wing-lining  and  axill'aries  yellowish  white. 

314 — Niltava  sundara,  Hodgs. 

Blyth  says  this  occurs  in  the  mountains  of  Tenasserim. 
Lord  Tweeddale  says  that  Wardlaw  Ramsay  obtained  it  in 
Karennee  at  4,000  feet. 

We  have  never  seen  it  in  the  Tenasserim  Hills,  but  it  is  curi- 
ous that  Davison  there  found  plenty  of  Cyornis  vivida,  which  he 
sharp  sighted  as  he  is,  mistook  and  sent  me  for  this  present  species 
and  it  is  not  impossible  that  others   may  have  made  the  same 
mistake. 

315.— Niltava  macgrigoriae,  Burton,  (l). 

(Karennee  at  5.000  feet,  Earns.)     Salweeu  E.  north,  of  Pahpoon. 

A  mere  straggler  to  the  hills  of  the  northern  and  perhaps 
the  central  sections  of  the  province.  Davison  looked  specially 
for  it  about  Mooleyit,  but  during  his  prolonged  stay  there  failed 
to  find  it. 

The  specimen  for  which  I  had  formerly  suggested,  if  distinct, 
the  name  of  vivida  differs  from  the  great  majority  of  Sikim 
specimens  in  its  brighter  tints,  and  in  having  the  chin,  throat, 
and  breast  almost  precisely  the  same  color  as  the  back,  instead  of 
black,  with  a  purplish  tinge  as  in  the  great  majority  of  Darjeel- 
ing  specimens ;  but  I  find  in  my  museum  a  Sikim  specimen  of 
macgrigorice  not  separable  from  the  Tenasserim  Hill  form,  and  1 
have  therefore  no  doubt  now  that  this  should  stand  as  macgri- 
gorice. We  have  not  enough  specimens  to  enable  us  to  deter- 
mine whether  really  the  Tenasserim  form  averages  much  bright- 
er than  the  Himalayan  form* 

[I  obtained  a  single  male  of  this  species  in  the  hills  to  the 
north  of  Pahpoon.  It  was  seated  among  some  low  bushes  on 
the  banks  of  a  forest  stream,  and  kept  seizing  insects  on  the 
wing,  exactly  after  the  manner  of  a  Flycatcher. — W.  D.J 


232  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM, 

316— Niltava  grandis,  JBiyth.  (20). 

Paraduba ;  Mooleyit. 

Confined  apparently  to  Mooleyit  and  its  spurs,  where  not 
uncommon. 

[Is  quite  a  forest  bird;  seen  only  in  trees,  dry  brushwood, 
and  even  fallen  trees,  but  never,  by  me,  actually  on  the 
ground.  It  occasionally  catches  insects  on  the  wing,  but  this 
is  not  its  common  practice.  It  seems  a  sluggish  bird,  sitting 
for  half  an  hour  at  a  time,  quite  still  and  silent,  on  a  branch.  In- 
deed I  never  heard  its  note,  but  then  I  never  met  with  it  dur- 
ing the  breeding  season.  It  is  usually  alone,  not  in  pairs  ;  at 
least  this  was  the  case  in  January  and  February.  Those  I 
dissected  had  eaten  nothing  but  insects. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  :  — 

Males. — Length,  8*0  to  88;  expanse,  130  to  138  ;  tail  from 
vent,  3-5  to  3"8  ;  wing,  4'1  to  4-3 ;  tarsus,  0'85  to  0"95  ;  bill 
from  gape,  0"9  to  1*02 ;  weight,  l'O  to  1*5  oz. 

Females. — Length,  8'2  to8-4  ;  expanse,  12'5  ;  tail  from  vent, 
3-4  to  3'6  ;  wing,  4*0  to  4*1 ;  tarsus,  0*9  to  0'95  ;  bill  from  gape, 
1*0  ;  weight,  1*4  to  1*5  oz. 

Irides  deep  brown ;  in  the  male  the  bill  is  black  ;  legs  and  feet 
black,  or  very  dark  plumbeous  ;  in  the  female  the  bill  is  brown- 
ish black  ;  the  legs,  feet  and  claws  fleshy  pink. 

317. — Anthipes  moniliger,  Hodgs. 

Blyth  gives  this  from  Tenasserim.  Wardlaw  Ramsay  is  said 
to  have  obtained  it  in  Karennee  ;  the  Tenasserim  birds  certainly, 
the  Karennee  ones  probably,  belonged  to  the  next  species. 

317  Us.—  Anthipes  submoniliger,  Hume,  (6).  Descr. 
S  E.,  V.,  105. 

Paraduba ;  Mooleyit ;  near  Meetan. 

Apparently  confined  to  Mooleyit  and  its  spurs. 

[A  perfect  little  forest  Flycatcher,  with  the  same  habits  and 
notes  as  C.  rubeculoides.  It  was  common  enough  about  Mooleyit 
and  its  spurs,  but  I  never  saw  it  elsewhere. — W.  D.] 

319.— Siphia  strophiata,  Hodgs.  (l). 

Mooleyit-. 

[I  only  saw  one  solitary  specimen  on  Mooleyit,  and  I  have 
never  met  with  it  elsewhere. — W.  D.] 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  233 

822.— Sipha  erythaca,  Blyth  &  Jerd.    (5).  Descr. 
S.  F.,  II.,  458. 

(Karen  Sills,  afc  4,000  feet,  Earns.)  Pine  forests,  Salween  ;  Mooleyit. 

Confined  to  the  higher  hills  of  the  northern  and  central 
portions  of  the  province. 

[I  met  with  this  bird  only  in  the  pine  forests  and  their 
outskirts,  to  the  north  of  Pahpoon,  and  near  the  summit  of 
Mooleyit.  The  species  was  very  rare,  and  I  only  noticed  a  few- 
Individuals.  They  are  true  Flycatchers.  I  shot  one  still  catch- 
ing* insects,  when  it  was  so  dark  that  I  had  no  idea,  until  I 
picked  it  up,  what  the  bird  could  be. — W.  D.] 

The  following'  are  dimensions,  &c.,  of  3  males  and  2  females 
recorded  in  the  flesh  :— 

Males.— Length,  S'OtoS'^;  expanse,  8-4  to  882  ;  tail  from 
vent,  2*1  to  2-3;  wing,  2'75  to  2-9  ;  tarsus,  0-61  to  0-65;  bill 
from  gape,  0'6  to  0'65  ;  weight,  0'3  to  04  oz. 

Females. — Length,  5*3  to  5*25  ;  expanse,  8'3  to  9*0  ;  tail  from 
vent,  2-12  to  2-3;  wing,  275  to  2-9;  tarsus,  0'6  to  07;  bill 
from  gape,  0'6 ;  weight,  0'4  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  are  dark  red  brown ;  upper  mandible  black  ; 
lower  mandible  brown;  irides  dark  brown. 

323.— Erythrosterna  albicilla,  Pall.  (14). 

(Karen  Sills,  Rams.)  Kollidoo  ;  Pahpoon  ;  Younznleen  Creek  ;  Kaukaryit, 
Houngthraw  E. ;  Yea-boo  j  Tavoy ;  Mergui ;  Tenasserini  Town. 

A  cold  weather  visitant  throughout  the  province,  but  not 
ascending  the  higher  hills. 

[Met  with  in  all  kinds  of  localities,  except  dense  forest ;  in 
brushwood,  thin  tree  and  bamboo  jungles,  gardens  and  even 
bare  land,  where  there  were  only  a  few  stakes  to  perch  on.  They* 
are  true  Flycatchers,  seizing  all  their  prey  on  the  wing ;  always 
seen  singly  seated  on  some  spray  convenient  for  a  sally  after 
a  passing  insect ;  never  descending  to  the  ground.  By  the 
middle  of  March  all  appear  to  have  left  for  their  breeding 
quarters.  I  never  saw  a  specimen  in  breeding  plumage. — 
W.  D.] 

325. — Erythrosterna  acornaus,  Bly. 

Beavan  recorded  this  from  Zwagaben,  a  limestone  rock,  a  few 
miles  north  of  Moulmein.  Ramsay  is  said  to  have  obtained 
it  in  Karennee,  at  2,500  feet  elevation.  It  is  a  very  doubtful 
species,  with  which  however  I  shall  deal  separately  hereafter  ; 
in  the  meantime  see  Brooks,  S.  F.,  V.,  471,  on  this  supposed 
species. 

30 


234  BIRDS   OF  TENASSER1M. 

326 —Erythrosterna  maculate  Tick.  (6). 

(Karennee,  from  3,000  to  5,000  feet,  Earns.)  Mooleyit. 

Observed  only  near  the  summit  of  Mooleyit,  say  above  5,( 
feet  elevation,  and  again  above  3,000  feet  in  Karennee. 

329. — Pnoepyga  squamata,  Gould. 

Obtained  by  Eamsay  in  Karennee  at  4,000  feet. 

330.— Pnoepyga  pusilla,  Hodgs.  (4). 

Mooleyit. 

Observed  only  high  upon  Mooleyit,  and  even  there  compara- 
tively rare.  n 

[I  always  met  with  this  in  the  dense  fern-growth  edging 
the  mountain  streams  in  heavy  forest,  creeping  in  and  out 
amongst  the  stalks  of  the  ferns  and  little  stones,  like  a  mouse. 
Usually  I  saw  only  one  ;  sometimes  two  or  three  were  together. 
As  a  rule,  they  do  not  fly  when  disturbed,  but  scuttle  away  out 
©f  sio-ht  in  the  undergrowth,  but  when  they  do  fly  it  is  only  for 
a  few  yards,  and  they  always  rise  with  a  very  sharp  a  chick, 
chick  chick."  Those  I  examined  had  fed  exclusively  on  in- 
sects.—W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions,  &c,  of  3  males  recorded  in 
the  flesh : — 

Length,  3'4  to  3  7 ;  expanse,  6'4  to  6"6  ;  tail  from  vent,  0-5 
to055&;  wing,  1*9  to  21  ;  tarsus,  0'8;  bill  from  gape,  0*6  to 
0-65;  weight,  0-5  to  0*55  oz. 

Le^s  and  feet  pale  brown ;  upper  mandible  blackish  ;  lower 
mandible  pale  brown  ;  irides  deep  brown. 

332  ter.— Turdinulus  roberti,  God.-Aust.  and  Wald. 
(6).  DESCitr&.  F.,  1V.,£18. 

Mooleyit. 

Observed  only  at  Mooleyit  at  5,500  feet  and  upwards. 

[Generally  seen  in  pairs,  occasionally  three  or  four  together, 
hopping  about  on  the  ground  or  about  the  stems  of  the  under- 
orowth  only  in  the  densest  portions  of  the  forest  and  not  prefer- 
entially near  water.  When  alarmed  like  T.  brevicaudatus,  they 
all  raise  a  note  of  alarm,  chick — chick,  chick,  chick  ;  chick — 
chick,  chick,  chick,  which  they  continually  and  unceasingly 
utter,  until  either  you  have  passed  on,  or  they  think  they  have 
got  out  of  sight  and  danger.  They  are  not  shy,  and  do  not  fly 
unless  very  closely  pressed,  and  then  only  for  a  short  distance. 
As  a  rule  when  disturbed  they  leave  the  ground  and  thread  their 
way  with  great  rapidity  amongst  the  stems  of  the  brushwood, 


BIRDS  OF  TENASSERTBI.  235 

clinging  sideways  to  these  as  many  birds  do.  They  are  entirely 
insectivorous. — W.  D.] 

I  think  it  quite  impossible  either  to  retain  this  species  in  the 
genus  Pnoepyga,  to  which  Major  Godwin-Austen  assigned  it,  or 
to  include  it  in  Turdinus,  to  which  it  is,  in  my  opinion,  far  more 
closely  affined.  I  cannot  agree  with  Major  Godwin-Austen 
that  it  is  even  at  all  closely  related  to  the  extremely  aberrant 
Pnoepyga  longimudata. 

I  know  no  genus  in  which  it  can  be  included,  and  I  propose 
for  it  the  generic  name 

Turdinulus,  Gen.  Nov. 

/  Like  Turdinus,  but  with  the  bill  proportionately  longer,  and 
much  more  compressed  at  the  base,  and  with  the  tail  extremely 
short. 

Plumage,  soft  and  full,  very  full  and  lax  on  rump  and  flanks. 

Bill  large,  straight,  much  compressed  throughout  its  entire 
length  ;  culmen  almost  perfectly  straight,  curved  downwards  just 
at  the  tip ;  upper  mandible  projecting  appreciably  beyond 
lower  mandible  ;  a  notch  in  the  upper  mandible  ;  nostrils  large 
in  a  triangular  basal  fossa,  nearly  covered  in  by  a  membrane- 
ous shelf. 

Wings  short,  about  three  times  the  length  of  the  bill  from  fore- 
head to  point,  very  much  rounded  ;  5th,  6th,  7th,  and  8th  sub- 
equal  and  longest,  sometimes  5th  a  shade  shorter,  sometimes  8th 
a  shade  shorter  or  longer.  First  four  quills  graduated,  1st 
quill  longer  than  bill  from  forehead. 

Legs  and  feet  very  strong ;  mid  toe  without  claw  equal  to 
bill  at  front ;  tarsus  rather  longer ;  hind  toe  and  claw  rather 
shorter  ;  outer  toe  longer  than  inner  toe  ;  outer  toe  and  claw  a 
little  longer  than  inner  toe  and  claw. 

Tail  very  short  rounded,  about  half  as  long  again  as  bill  from 
forehead. 

I  have  not  had  the  good  fortune  to  meet  with  Major  Godwin- 
Austen's  Pnoepyga  chocolatina,  and  I  cannot  therefore  say  whether 
that  species  is  congeneric  with  the  bird  so  common  at  Mooleyit, 
which  I  identify  as  Turdinulus  roberti. 

?  333.—  Troglodytes -? 

Davison  is  of  opinion  that  he  saw  some  species  of  this  genus 
( which  he  knows  well,  having  watched  and  shot  nipalensis  re- 
peatedly about  our  own  hill  here  at  Simla)  a  little  north  of 
Pahpoon,  but  failed  to  secure  a  specimen.  It  might,  however, 
have  been  a  Pnoepyga,  because  once,  some  years  later,  when  at 
Mooleyit,  he  saw  another  bird  which  he  thought  was  a  Troglo* 
dytes,  and  on  shooting  it,  it  proved  to  be  Pnoepyga  pusilla. 


236  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

336.— Brachypteryx  nipalensis,  Eodgs.  (7). 

Mooleyit. 

Only  observed  near  the  summit  of  Mooleyit,  where  common, 
[I  always  met  with  two  of  these  tog-ether,  and  the  curious 
thing  is  that  I  never  saw  a  blue  one,  and  that  all  the  birds  I 
killed,  and  they  were  all  brown,  were  males.  They  keep  entirely 
to  the  ground,  hopping  about  amongst  the  dead  leaves  and  moss 
or  on  fallen  trunks,  and  picking  up  insects,  just  like  the  common 
Larvivora.  They  are  found  only  in  dense  forests,  by  preference  on 
the  banks  of  streams  ;  not  shy,  hopping  off  out  of  sight  when 
you  get  near,  never  flying  except  when  suddenly  startled,  and 
then  dropping  behind  the  first  little  bush.  I  never  remember 
to  have  heard  them  utter  any  note. — W.  D.] 

Mooleyit  specimens  (males,  I  suppose  young)  are  absolutely 
identical  with  Sikkim  females. 

338. — Brachypteryx  cruralis,  Big. 

Obtained  by  Wardlaw  Ramsay  in  Karennee  at  5,000  feet. 

343. — Myiophoneus  temmincki,  Vig, 

Lord  Tweeddale  says  that  Ramsay  obtained  this  in  the  Karen 
Hills,  and  it  is  quite  possible  that  this  and  not  the  next  species  occurs 
there,  but  when  he  goes  on  to  say  (B.  of  B.,  p.  98)  that  M.  eugenei, 
Hume,  is  synonymous,  he  is  simply  under  a  mistake,  and  can 
never  have  seen  eugenei,  of  which  we  have  since  obtained  a 
fine  series,  and  which  is  as  clearly  distinct  as  any  species  can 
well  be.     (See  also  S.  P.,  V.,  113  n.) 

343  Us.— Myiophoneus  eugenei,  Hume.  (14).  Descr. 

S.  F.,  I.,  475. 

Pine  forests,  Salween  ;  Kollidoo  ;  Kyouk-nyat ;  Pahpoon  ;  Wimpong  ;  Thoung- 
Eha  Gyne  E. ;  Paracluba. 

Confined  to  the  hills  and  isolated  limestone  rocks  of  the 
northern  and  central  portions  of  the  province. 

[Occurring  in  hills  and  in  the  plains  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  the  various  isolated  limestone  outcrops.  In  the  hills,  like  its 
Indian  congener,  it  was  usually  found  about  mountain  torrents 
and  rocky  ravines.  Its  notes  and  habits  are  also  quite  similar 
to  those  of  the  Indian  bird.  About  the  limestone  rocks  their 
are  no  torrents,  and  there  they  keep  about  the  brushwood, 
chiefly  near  their  bases.  They  feed  largely  on  small  landshells, 
which  are  extremely  abundant  about  these  rocks,  and  it  is 
this  great  supply  of  their  favourite  food  which,  I  believe, 
attracts  them  to  these,  apparently,  otherwise  scarcely  congenial 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  237 

localities.  No  one  who  has  handled  many  fresh  specimens  of 
both  can  doubt  the  distinctness  of  this  and  the  Himalayan 
species.  You  could  distinguish  them  in  the  jungle  by  the 
colour  of  the  bil    alone. — W.  D.] 

344. — Hydromis  nipalensis,  Hodgs. 

Blyth  (B.  of  B.,  p.  97)  gives  this  from  Tenasserim,  but  he  had 
doubtless  failed  to  note  the  distinctions  between  true  nipalensis 
and  oatesi,  the  form  that  really  occurs  in  Tenasserim.  There  is 
no  reason  to  believe  that  true  nipalensis  does  occur  any  where 
in  Tenasserim,  as  even  in  Karennee;  in  the  extreme  north  Ramsay 
procured  oatesi. 

344  Ms.— Hydromis  oatesi,    Hume,  (22).     Descr. 
S.F.,1.,477. 

(Earennee,  from  2,500  to  4,000  feet,  Earns.)  Assoon;  Mooleyifc;  Meetan. 

Confined  to  the  hilly  portions  of  the  northern  and  central 
sections  of  the  province. 

[Excessively  numerous  in  thin  tree  jungle  at  the  base  of 
the  south-western  spurs  of  Mooleyit,  and  occurring,  though 
rarely  elsewhere,  on  the  hills  to  5,000  feet  elevation.  I  saw, 
but  failed  to  secure,  a  specimen  near  Pahpoon.  Like  other 
Pittas,  they  keep  to  the  ground,  industriously  turning  over 
the  dry  leaves.  When  suddenly  disturbed  or  put  up  by  dogs 
they  will  rise  and  fly,  but  I  never  saw  these  light  upon  any 
tree  or  bush ;  they  always  drop  again  on  the  ground  after  fly- 
ing, sometimes  as  much  as  au  hundred,  sometimes  only  a  few 
yards.  They  have  a  clear,  full,  double-whistled  note,  which  they 
utter  occasionally,  not  nearly  so  often  as  most  of  the 
other  species.  They  feed  on  insects,  grubs,  slugs,  and  small 
shells,  and  like  all  Pittas  largely  also  on  ants. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions  and  colors  of  soft  parts  of  a 
large  series  recorded  in  the  flesh : — 

Males.—  Length,  9*25  to  10*0 ;  expanse,  15-5  to  15*75;  tail 
from  vent,  25  to  2*7  ;  wing,  4'6  to  4'85  ;  tarsus,  21  to  2-2 ; 
bill  from  gape,  1'31  to  1'4  ;  weight,  4'25  to  4-75  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  925  to  9'75 ;  expanse,  15-25  to  156  ;  tail 
from  vent,  2'4  to  2"6 ;  wing,  4'65  to  4*9 ;  tarsus,  2'0  to  2'2 ; 
bill  from  gape,  1*3  to  1*4  ;  weight,  3*5  to  4*5  ozs. 

Legs  and  feet  are  dark  pinkish  fleshy,  or  pale  fleshy  brown ; 
claws  whitish ;  the  upper  mandible  varies  from  pale  brown 
to  almost  black ;  lower  mandible  very  pale  brown  to  fleshy 
white. 


238  BIRDS  OF  TENASSERIM. 

344  ter.— Pitta  cyanea,  Blyth.  (32).  Descr.  S.  P.,  III., 

107. 

{Karen  Sills,  at  2,000  feet,  Earns.)  Dargwin  ;  Pahpoon  ;  Beeling  5  Tliatone; 
Thenganee  Sakan  ;  Assoon  ;  Mooleyit ;    Meetan  ;   Amherst. 

Occurs  throughout  the  northern  and  central  portions  of  the 
province,  but  is  nowhere  very  common. 

[This  species  occurs  in  Tenasserim  to,  at  any  rate,  as  far 
south  as  Tavoy,  where  I  saw  but  failed  to  obtain  it.  It  is  nowhere 
very  numerous,  but  is  most  so  in  the  north  about  Pahpoon,  and 
again  further  south  about  the  bases  of  the  south-western  spurs 
of  Mooleyit.  Where  I  found  it  in  the  north,  it  was  frequenting 
chiefly  bamboo  jungles;  but  I  shot  mauy  in  thin  tree  jungle 
at  Beeling  and  Meetan,  and  one  I  got  at  Ahmerst  was  also  shot 
in  the  tree  jungle  at  the  foot  of  the  hills.  In  notes  and  habits 
it  resembles  H.  oatesi  ;  in  fact  it  is  impossible  to  distinguish 
the  notes  of  these  two.  Although  occurring  in  the  hills,  even 
high  upon  Mooleyit,  they  are  rare  there,  and  are  more  birds 
of  the  plains  than  of  the   hills. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c.,  recorded  from  a  large 
series  : — 

Males. — Length,  8*8  to9'4;  expanse,  J4-8  to  15*4;  tail  from 
vent,  2*3  to  2'45  ;  wing,  4*4  to  4*75;  tarsus,  17  to  1*8;  bill 
from  gape,  1*12  to  1'25;  weight,  3'75  to  4*25  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  8*75  to  9"75 ;  expanse,  15'0  to  15*12  ;  tail 
from  vent,  21  to  2#6 ;  wing,  4*5  to  4*6  ;  tarsus,  1*7  to  1*8  ;  bill 
from  gape,  1*2  ;  weight,  3'5  to  4*25  ozs. 

Legs,  feet,  and  claws  fleshy  white;  sometimes  tinged  purplish ; 
bill  black ;  gape  fleshy  white  to  yellowish  brown ;  irides  deep 
brown. 

344  quat. — ?  Pitta  ccerulea,  Raff.  (4).  ?  P.  davisoni, 
Hume.  S.  F.,  III.,  321  n. 

Baukasoon. 

A  rare  visitant  to  the  evergreen  forests  of  the  southern  ex- 
tremity of  the  province. 

[I  first  obtained  this  species  on  the  26th  March  in  the  ever- 
green forests  of  Bankasoon,  two  males,  on  the  same  day ; 
one  I  found,  caught  in  one  of  my  traps  in  the  morning,  the 
second  I  shot  as  it  was  hopping  along  the  forest  path  the  same 
evening.  For  a  couple  of  months  previously  I  had  daily  been 
exploring  these  forests,  but  had  never  met  with  the  bird,  and  it  is 
my  belief  that  they  had  then  only  just  arrived.  From  this 
time  up  to  my  departure  from  Malewoon,  in  July,  I  on  several 
occasions  saw  the  bird ;  the  most  northern  point  at  which  I 
observed  it  was  near  the  village  of  Layuah,  on  the  16th  of 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  239 

May.  The  next  year  in  April  I  shot  a  third  male  at  Banka- 
soon,  and  in  May  we  obtained  our  first  female.  They  are  ex- 
tremely shy,  and  not  at  all  like  the  other  Pittas.  Directly  they 
catch  sight  of  you,  they  rise  flying  low,  but  rapidly,  and  not 
alighting  under  200  or  300  yards,  when,  of  course,  in  the  dense 
forests,  where  alone  they  occur,  all  trace  of  them  is  lost.  They 
doubtless  must  call,  but  I  have  never  heard  their  note  to  dis- 
tinguish it.  My  specimens  had  fed  entirely  on  large  black 
ants.— W.  D.] 

I  cannot  help  doubting  that  this  is  the  real  P.  ccerulea  of 
Raffles,  but  if  not,  it  is  certainly  a  very  closely  allied  repre- 
sentative species. 

We  have  now  procured  three  males  and  one  female,  and  all 
differ  in  the  way  pointed  out  in  my  note,  loc.  cit.  supra,  from  all  the 
descriptions  and  plates  which  I  have  been  able  to  examine  of 
ccerulea. 

Two  males  measured. — Length,  11*0  to  11  "62  ;  expanse,  2025 
to  20-8  ;  tail  from  vent,  22  to  2*75  ;  wing,  6  to  ti'37  ;  tarsus, 
2-3  to  2*45  ;  bill  from  gape,  1*75  to  1'76  ;  from  frontal  bone, 
1*75  to  19  ;  weight,  7  and  8  ozs. 

Another  male  has  the  most  extraordinarily  developed  bill,  2"01 
from  gape,  and  exactly  the  same  from  frontal  bone  to  tip. 

A  female  in  the  skin  has  the  wing  5'9  ;  the  tail,  2'7  ;  tarsus, 
2-3  ;  bill  at  front,  17. 

In  the  male,  the  legs  and  feet  were  bluish  fleshy  or  dark 
fleshy,  tinged  with  pale  plumbeous  ;  the  bill  black ;  the  inside 
of  the  mouth  white ;  eyelids  and  gape  very  dark  fleshy ;  irides 
hazel  grey. 

The  male  has  the  forehead,  anterior  portion  of  crown,  and  a 
very  broad  stripe  above  the  eye,  and  extending  backwards  to 
the  nape,  a  very  pale  grey  brown,  suffused  with  a  pale  greenish 
glaucous  tinge.  All  the  feathers  of  the  forehead,  front,  and 
sides  of  the  crown  margined  at  the  tips  with  black ;  middle 
of  crown,  occiput,  and  nape  intense  velvet  black  ;  chin  and 
upper  part  of  throat  whitish ;  lores  and  feathers  immedi- 
ately overhanging  the  lores  pale  brown,  with  a  slight  rufes- 
cent  tinge ;  cheeks,  ear-coverts,  and  sides  of  the  neck,  color- 
ed like  the  feathers  of  the  forehead  and  sides  of  the  crown, 
but  with  the  glaucous  tinge  less  strongly  developed. 

On  the  sides  of  the  neck  immediately  behind,  but  rather  above 
the  ear-coverts,  a  black  velvet  patch,  which  is  really  continuous 
with  the  black  of  the  nape,  but  which,  except  when  the  bird  is 
excited,  appears  divided  from  this  by  the  ends  of  the  elongated 
glaucous  grey  plumes,  forming  the  stripe  already  referred  to, 
and  which  spring  from  the  sides  of  the  occiput.  The  feathers 
of  the  occiput  are  elongated,  forming  apparently  a  full  crest, 
which,  however,  Davison  assures  me,  is  not  erected  by  the  bird 


240  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

in  life;  these  feathers  are  generally,  but  not  always,  extremely 
narrowly  fringed  at  the  tips  with  greyish  brown.  A  broad  black 
half  collar  encircles  the  back  and  sides  of  the  neck,  and  im- 
mediately below  this  the  plumage  of  the  bird  is  a  bright  smalt 
blue,  changing  gradually  into  the  rich  cobalt  of  the  back,  rump, 
scapulars,  and  upper  tail-coverts.  Most  of  the  coverts,  tertiaries 
and  all  but  the  basal  portions  of  the  outer  webs  of  the  secon- 
daries and  the  tail-feathers,  a  rather  duller  cobalt  blue,  the  lat- 
ter, however,  fringed  brighter  at  the  margins.  The  winglet,  pri- 
mary greater  coverts,  primaries,  except  just  at  the  tips  which  are 
bluish,  inner  Webs  of  all  the  secondaries  and  their  outer  webs 
for  a  short  space  below  the  coverts,  deep  blackish  brown  ;  sides  of 
the  neck  in  front  very  pale  brownish  fulvescent,  most  of  the 
feathers  just  perceptibly  margined  darker  at  the  tips,  so  as  to 
give  here  also  a  scaly  appearance,  entirely  wanting  on  the  chin 
and  middle  of  the  throat ;  the  breast  and  upper  abdomen  pale 
fulvous,  a  little  pencilled  and  shaded  with  olive  grey.  Lower 
abdomen  clear  fulvous;  vent  feathers  creamy;  lower  tail-coverts 
slightly  greenish  white.  In  some  specimens  the  black  bases 
of  the  feathers  show  through  just  at  the  base  of  the  throat  and 
produce  the  effect  of  an  imperfect  collar  there. 

The  female  has  a  comparatively  narrow  frontal  band,  and 
a  broad  stripe  over  the  eye  backwards  to  the  nape,  a  somewhat 
pale  glaucous  grey  brown. 

The  whole  of  the  rest  of  the  forehead,  crown,  occiput  and 
elongated  occipital  feathers,  greyish,  like  the  streaks  on  either 
side,  closely  barred  with  black,  and  more  or  less  tinged  with  ru- 
fescent.  The  black  spot  on  the  side  of  the  neck,  and  the  black  collar, 
as  in  the  male ;  cheeks  and  sides  of  the  head  also  much  as  in  the 
male,  but  browner;  whole  interscapulary  region  behind  the  black 
collar,  scapulars,  most  of  the  lesser  and  median  coverts,  and  the 
middle  of  the  back,  rich  rather  brownish  chestnut;  lower  back,  dull 
somewhat  greenish  blue ;  some  of  the  feathers  a  little  fringed  with 
this  chestnut.  Rump  and  upper  tail-coverts  smalt  blue ;  tail  cobalt 
blue.  Primaries  and  their  greater  coverts  much  as  in  the  male, 
but  the  tips  of  the  longer  primaries  a  paler  slaty  grey  ;  seconda- 
ries and  their  greater  coverts  more  or  less  suffused  with  chestnut, 
but  tipped  blue,  or  bluish  in  the  later  secondaries ;  lower  parts 
as  in  the  male,  but  the  feathers  of  the  sides  and  front  of  the  neck 
not  dark  edged,  and  not  therefore  presenting  the  same  scaly 
appearance. 

345  bis.— Pitta  moluccensis,  P.  L.  S.  Mull.  (94). 
Descr.  S.  F,,  III.,  106. 

Moulinein ;  Amherst  ;  Tavoy  5  Shymotee  ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

A  common  seasonal  visitant  to  the  whole  province. 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSKRIM.  241 

[For  many  months  after  my  arrival  in  Burma,  I  did  not  meet 
with  this  species ;  but  while  at  Tavoy,  towards  the  latter  end  of 
April,  after  a  few  good  showers  of  rain,  they  suddenly  appeared 
in  great  numbers  in  the  gardens  and  plantations  in  and  about 
Tavoy.  Before  the  rain  I  can  safely  affirm  that  there  were  none 
about  the  place,  for  day  after  day  for  j;he  greater  part  of  the 
month  had  I  been  working  the  country  in  which  they  subse- 
quently became  so  numerous.  From  this  time  till  I  left  Burma 
in  July  they  were  numerous  everywhere 

Subsequently  I  have,  year  by  year,  noticed  the  annual  mi- 
gration throughout  the  southern  and  central  portions  of  the 
province.  Very  likely  they  extend  to  the  north,  but  I  have 
never  been  there  at  the  right  season.  I  suspect,  however,  that 
they  are  rather  a  coast-loving  species. 

Although  the  great  mass  of  the  birds  come  as  described,  a  few, 
I  think,  remain  all  the  year  round  in  the  mangrove  swamps  of 
the  southern  extremity  of  the  province ;  at  any  rate  I  have  found 
them  there  from  January  to  July. 

This  species  is  very  fond  of  perching  on  trees;  you  may  con- 
tinually see  them  high  up  upon  high  trees  calling  vociferously. 

They  are  not  at  all  wild  or  shy  birds ;  they  feed  freely  on  ants 
and  their  larva?,  all  insects,  grubs  and  land  shells.  I  never  notic- 
ed this  or  any  of  its  congeners  coming  to    the  water  to  drink. 

This  and  the  closely-allied  P.  megarhynclia  seem  to  fre- 
quent most  commonly  thin  tree  jungle,  where  there  is  not  much 
under-wood  and  the  mangrove  swamps,  but  they  also  occur 
abundantly  in  gardens  and  plantations.  They  both  have  a  fine 
clear  double  note,  which  may  constantly  be  heard  in  the  mor- 
ning and  evening  wherever  they  occur.  They  are  decidedly 
noisy  and  often  call  all  day,  and  on  moonlight  nights  a  great 
part  of  the  night  also. — W.  I).] 

Somebody  said,  I  forget  who,  that  Pitta  bertce,  of  Salvadori, 
is  only  the  young  of  this  species  ;  but  I  feel  pretty  certain  that 
this  is  not  the  case,  as  I  have  examined  quite  young  birds  and 
have  not  found  them  resemble  or  approach  bertce  in  any  way. 
Bertce  has  all  but  the  middle  portion  of  the  crown  and  occiput 
chestnut;  a  very  conspicuous  buffy  white  supercilium;  green 
secondaries  ;  very  pale  blue  rump  and  upper  tail-coverts  ;  rosy 
middle  of  abdomen  and  vent.  At  no  age  has  moluccensis  any 
one  of  these. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Male.— Length,  7-75  to  8-25;  expanse,  16-12  to  17-12;  tail 
from  vent,  1*5  to  1*75 ;  wing,  4*75  to  5*2  ;  tarsus,  1-65  to  1*75  ; 
bill  from   gape,  1*15  to  1'2;  weight,  2*75  to  30  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  8-0  to  8-12;  expanse,  16-12  to  16-5  ;  tail 
from  vent,  1*5  to  1*75;  wing,  4*75  to  4-82;  tarsus,  155  to  1*6 ; 
bill  from  gape,  1*5  ;  weight,  3  ozs. 

31 


242  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

Legs,  feet,  and  claws  dark  pinkish  flesh  color  ;  bill  black  j 
irides  dark  brown. 

A  young  female  measured: — Length,  7'12;  expanse,  1382  ; 
tail  from  vent,  0'62 ;  wing,  3*7  ;  tarsus,  T62. 

It  had  the  legs  and  feet  flesh  colored,  mottled  with  dusky; 
bill  light  horny  brown ;  the  tips  of  both  mandibles  and  gape 
vermilion;  the  irides  hazel  brown. 

845  ter.— Pitta  megarhyncha,  Schl.  (4). 

Amherst  j  Tavoy  ;  Shymotee  j  Choulai  Creek. 

A  rare  seasonal  visitant,  accompanying  the  preceding,  to 
the  southern  and  central  portions  of  the  province. 

[This  species  is  met  with  in  company  with  the  last,  but  is  very 
much  less  numerous.  I  have  shot  it  at  Tavoy,  Amherst,  and 
south  of  Mergui,  and  I  have  seen  specimens  abtained  in  the 
Delta  of  the  Irrawaddy  in  the  collection  of  Lieutenant  Raikes, 
and  in  Malewoonin  the  collection  of  Mr.  A.  L.  Hough.  In  all  its 
habits,  the  localities  it  frequents,  &c,  it  resembles  the  last.  It 
is  distinguishable  at  a  glance  from  moluccensis. — W.  D.] 

The  Marquis  of  Tweeddale  apparently  thinks  (B.  of  B.,  p.  167) 
that  the  specimens  I  have  recorded  as  megarhyncha  are  only 
moluccensis.  There  is,  however,  not  the  slightest  doubt,  as 
to  our  specimens  being  all  true  mergarhynclia  which  is  distin- 
guished from  moluccensis  not  ouly  by  its  much  longer,  slenderer 
and  excessively  straight  culmened  bill,  but  by  the  duller  and 
darker  brown  of  the  head,  the  absence  of  the  central  black 
band,  the  greater  narrowness  of  the  black  collar,  the  paler 
and  less  rich  tint  of  the  breast,  and  the  slightly  duller  and  paler, 
and  generally  somewhat  greener  tint  of  the  outer  webs  of  the 
terminal  inch  or  so  of  the  secondaries.  Lastly,  the  bird  is  not 
only  longer  in  the  bill,  but  it  is  longer  in  the  body,  as  will  be 
Been  by  the  following  dimensions ;  first  of  the  largest 
moluccensis,  measured  by  Davison,  and  secondly  of  megar- 
hyncha : — 

Length.         Bill  from  gape.         Bill  at  front. 

P.  moluccensis  8-25  1*2  1*17. 

V,  megarhyncha        9' 12  1*62  15. 

Other   dimensions  do  not   differ     from  those   of  moluccensis. 

Males  measured.—  Length,  9*0  to  9'12;  expanse,  16*25;  tail 
from  vent,  1*5  to  1*82  ;  wing,  4*75  ;  tarsus,  1*55  to  L62  ;  bill 
from  gape,  1*62;  weight,  4  ozs.  against  3  ozs.,  which  is  about 
the  maximum  of  moluccensis. 

The  legs  and  feet  were  dark  fleshy ;  bill  black ;  irides  deep 
brown. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  243 

Forehead,  crown,  occiput,  and  nape  a  dull  wood  brown ; 
feathers  of  the  occiput  much  more  developed  than  in  moluc- 
censis, and  in  the  bird  when  at  rest  or  in  skins  descending1  much 
lower  on  the  nape  than  in  moluccensis,  and  all  but  concealing 
the  black  nuchal  collar.  Moreover,  the  brown  of  the  head  in 
the  present  species  extends  further  laterally  on  the  sides  of 
the  head  behind  the  eye,  so  as  to  reduce  the  amount  of  black 
on  the  sides  of  the  head  also.  Lores,  an  excessively  narrow 
line  over  the  eye;  feathers  at  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible 
and  under  the  eye,  ear-coverts  and  a  band  extending  from 
behind  these  round  the  nape  black.  Chin  and  throat  white ; 
feathers  about  vent  and  lower  tail-coverts  intense  crim- 
son scarlet ;  rest  of  lower  parts  rather  dull  buff,  rather  paler 
on  the  lower  abdomen  on  either  side  of  the  red,  and  shaded  with 
green  at  the  sides  of  the  breast ;  entire  back,  upper  part  of  rump, 
whole  of  scapulars,  visible  portion  of  tertiaries  and  their  greater 
coverts,  and  the  visible  portions  of  two  or  three  of  the  later  se- 
condaries and  their  greater  coverts,  dull  dark  grass  green,  not 
quite  so  pure  a  color  as  in  moluccensis.  The  whole  of  the  lesser 
and  median  wing-coverts,  the  lower  rump,  and  upper  tail-coverts, 
which  extend  within  0*2  of  the  end  of  the  tail,  glistening  smalt 
blue.  Primaries  and  their  greater  coverts  black,  most' of  the 
latter  more  or  less  overlaid  at  the  tips  with  dull  bluish  green. 
The  primaries  with  an  immense  white  band  extending  over 
both  webs  of  all  but  the  first,  beginning  about  the  middle  of  the 
first  quill,  and  extending  further  and  further  towards  the  tip 
on  each  succeeding  primary,  until  at  the  7th  or  8th  it  quite 
involves  the  whole  tip  ;  secondaries  black  ;  their  greater  coverts, 
and  their  outer  webs  for  about  the  terminal  one  inch,  dull 
pale  greenish  blue. 

346.— Pitta  cuculata,  Earth  (29). 

Amherst;  Bankasoon;  Malewoon. 

A.  seasonal  visitant  to  the  southern  and  central  portions 
of  the  province. 

[This  species  is  much  rarer  and  more  of  a  forest  bird  than 
moluccensis.  Its  call  is  similar,  but  not  nearly  so  often  heard  ; 
firstly  because  the  bird  is  only  about  one-tenth  as  numerous,  and 
secondly  because  those  that  are  there,  call  much  less  frequently. 
These  also  sit  about  in  trees  a  great  deal,  and  like  moluccensis  are, 
I  believe,  merely  migrants,  as  I  have  only  shot  them  from  April 
to  July. 

I  have  remarked  nothing  special  about  their  habits,  but  they 
seem  with  us  to  cling  a  good  deal  to  the  coast,  although  I  have 
never  seen  them  in  mangrove  swamps. — W.  D.] 


y 


244  BTKDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  of  adult  males  recorded 
in  the  flesh  : — 

Length,  6*8  to  7*62  ;  expanse,  14*5  to  15*25  ;  tail  from  vent, 
1-5  to  1-62;  wing,  4'35  to  45  ;  tarsus,  1*45  to  1*62  ;  bill  from 
gape,  1"0  to  1*12  ;  weight,  2'  to  2*5  ozs. 

Legs  and  feet  fleshy  white ;  bill  black;  irides  dark  brown. 

346  bis. — Pitta  gurneyi,  Hume.  (62).  Descr.  S.  F.,IIL, 
296,  PL  (in.) 

Lajnah  ;  Palaw-ton-ton  ;  Bantasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

A  seasonal  visitant  to  the  evergreen  forests  of  the  southern- 
most portions  of  the  province. 

[This  is  apparently  only  a  migratory  species  in  Tenasserim, 
and  occurs,  so  far  as  I  have  observed,  only  in  the  southern  por- 
tion of  the  province.  Laynah  was  the  most  northern  locality 
at  which  I  observed  it,  and  Kenong  within  the  estuary  of  the 
Pakchan,  but  on  the  Siamese  or  southern  side,  the  most  southern. 

A  few  specimens  begin  to  make  their  appearance  in  the  forests 
round  Malewoon  and  Bankasoon  (where  my  specimens  were 
mostly  collected)  about  the  10  th  or  so  of  February;  but  they 
remain  scarce  during  February,  March,  and  the  first  two  weeks 
in  April.  After  that  they  become  rather  more  numerous,  and 
continue  so  till  the  end  of  May,  and  until  the  regular  monsoon 
rains  have  set  in,  when  they  rapidly  disappear,  though  even  in 
July  a  few  specimens  may  be  met  with.  The  bird  confines 
itself  to  the  evergreen  forests,  never,  that  I  am  aware,  venturing 
into  the  open  or  even  into  gardens.  It  is  shy  and  retiring, 
and  en  the  slightest  indication  of  danger  hops  rapidly  away 
managing  generally  to  keep  some  obstacle  intervening  between 
itself  and  the  appi'oaching  person.  It  is  by  no  means  a  common 
bird  even  where  it  does  occur,  and  it  was  only  by  persistently 
hunting  them,  and  never  missing  an  opportunity  of  securing 
a  bird  where  possible,  that  I  and  my  people  succeeded  in  getting 
the  number  we  did. 

Its  habits  are  like  those  of  other  members  of  the  genus, 
keeping  to  the  ground ;  it  feeds  on  snails,  worms,  slugs 
and  insects  of  all  kinds.  When  disturbed,  unless  closely  pressed, 
it  seldom  flies,  but  hops  rapidly  away,  until  it  gains  the  cover 
of  some  tangled  cane  break  or  other  refuge,  where  it  remains 
until  satisfied  that  all  danger  has  passed,  it  emerges  again  into 
the  more  open  spots.  Favorite  resorts  are  the  narrow  valleys 
lying  between  the  hills.  These,  though  densely  wooded,  contain 
little    or    no    undergrowth. 

The  note  is  quite  that  of  Pitta,  but  yet  differs  notably  from 
that  of  the  other  species.  When  suddenly  come  upon  or  othei'- 
wise  alarmed  it  utters  a  peculiar  note — a  sort  of  kir-r-r.     It  has 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  245 

a  habit  of  jerking  up  its  tail  and  dropping  its  wings  slightly  as 
it  hops  along,  which  I  have  never  observed  in  its  congeners. 

As  above  mentioned,  it  is  almost  exclusively  aground  bird,  but 
one  evening  I  shot  a  male  high  up  in  a  tree ;  it  attracted  my  at- 
tention^  by  the  peculiar  short  double  note  it  was  uttering,  quite 
unlike  its  ordinary  note,  and  every  time  it  uttered  it,  it  flapped 
its  wings  and  jerked  up  its  tail.  Usually  it  is  found  singly,  oc- 
casionally a  couple  together.  During  the  morning  and  eVenino- 
they  call,  and  may  then  be  heard  answering  one  another  in  all 
directions. 

They  do  notbreed,  I  think,  within  our  limits,  but  go  proba- 
bly to  Siamor  iuto  the  higher  portions  of  the  hills  dividing  Siam 
from  Tenasserim.  At  any  rate  specimens  dissected  in°  April, 
May  and  June  showed  no  signs  of  breeding.— W.  D.] 

346  ter.— Anthocincla  phayrei,  Blyth.    (3).    Male. 
Descr.  S.  F.,  III.,  109,  pi.  2.  ' 

(Tonghoo,  Phayre.)    Dargwin  ;  Sinzaway  Reserve  ;  Younzaleen  ;  Wimpong. 

Very  sparingly  distributed  in  suitable  localities  throughout 
the  northern  and  central  portions  of  the  province, 

[A  very  rare  bird  in  Tenasserim,  and  confined  apparently  to 
the  plains  and  low  hills.  I  have  seen  it  only  some  half  a  dozen 
times.  It  has  all  the  habits  of  a  true  Pitta,  keeping  and  feed- 
ing, so  far  as  I  have  observed,  exclusively  on  the  ground.  It 
affects  moderately  thin  tree  jungle.  I  observed  it  on  one  occa- 
sion close  to  Meetan.  I  have  never,  that  I  am  aware,  heard  the 
note  of  this  Thrush.— W.  D.] 

I  formerly  described  the  male  from  Dargwin  in  the  Salween 
District,  a  place  about  120  miles  north  of  Moulmein.  Another 
male,  kindly  shot  for  me  by  Captain  Bingham  in  the  Sin- 
zaway  forests  near  Pahpoon,  measured  in  the  flesh  : — 

_  Length,  9  ;  expanse,  13'4  ;  wing,  3'9  ;  tail,  23  ;  tarsus,  12  ; 
bill  from  gape,  1*6. 

The  plumage  and  the  colors  of  the  soft  parts  were  as  in  the 
specimen  originally  described. 

A  female  shot  at  Wimpong,  fifteen  miles  south-east  of  Thatone, 
measured  :— Length,  9  ;  wing,  3*9  ;  tail,  235  ;  tarsus,  1-2;  bill 
to  forehead,  1*4. 

The  female  only  differs  from  the  male  in  having  the  breast 
and  sides  more  densely  black  spotted,  in  having  the  ear-coverts 
much  the  same  color  as  the  back,  only  a  little  pencilled  with 
blackish  dusky  instead  of,  as  in  the  male,  black,  a  little  pencilled 
with  the  color  of  the  back,  and  in  having  the  nape,  occiput, 
and  middle  of  the  crown  unicolorous  with  the  back  instead  of 
jet  black  as  in  the  male.  The  aigrettes  are  also  a  little  shorter 
and  rather  less  pure  white.  The  under  tail-coverts  are  very 
much  more  faintly  tinged  with  red. 


246  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM, 

350  bis.—  Zoothera  marginata,  Blyth.  (3). 

(Karennee,  from  1,500  to  3,000  feet,  Ram9.)     Dargwin  ;  Mooleyit;    Meetan. 

Confined  apparently  to  the  hills  of  the  northern  and  central 
sections  of  the  province,  and  their  neighbourhood. 

[This  too  is  a  very  rare  bird  in  Tenasserim,  frequenting  low 
tree  jungle  like  the  last,  but  apparently  ascending  the  hills 
higher,  for  I  have  shot  it  at  about  5,000  feet  on  the 
Mooleyit  range.  Its  food  (as  I  found  by  an  examination  of  the 
stomachs  of  those  I  obtained)  consists  of  insects  of  various 
sorts  and  their  larvse,  and  small  land  shells.  I  have  never  heard 
the  note  of  the  bird,  and  know  next  to  nothing  about  its  habits. 
All  the  specimens  I  obtained  were  shot  on  the  ground 
where  they  were  busy  turning  over  dead  leaves  as  so  many 
Thrushes  do.— W.  D.] 

We  only  obtained  females  of  this  species,  and  curiously 
enough  my  only  sexed  specimens  of  this  species,  from  Sikim 
and  the  Bootan  Doars,  ai*e  also  females.  The  bird  is  a  minia- 
tureof  Zoothera  monticola,  but  is  a  somewhat  more  rufescent  olive 
brown  above,  without  the  darker  margins  to  the  feathers  of  the 
back,  which  in  monticola  give  these  parts  a  scaly  appearance ; 
and  with  the  feathers  of  the  middle  of  the  breast  and  abdomen 
regularly  margined  with  olive  brown,  giving  these  parts  a 
scaly  appearance,  which  is  wanting  in  monticola. 

The  following  are  dimensions  and  colors  of  the  soft  parts  of 
females  : — 

Females. — Length,  9*5  to  10*12  ;  expanse,  1575  to  16'12  ;  tail 
from  vent,  2"8  to  362  ;  wing,  4*85  to  5*05 ;  tarsus,  1*1  to  l'jj ; 
bill  from  gape,  1*45  to  1*6  ;  weight,  3*0  to  3'75  ozs. 

The  legs  and  feet  varied  from  dark  brown  to  pale  bluish 
brown ;  the  claws  pale  horny  ;  the  upper  mandible  and  lower 
mandible  from  tip  to  angle  of  gonys  from  black  to  very  dark 
horny  brown  ;  rest  of  lower  mandible  reddish  to  bluish  fleshy  ; 
gape  yellowish  or  fleshy  white ;  irides  deep  hair  brown. 

The  entire  upper  parts  are  a  rich  olive  brown,  slightly  rufes- 
cent on  the  back,  more  decidedly  so  on  the  rump,  and  usually 
paler  and  still  more  rufescent  on  the  wings.  Some  few  of  the 
median  and  secondary  greater  coverts  with  rufous  buff  tippings  ; 
primary  greater  coverts  tipped  with  brown.  Some  birds  are 
much  more,  and  others  much  less,  rufescent  on  back  and  wings, 
and  the  tippiugs  above  described  are  very  conspicuous  in  some, 
almost  obsolete  in  other  birds.  The  inner  webs  of  the  quills 
are  hair  brown  with  a  broad  buff  or  rufous  buff  patch  on  the 
inner  webs  towards  the  bases  of  all  but  the  first  three  prima- 
ries and  with  a  trace  of  the  same  on  the  third.  The  central 
tail-feathers  and  the  outer  webs  of  the  lateral  ones  are  the 
same  color  as  the  rump,  that  is,  more  olivaceous  in  some 
specimens,  more  rufescent  in  others. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  247 

The  lores  and  feathers  under  the  eye  are  white,  speckled  with 
brown,  and  so  are  the  feathers  immediately  surrounding  the 
eye  everywhere.  The  ear-coverts  are  olive  brown,  more  or 
less  streaked  with  white,  (it  varies  very  much  in  different 
specimens,)  and  the  posterior  ones  tipped  black  or  blackish. 

From  the    gape  and    again    from  the  lower    edges  of  the 
rami  of  the  lower  mandible,  two  narrow  dusky  olive   streaks' 
run    down  to  the    breast,  near  the    breast  becoming  broader 
and  blacker,     These  streaks,    very  apparent  in   the  fresh   bird 
or   in    very  fine    specimens,    get  very  much    jumbled    up  in 
in  different  ones.     The  upper   two-thirds  of  the  space  enclosed 
between    these   two    stripes  on    either  side,    white,    regularly 
and   narrowly    banded     with    dusky  olive.     The   entire    chin, 
throat,    and    front    of  the    neck  bounded    by  the    innermost 
stripe  of  each  pair  on  either  side,  white,  not  very  pure,  some- 
times unmarked,  sometimes  showing  traces  of  banding  similar  to 
that  on  the  spaces  between  the  pairs  of  stripes.  Sides'of  the  neck 
olive  brown,  with  more  or  less  of  black  central  stripes ;  sides  of 
breast  and  abdomen  olive    brown ;  the  feathers  with  larger  or 
smaller  central  white  markings,  sometimes  large  white  oval  spots, 
sometimes  mere  shaft  lines,  sometimes  almost,  if  not  quite,  ob- 
solete on    the  sides  of  the  breast.    Middle    of  breast  buffy  or 
buffy  white  ;_  middle  of  abdomen  white ;  the  feathers  of  both  parts 
margined  with  olive  brown  or  olive  dusky,  imparting  a  scaly 
appearance  ;  lower  abdomen,  immediately  above  the  vent,  pure 
white ;  lower-tail  coverts  dull  olive  brown,  with  larger  or  smaller 
buffy  white  or  buffy  fawn  colored  markings,  beginning  as  a  shaft 
line,  and  expanding  towards  the  tips,  where,  of  course,  they  are 
broadest ;  in  some  specimens  these  markings  occupy  the  greater 
portion  of  the  feather ;  in  others  they  are  quite  small  and  in- 
conspicuous.    Lower  coverts  at  the  shoulder  of  the  wing  and 
basal  halves  of  axillaries  white,  with  in  some  a  faint  buffy  Tinge  ; 
rest  of   axillaries  and  rest  of  the    coverts,  except  just  at  the 
base  of  the  earlier  primaries,  moderately  dark  brown,  sometimes 
olivaceous,  and    the  hinder  secondary  greater  coverts  broadly 
tipped   with  pale  buff.     In  monticola,    the    axillaries,    though 
similar,  are  conspicuously   tipped  with  white,  and  the  band  on 
the  inner  webs  and  the  tippings  to  the  secondary  greater  coverts, 
are  white  and  not  buffy. 

351.— Cyanocincla  cyana,  Lin.  (40). 

(Tonghoo  Karen  Kills,  from  2,000  to  4,000  feet,  Rams.)  Pine  forest,  Sal  ween  ; 
Xolhdoo  ;  Dargwm  ;  Thatone  ;  Myawadee  ;  Kaukaryit,  Houngthraw  R. ;  Lnrthor- 
pee;  Moul.nem  ;  Momenzeik  ,  Pabyouk  ;  Meetan  ;  Amherst;  Lemyne  ;  Tavoy  ; 
Mergui;    Sadjin  ;   Bopym  ;    Bankasoon  ;   Malewoon, 

A  very  abundant  cold  weather  visitant  to  every  portion  of 
the  province. 


248  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

[Occurs  throughout  the  province  alike  in  hills  and  plains. 
I  saw  one  specimen  on  the  top  of  the  little  pagoda  built  at  the 
summit  of  Mooleyit.  It  is  only  a  cold  weather  visitant,  departing 
early  in  March.— W  D.] 

Although  I  have  entered  a  certain  number  of  specimens  as 
Cyanocincla  solitaria,  I  am  bound  to  say  that  I  incline  to  Mr. 
Swinhoe's  opinion  that  this  supposed  species  is  not  really  a 
good  one. 

It  appears  to  me  that  we  have  here  a  case  precisely  analogous 
to  that  of  Iora  typhia,  zeylonica  and  scapularis,  in  which  while 
throughout  the  range  the  females  are  identical,  the  males  in 
certain  localities  assume  no  black,  in  certain  localities  a  great 
deal,  and  in  others  a  varying  amount ;  so  here,  too,  it  seems  to  me 
that  from  Spain  to  Amoy  the  females  are  undistinguishable,  while 
within  certain  geographical  limits  the  majority  of  the  males 
assume  a  greater  or  less  amount  of  chestnut  in  the  lower  plu- 
mage, nothing  like  which  is  seen  in  specimens  obtained  in  other 
parts  of  the  birds'  geographical  range. 

I  have  just  examined  110  specimens  of  this  species  from  Spain, 
Asia  Minor,  Muscat,  Kelat,  all  parts  of  India  and  Burma,  and 
Hainan,  Amoy  and  Formosa.  I  can  discover  no  valid  difference 
between  the  females,  in  what  appears  to  me  to  be  the  normal  adult 
garb  of  the  female,  though  I  think  that  as  a  body  European 
and  Indian  specimens,  obtained  west  of  an  imaginary  line  drawn 
from  somewhere  in  Nepal  to  some  point  a  little  west  of  Calcutta, 
are  rather  dingier,  and  have  the  spots  of  the  throat  and  breast 
rather  more  rufescent  than  those  obtained  eastward  of  this 
line  ;  but  this  distinction  is  not  absolutly  constant,  and  does  not 
appear  to  me  to  possess  any  real  value. 

On  a  former  occasion,  S.  F ,  III.,  113,  I  disputed  Mr.  Sharpe's 
conclusion  that  the  adult  females  were  precisely  similar  to  the 
males.  I  still  doubt  that  the  females  normally  assume  the  com- 
plete blue  garb  of  the  male.  1  personally  have  never  met  with 
a  female  in  this  garb,  but  I  have  now  out  of  an  immense 
number  of  females,  three,  two  from  India  and  one  from  Burma, 
the  latter  of  which  at  any  rate  ought  to  be  thoroughly  reliably 
sexed  which  are  in  the  blue  plumage,  and  I  have  another  speci- 
men from  Burma  also,  like  the  other  above  referred  to,  sexed  by 
Davison,  which  has  the  upper  surface  almost  like  that  of  the 
male,  and  with  a  very  strong  blue  tinge  on  the  sides  and  flankg. 

If,  however,  the  adult  female  normally  assumed  this  garb 
there  ought  to  be  at  least  five  times  as  many  blue  females 
amongst  my  specimens  sexed  by  dissection ;  and  it  is  impossible  to 
avoid  the  conclusion  that,  if  these  exceptional  specimens  have  been 
correctly  sexed,  then  the  females  only  assume  the  blue  plumage 
either  when  very  old  or  abnormally,  as  is  the  case  with  the  hen 
birds  which  are  barren,  or  have  diseased  ovaries,  in  many  species. 


BIRDS    OF    TENASSERIM.  249 

All  the  specimens,  therefore,  that  I  have  noted  as  solitaria, 
with  the  exception  of  the  one  female  from  Burma  already 
referred  to,  are  males.  Of  course  female  birds  were  shot  along 
with  these,  and  some  of  these  must  have  belonged  to  the  same 
race  as  the  birds  exhibiting  red  in  their  plumage,  but  along 
with  these  were  also  shot  numbers  of  males  in  every  stao-e 
from  the  quite  young  to  the  perfectly  adult  bird,  exhibiting  no 
vestige  of  rufous  plumage,  and  some  of  the  females  must  have 
belonged  to  these  also  ;  and  I  am  totally  unable  to  discover  any 
diagnosis  by  which  the  females  pertaining  to  the  so-called 
solitaria  race  can  be  distinguished  from  those  belonging  to  the 
cyana  form. 

Amongst  the  birds  that  I  have  recorded  as  solitaria  is  a  male 
absolutely  identical  with  one  from  Grenada  in  Spain,  except  in 
having  a  chestnut  edge  to  two  of  the  feathers  of  the  lower  tail- 
coverts.  Amongst  them  are  also  two  birds  with  the  whole  of 
the  abdomen,  vent,  lower  tail-coverts,  sides,  axillaries,  and  wino-.  ■ 
lining,  deep  chestnut,  and  all  the  other  specimens  are  intermedi- 
ate, as  regards  the  amount  of  rufous  exhibited,  between  these 
latter  and  the  specimen  first  referred  to. 

Besides  these  Tenasserim  specimens,  I  have  Indian  and 
Burmese  specimens,  showing  more  or  less  chestnut,  generally  on 
the  vent  and  under  tail-coverts  only,  but  in  one  or  two  cases  on 
the  abdomen  also,  from  Diamond  Island,  Akyab,  Thayetmyo, 
Dacca,  Tipperah,  Cachar  and  Sikim,  but  we  have  no  specimen 
in  our  museum  obtained  west  of  the  imaginary  line  above 
referred  to,  exhibiting  any  rufous  whatsoever  in  the  plumao-e, 
nor  amongst  the  hundreds  of  specimens  that  I  have  examined 
from  all  parts  of  the  empire  west  of  this  line  have  I  seen  such. 
It  may  be  well  to  state  for  what  it  is  worth  that,  of  the  few 
males  killed  in  the  extreme  south  of  Tenasserim,  not  one  but 
exhibits  some  trace  of  rufous,  and  birds  exhibiting  rufous  have 
been  obtained  throughout  the  whole  length  of  the  Tenasserim 
provinces,  but  except  perhaps  in  the  extreme  south,  the  cyana 
form  seems  greatly  to  predominate ;  for  instance  out  of 
between  30  and  40  specimens  obtained  by  Dr.  Armstrong*  at 
Amherst  only  three  exhibited  any  trace  of  rufous. 

It  appears  to  me  that  such  evidence  as  we  possess  is  entirely 
against  the  specific  distinctness  of  the  eastern  race.  The 
females  are  alike,  but  within  certain  geographical  limits  a  certain 
number  of  the  males,  greater  or  less  in  different  localities 
within  that  area,  assume  a  certain  amount  of  chestnut  in  the 
lower  plumage,  varying  from  a  single  feather  to  more  than  half 
the  plumage.  But  if  Messrs.  Sharpe  and  Dresser's  surmise  is 
correct,    and  the   rufous    plumage,  even  in    the  birds    that   do 


*  Not  retained  by  me,  and  so  not  included  in  the  number  of  our  specimens. 

32 


250  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

assume  it,  is  altogether  dropped  in  raatuver  age,  this,  coupled  with 
the  facts  above  stated,  seems  to  me  to  give  the  coup  de  grace  to 
this  supposed  species. 

351  Us.— Cyanocincla  solitaria,  Mull.  (12). 

Kyouk-nyat ;  Palipoon  ;  Khyketo  ;  Thoungsha  Gyne  E.  ;  Meetan  ;  Amherst  j 
Zadee ;  Pakchan;  Bankasoon. 

Occurring  as  a  cold  weather  visitant  throughout  the  province. 

[Only  a  cold  weather  visitant,  departing  about  the  same  time 
as  the  preceding,  and  resembling  it  in  habits,  being  very 
partial  to  ruins  and  rocks ;  the  dried  trees  standing  about  old 
clearings  are  also  a  favorite  resort.  One  never  sees  two  of 
these  Blue  Rock  Thrushes  together,  but  you  always  meet  with 
both  supposed  species  in  the  same  tract. — W.  D.] 

352.— Orocetes  erythrogaster,  Vig. 

Lieutenant  Wardlaw  Ramsay  notes  (P.  Z.  S.,  1876,  677) 
that  a  specimen  of  this  species  was  procured  by  some  member 
of  the  recent  Karennee-bonndary  expedition  ;  but  this  may  of 
course  have  been  (the  locality  was  not  noted)  somewhere  just 
outside  the  limits  to  which  the  present  list  refers. 

355.— Geocichla  citrina,  Lath.  (23). 

ifTonghoo,  Karennee,  Rams.)  Amherst ;  Yea ;  Pakchan j~  Bankasoon ; 
Malewoon. 

Apparently  confined  in  Tenasserim  proper  to  the  southern  half 
of  the  province,  and  there  to  the  neighbourhood  of  the  coast, 
but  reappearing  in  the  extreme  north  in  the  recently  incorporat- 
ed tracts. 

[Occurring  from  Amherst  southwards,  but  nowhere  very  plen- 
tifully. It  keeps  to  the  forest,  but  to  the  more  open  portions, 
along  the  beds  of  streams,  near  the  forest  paths,  &c.  It  feeds 
usually  on  the  ground,  turning  over  the  dead  leaves  hunting  for 
insects  which  chiefly  constitute  its  food. — W.  D.] 

Blytb/s  species,  G.  innotata,  from  the  Malayan  Peninsula, 
appears  to  me  to  be  a  very  doubtful  species.  The  full  description 
will  be  found  quoted  S.  F.,   I.,  69. 

The  points  relied  on  are  greater  intensity  of  coloration,  no 
white  upon  the  wings,  and  lower  tail-coverts  only,  and  not 
the  vent  also,  white.  We  have  never  succeeded  in  obtaining 
specimens  which  we  could  satisfy  ourselves  were  distinct  from 
citrina. 

As  regards  the  white  on  the  lower  parts,  some  specimens 
of  citrina  have  the  entire  flanks,  lower  abdomen,  vent  and 
lower  tail-coverts  snow  white  ;  such  is  a  specimen  now  before 
me  killed  at  Bankasoon,  13th  December  1875  ;   this  has  a  huge 


BIRDS  OF  TENASSERIM.  251 

patcli  of  white  on  the  wing.  Another  specimen,  killed  close  by 
Malewoon,  13th  December  1875,  also  with  a  conspicuous  white 
wing  patch,  has  scarcely  more  than  the  lower  tail-coverts  white. 
Another  specimen  killed  at  Bankasoon,  27th  December  1875, 
has  not  only  all  the  white  described  in  the  first,  but  has  neai'ly 
the  whole  abdomen  and  one  side  of  the  body  white.  No  doubt 
this  is  abnormal,  but  it  helps  to  show  what  a  variable  character 
the  amount  of  white  on  the  lower  parts  is. 

Then  we  have  a  male  and  female  both  from  Bankasoon,  both 
without  any  white  on  the  wings,  but  neither  of  them  a  bit 
more  intensely  colored  than  some  other  citrina,  and  both  of 
them  with  the  vent,  flank,  feathers  and  lower  tail-coverts  white. 
Some  specimens  have  the  whole  of  the  median  and  primary 
coverts  broadly  tipped  with  whife,  forming  a  conspicuous  bar. 
Some  have  only  three  or  four  of  the  coverts  thus  tipped,  some 
only  two,  some  only  one,  and  the  two  specimens  above  referred 
to,  none.  The  absence  of  white  in  the  wing,  therefore,  does 
not  seem  to  be  a  very  good  character. 

Lastly,  specimens  vary  very  greatly  in  the  intensity  both  of 
the  ferruginous  and  ash. 

Innotata  may  be  a  good  species,  but  we  have  failed  to  procure 
it  both  in  Tenasserim  and  the  Malay  Peninsula,  and  if  distinct 
requires,    I  think,  fuller  definition. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c.j  recorded  in  the  flesh  of 
a  large  series  of  citrina  ;— 

Males.— Length,  8'12  to  90 ;  expanse,  14-0  to  150;  tail 
from  vent,  2'82  to  3*12;  wing,  44  to  4-82;  tarsus,  12  to 
1-35;  bill  from  gape,  1-05  to  1'2;  weight,  2'0  to  30  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  8'2  to  8*5 ;  expanse,  13*75  to  145 ;  tail 
from  vent,  2'75  to  3*25;  wing,  4-5  to  4*62  ;  tarsus,  12  to  1'25; 
bill  from  gape,  l'l ;  weight,  2*25  ozs. 

Legs,  feet,  and  claws  fleshy  white ;  gape  and  base  of  lower 
mandible  fleshy  white;  rest  of  bill  black;  irides  dark  brown; 
nude  patch  behind  eye  flesh  coloured. 

369  Us— -Turdus  obscurus,  Gm.  (24). 

Kyouk-nyat ;  Younzaleen  Creek  ;  Mooleyit ;  Amherst ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

A  seasonal  visitant  throughout  the  province,  alike  to  hills 
and  plains. 

[During  the  cold  weather  this  species  is  widely  spread 
throughout  the  province,  moving  about  in  large  flocks,  the 
majority  of  the  birds  keeping  together,  but  many  straggling 
from  the  main  body.  They  feed  chiefly  on  the  ground,  and  when 
disturbed  rise  generally  en  masse,  and  scatter  into  the  neighbour-, 
ino-  trees.  They  have  a  soft  pleasant  note,  very  like  that  of 
Planesticus  atrogularis  (which  indeed  they  resemble  very  closely 


252  BIRDS    OF   TENASSER1M. 

in  habits,  &c.)  which  they  utter  while  feeding".  They  feed  on 
insects,  grubs,  seeds  and  berries.  During-  the  day  they  usually 
remain  quiet  in  some  shady  tree,  moving  about  and  feeding  as 
a  l'ule  only  in  the  mornings  and  evenings.  I  do  not  know 
exactly  when  they  arrive,  but  they  all  leave  before  the  end  of 
March.— W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c.,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 
Males. — Length,  9'0  to  9'62  ;  expanse,  150  to  15-5  ;  tail  from 
vent,  3-4  to  4*1  ;  wing,  5'0  to  5-45  ;  tarsus,  11  to  l-3;  bill  from 
gape,  0-95  to  1-12  ;  weight,  2-25  to  275  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  882  to  9'5  ;  expanse,  14  to  155  ;  tail  from 
vent,  3'25  to  375  ;  wing,  4'65  to  5-2  ;  tarsus,  1-1  to  1*25;  bill 
from  gape,  1'05  to  1*15  ;  weight,  2  to  2*75  ozs. 

Legs  and  feet  tawny  or  dull  fleshy  yellow,  sometimes  with  a 
greenish  tinge  on  the  front  of  the  tarsus;  the  claws  greenish 
horny  ;  irides  dark  brown  ;  edge  of  eyelids  yellow ;  upper 
mandible  and  tip  of  lower  mandible,  black  or  blackish  horny  ; 
rest  of  lower  rmindible,  gape  and  edge  of  upper  mandible  to 
nostrils,  yellow. 

1  do  not  know  whether  the  differences  in  the  sexes  of  this 
species  have  been  previously  pointed  out. 

The   male  has  the  lores  velvet  black,  the  chin  pure  white,  and 
the  whole  of  the  rest  of  the  front  and    sides  of  the  throat    and 
neck  unbroken  ashy.     The  female  has  the  lores  brown,  the  whole 
of  the  chin  and  a    very    broad   stripe  down    the  middle  of  the 
throat  and  front  of  the  neck  white,  more  or   less    speckled  with 
brown  on  the  upper  part,  and    more    or   less    tinged   with    pale 
brown  or  pale  ashy  on  the  lower  parts,  and  with  a  more  or  less 
distinct  white  stripe  from  the  base  of  the  lower    mandible,    run- 
ning down  under  the  ear-coverts.     The  sides   of  the   head   and 
nape  are  also  much  greyer  in  the  adult  male  than  in  the  female. 
Immature    males  resemble  the  females,  but  have  the  throat 
more  ashy,  and,  as  a  rule,  almost  entirely  want  the  white  stripe 
from  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible.     I  do  not  know  what  the 
quite  young  birds  are  like,  as  we  have  never  procured  any  such. 
The    fully    adult     male   has  the   lores   velvet   black,  and    a 
greyish  white  stripe  beginning  over  the  lores,   extending   over 
the    eye  and    over    a    portion    of    the    ear-coverts.     Feathers 
immediately   below   the  orbit  and  behind  the  eye  dusky  black- 
ish ;  chin  and  the  feathers  just  at  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible 
pure   white  ;    the  rest  of  the  throat,  sides  of  the  head,  front  and 
sides  of  the  neck,  clear  pale  ashy.     The  upper  part  of  the  throat 
and   sides   of  the  face  obscurely  streaked  ashy  ;  the  top  of  the 
head  and  back  of  the  neck  olive  brown,  much  mingled  with  grey 
on   the   occiput   and   nape ;  the    entire   mantle  and   rump,    a 
rich   warm     olive     brown;    tail-coverts   less     olivaceous,     but 
margined  with  the  same  color  as  the    rump  •     the   wings,   hair 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  253 

brown ;  the  earlier  primaries  and  their  greater  coverts  mar- 
gined with  greyish  white.  The  rest  of  the  feathers,  coverts  and 
quills  margined  on,  or  with  the  whole,  outer  webs  olive  brown. 
Tail-feathers  hair  brown,  the  central  ones  with  a  faint  olive  tinge 
on  their  outer  webs,  sometimes  on  both  webs,  and  the  lateral 
leathers  margined  towards  their  bases  with  olive.  The  outer 
two  feathers  on  either  side  with  a  narrow  white  band  at  the  tips 
across  the  corner  of  the  inner  webs;  and,  as  a  rule,  these  and  most 
of  the  rest  of  the  tail  feathers  excessively  narrowly  margined 
along  the  whole  tips  with  white,  or  pale  greyish  brown.  The 
breast,  (except  the  central  portions  of  the  lower  breast)  the  sides 
of  the  abdomen,  and  upper  part  of  the  flanks,  dull,  pale,  somewhat 
ochi-aceous  buff.  Middle  of  lower  portion  of  breast,  middle  of 
abdomen,  vent,  lower  portion  of  flanks  and  lower  tail-coverts,  pure 
white  ;  the  latter  more  or  less  of  a  grey  brown  towards  their  bases, 
which,  when  the  feathers  are  disturbed,  show  through;  feathers  of 
the  tibial  plumes  pale  greyish  brown,  fringed  at  the  tips  with  grey- 
ish white  ;  axillaries  and  wing-lining  delicate  pale  grey,  some  of 
the  feathers  fringed  whitish  at  their  tips. 

The  females  differ  as  already  pointed  out,  have  no  grey  on  the 
sides  of  the  head,  none  on  the  occiput  and  nape,  which  are  uniform 
with  the  back,  and  further  have  the  ochraceous  buff  of  the  lower 
surface,  I  think,  a  little  less  pure. 

Younger  birds  have  the  ear-coverts  all  white  shafted,  and  have 
conspicuous  though  narrow  white  tips  to  the  secondary  greater 
coverts. 

I  may  note  that  Turdus  chrysolaus,  a  bird  very  likely  to  occur 
in  the  Tenasserim  Hills,  is  extremely  like  the  present  species, 
but  has  the  whole  top,  back  and  sides  of  the  head,  chin  and  throat 
olive  brown  like  the  back,  wants  the  white  eyebrow,  and  has 
the  breast  more  ferruginous,  and  the  sides  and  upper  part  of  the 
flanks  decided  ferruginous. 

369  ter.— Turdus  pallidus,  Gm.  (i). 

{Karennee,  at  5,000  feet,  Earns.)  Mooleyit. 

_  Apparently    a  rare    straggler  during  the  cold  season  to  the 
higher  ranges  of  the  province. 

We  only  procured  one  specimen,  a  female,  which  I  provision- 
ally thus  identify.  Assuming  that  Turdus  daulias,  of  Temminck 
(P.  C,  515,  and  T.  and  S.,  Faun.  Jap.  62,  pi.  XXVI.)  is 
identical  with  pallidus  of  Gmelin,  and  this  I  think  Latham's 
(alas  !  too  brief)  original  description  renders  probable,  then  our 
specimen  differs  from  all  plates  and  descriptions  of  this  spe- 
cies, and  from  a  Formosan  specimen  from  Mr.  Swinhoe,  in 
having  a  most^  conspicuous  white  eyebrow,  almost  from  nos- 
trils to  nape ;  in  its  delicate  pure  grey  breast,  upper  abdomen, 


254  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

sides  and  flanks  only  tinged  on  the  sides  of  the  breast  with  olive 
brown ;  and  in  wanting  entirely  alike  the  brown  markings  on 
the  sides,  and  the  conspicuous  brown  flank  patch  figured  by 
Temminck,  and  conspicuously  present  in  the  Formosan  bird. 

As  regards  dimensions,  however,  and  the  color  of  the  upper 
parts,  our  bird  agrees  perfectly  with  Mr.  Swinhoe's,  and  I  can 
only  conclude  that  ours  is  a  perfectly  adult  female,  older  than 
any  that  has  hitherto  been  described. 

Our  bird  when  shot  was  not  discriminated  from  ohscurus, 
with  huge  flocks  of  which  it  was  associating.  It  was  not, 
therefore,  measured  in  the  flesh,  as  great  numbers  of  obscurus 
had  been  already  measured.     The  dry  skin  measures  : —    • 

Length,  8-3;  wing,  4*9;  tail,  36;  tarsus,  1*2  ;  bill  at  front, 
from  frontal  bone,  1*02. 

The  upper  mandible  and  the  tip  of  the  lower  mandible  black- 
ish ;  rest  of  lower  mandible  and  edge  of  upper  mandible  to- 
wards the  base,  yellow ;  legs  and  feet  apparently  brown,  paler 
on  the  upper  portions  of  the  tarsi. 

A  dusky  streak  commences  at  the  nostrils  and  continues  as 
a  mere  line  to  the  lores,  where  it  widens  out  and  occupies  the 
greater  portion  of  these.  Between  the  point  of  the  lores  and 
the  nostrils  commences  a  conspicuous  white  stripe  which  runs 
backwards  almost  to  the  nape ;  a  large  patch  immediately  un- 
der the  eye  white,  divided  from  a  small  white  patch  on  the  side  of 
the  lower  mandible  by  a  brown  line.  The  whole  of  the  rest  of 
the  upper  plumage,  except  the  terminal  portions  of  the  prima- 
ries, and  the  inner  webs  of  the  secondaries,  a  rich  warm 
olive  brown,  deepest,  and  with  a  warmer  shade  on  the  head  ; 
ear-coverts  and  sides  of  the  neck  similar,  but  a  few  of  the 
former  with  greyish  white  shafts  towards  their  bases,  and  the 
latter  with  the  grey  bases  of  the  feathers,  showing  through  a 
little ;  chin  pure  white ;  upper  part  of  middle  of  throat  ditto, 
with  a  few  very  narrow  tiny  olive  brown  streaks. 

Sides  of  the  upper  throat,  and  the  whole  of  the  rest  of  the 
throat  grey,  closely  streaked  with  olive  brown,  the  streaks  being 
smaller  and  less  close  on  the  median  portion  ;  breast,  abdomen, 
sides,  and  flanks  a  clear  grey ;  some  of  the  feathers  on  one  side 
of  the  breast  suffused  towards  their  tips  with  the  olive  of  the 
back.  Middle  of  lower  part  of  abdomen,  vent,  and  lower  tail- 
coverts  pure  white,  the  latter  grey  brown  towards  their  bases, 
and  the  brown  running  downwards  along  the  margins  of  the 
feathers,  the  brown  not  visible  unless  the  coverts  are  disturbed. 
The  wing-lining  and  axillaries  are  excessively  pale  grey  brown ; 
the  inner  margins  of  the  quills  on  their  lower  surfaces  something 
similar,  but  with  perhaps  a  faint  fulvous  tinge ;  tibial  plumes 
pale  yellowish  brown ;  the  extreme,  outer  margins  of  the  three 
first  quills  are  very  pale,  not  greyish  but  with  a  fawny  tinge. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  255 

I  can  scarcely  doubt  that  this  is  pallidus  vel  daulias,  but  the 
large  conspicuous  white  superciliary  stripe  certainly  puzzles  me. 

369  quat. — Turdulus  sibericus,  Pall.  (1). 

(Karennee,  at  2,500  feet,  Rams.)   Mooleyit. 

Apparently  only  a  rare  straggler  during  the  cold  season  to 
some  of  the  higher  ranges,  and  the  most  northern  portious  of 
the  province. 

[I  never  saw  but  one  single  specimen  which  was  sitting  on 
the  ground  near  a  stream,  close  under  the  cone  of  Mooleyit,  at 
an  elevation  of  6,000  feet.  When  alarmed  by  me  it  flew  up  into 
a  little  tree,  whence  I  shot  it.  I  hunted  the  whole  neighbour- 
hood with  all  my  people  for  a  fortnight  after  that,  but  never 
saw  another  specimen.  I  thought  the  bird  was  new,  and  hence 
the  special  pains  I  took. — W.  D.] 

Of  this  species  also  we  procured  only  a  single  specimen,  an 
old  male.     This  measured  in  the  flesh  : — 

Length,  9*4;  expanse,  14'3  ;  tail  from  vent,  3-8  ;  wing,  4*9  ; 
tarsus,  1*25  ;  bill  from  gape,  T05  ;  weight,  2*75  ozs. 

Bill  black  ;  legs  yellowish  brown ;  feet  and  claws  paler ;  soles 
bright  yellow. 

A  long  conspicuous  snow-white  supercilium  from  near  the 
point  of  the  lores  over  the  eyes  and  ear-coverts ;  the  two  outer 
tail-feathers  on  either  side,  with  a  very  narrow  white  tippino- 
to  the  inner  web,  and  the  portion  of  the  outer  web,  immediate- 
ly adjoining  the  shaft,  and  a  speck  at  the  extreme  end  of  the 
third  feather,  white ;  the  tips  of  all  the  lower  tail-coverts,  and 
the  tips  of  the  longest  flank  feathers,  from  0*1  to  0'12  in 
width,  white ;  the  basal  halves  of  the  axillaries,  and  the  coverts 
immediately  inside  of  the  wing,  and  a  band  about  0*5  wide, 
on  the  inner  webs  of  all  the  quills  (except  the  first  three)  only 
occupying  however  the  outer  two-thirds  of  the  web,  and  not 
extending  to  the  shaft,  white.  A  faint  trace  of  this  band  on 
the  inner  web  of  the  third  (second  long)  primary. 

The  whole  of  the  rest  of  the  bird  black,  pure  on  the  head 
and  neck  all  round,  and  nearly  so  on  the  interscapular^  region ; 
the  rest  of  the  body  feathers,  shaded  at  their  tips  with,  dusky 
slaty,  these  shadings  becoming  broader,  and  more  conspicuous 
towards  the  tail,  both  above  and  below,  and  on  the  lower  abdo- 
men and  flanks,  becoming  dominant ;  all  the  coverts  and 
the  quills  are  more  or  less  margined  on  their  outer  webs,  and 
the  coverts  at  the  tips  also  with  the  same  slaty  dusky. 

I  believe  that  it  is  not  usual  to  meet  with  birds  in  this  stage 
of  plumage.  Usually  the  bird  is  bluer  and  slatier,  the  whole  of 
feathers  of  the  middle  of  the  abdomen  and  vent  are  white  ;  white 
predominates  on  the  lower  tail-coverts,  and  the  lateral  tail- 
feathers  are  broadly  tipped  with  white. 


256  BIRDS    OF    TENASSEUIM. 

Mi*.  Dresser  thus  describes  what  he  considers  an  adult  female 
and  a  young  male  : — 

"  Adult  Female. — Upper  parts  warm  hair-brown,  with  a  faint 
olivaceous  tinge  ;  crown  darker,  and  the  feathers  on  the  back 
with  somewhat  dai'ker  centres  ;  a  dull  yellowish  indistinct  streak 
passes  over  and  behind  the  eye  ;  quills  dark  brown,  externally 
margined  with  warm  reddish  olivaceous;  spurious  wing  dark 
towai'ds  the  tip,  and  wing-coverts  tipped  with  warm  ochraceous  ; 
tail  dark  brown,  the  upper  surface  with  an  olivaceous  tinge,  the 
outer  rectrix  with  a  terminal  patch  of  white  on  the  inner  web  ; 
sides  of  the  head  white,  with  a  yellowish  tinge,  and  spotted  with 
brown ;  chin  yellowish  white,  bounded  by  a  dark  brown  streak 
from  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible  ;  rest  of  the  under  parts 
white ;  the  throat  washed  with  yellowish ;  throat,  breast,  and 
flanks  marked  with  semilunar  brown  markings ;  centre  of  the 
abdomen  pure  white  ;  under  tail-coverts  white,  slightly  varied 
with  brown  ;  the  characteristic  oblique  bar  on  the  under  surface 
of  the  wing  yellowish  white,  and  not  pure  white.  Culmen,  0'85 
inch;  wing,  4'6  ;  tail,  3*45;  tarsus,  \-%. 

Young  Male. — Upper  parts  as  in  the  adult  male,  and  duller, 
and  tinged,  especially  on  the  head,  with  brown ;  superciliary 
stripe  narrow  and  yellowish  white;  throat  and  sides  of  the 
head  as  in  the  female ;  rest  of  the  underparts  as  in  the  old  male, 
bat  paler  and  duller ;  the  upper  part  of  the  breast  marked  with 
light  yellowish  brown  as  in  the  female." 

Quite  young  males  appear  to  be  like  the  females,  and  later 
they  are  met  with  in  all  kinds  of  parti-colored  plumage  com- 
bining patches  of  the  black  or  cyaneous  dusky  of  the  male  with 
the  plumage  of  the  female. 

370. — Oreocincla  molissiraa,  Bly. 

Obtained  by  Ramsay  at  Tonghoo  and  in  Karennee  at  5,000 
feet,  but  not  as  yet  observed  anywhere  in  Tenasserim  proper. 

371. — Oreocincla  darnna,  Lath.  (2). 

(Tonghoo,  Karennee,  at  5,000  fret,  Rams.)     Paradubn  ;    Mooleyit. 

A  rare  straggler  during  the  cold  season  to  the  northern  and 
central  portions  of  the  province,  probably  chiefly  to  the  slopes 
of  the  higher  hills. 

Our  specimens  appear  to  be  dauma.  They  are  rather  a 
more  golden  brown  and  slightly  brighter  colored  altogether 
than  Himalayan  ones  ;  and  I  think  they  are  somewhat  larger 
also,  but  they  are  not  varia,  a  species  which  I  have  at  last  had 
an  opportunity  of  examining  having,  by  Mr.  Brooks'  kindness, 
obtained  a  specimen,  a  male,  killed  at  Cheefoo,  on  the  6th 
October  1873,  I  believe,  from  Mr.  Swiuhoe's  museum. 


BIRDS    OP   TENASSERIM.  257 

This  species  is  extremely  like  dauma,  but  is  decidedly  larger. 

I  give  the  measurements  from  the  skins  of  the  two  Tenasserim 

specimens  aud  of  varia  : — 

Length.  Wing.  Tail.  Tarsus.  Bill  at  front. 
O.   varia,    male     12  0         6-6           5'2         14  1'2 

O.  dauma,  female    ll'O         5  55         4  4         135  J/15 

„       male        113         5  55         4  3         1-3  122 

The  bird,  therefore,  has  a  much  longer  wing  and  tail.  As-  re- 
gards the  plumage,  that  of  my  specimen  of  varia  is  absolutely 
identical,  as  far  as  I  can  see,  with,  some  Himalayan  specimens. 

In  the  shape  of  the  wing,  I  notice  a  slight  difference  ;  in  dauma 
it  appears  to  me  that  the  3rd  and  4th  quills  are  sub-equal  and 
longest,  2nd  and  5th  about  equal ;  in  my  specimen  of  varia  the 
3rd  is  longest,  and  the  2nd  and  4th  are  equal. 

The  wing  is  in  fact  altogether  more  pointed.  The  point  of 
the  wing,  i.e.,  the  distance  by  which  the  longest  primary  exceeds 
the  secondaries,  being  2*4  in  varia,  against  about  1*9  in 
dauma. 

Then  the  tail  is  more  rounded  ;  in  varii,  the  outermost  tail- 
feather  is  0*7  shorter  than  the  longest:  in  dauma  it  is  about  0*4 
shorter. 

And  now  comes  the  most  astounding  difference,  to  which  Mr. 
Brooks  first  drew  my  attention,  though  who  the  original  dis- 
coverer may  be  I  cannot  say,  and  that  is  that  varia  has 
fourteen  tail-feathers,  whereas  dauma  has  of  course  only 
twelve. 

374 — Paradoxornis  gularis,  Horsf* 

Another  species  obtained  by  Ramsay  in  Karennee,  but  not 
yet  seen  elsewhere  in  Tenasserim,  though  likely  to  occur  in  the 
cold  season,  as  in  Cachar  and  Sylhet,  in  grass  jungles  at  the 
bases  of  the  mountains. 

375.— Paradoxornis  ruficeps,  Blyth.  (1). 

(Karennee  at  2,500  feet,  Rams.)    Pahpoon. 

Confined  to  quite  the  northern  portions  of  the  province,  and 
■  very  rare  even  there. 

[I  only  met  with  this  reed  bird  on  one  occasion,  a  couple  of 
days'  march  north  of  Pahpoon.  They  consisted  of  a  small  party 
of  five  or  six  in  a  thick  clump  of  kine  grass  and  reeds,  about 
and  amongst  which  they  were  working  much  after  the  manner 
of  Timalia.—W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  and  colors  of  the  soft  parts 
of  a  male,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Length,  7*4;  expanse,  11*12;  tail  from  vent,  3*75 ;  wing, 
3*55 ;  tarsus,  1*1  ;  bill  from  gape,  0*65  ;  weight,  1*45  ozs. 

33 


258  BIRDS  OT   TENASSERIM. 

Legs  and  feet  and  claws  clear  plumbeous  blue ;  upper  mandi- 
ble and  tip  and  edges  of  lower  mandible  along  commissure, 
light  horny  brown ;  rest  of  lower  mandible  fleshy  pink ;  irides 
deep  wood  brown;  orbital  skin  bright  smalt  blue. 

378  bis.— Suthora- ? 

Davison  met  with  a  small  flock  of  SutJioras  just  at  the  base  of 
the  cone  of  Mooleyit,  but  failed  to  secure  a  specimen.  He 
noticed  that  the  heads  were  bright  rufous,  with  a  dark  stripe  on 
each  side  of  the  crown.  The  species  was  probably  S.  muni- 
purensis,  God.-Aust.  (Descr.  S.  F.,  IV.,  216)  with  which  S. 
daflaensis,  of  the  same  authority,  (Descr.  S.  F.,  IV.,  490)  is 
now  said  to  be  identical. 

384  bis.— Grampsorhynchus  torquatus,    Hume.  (1). 
Descr.  Pr.  A.  S.  B.,  1874,  107,  and  S.  1\,  II.,  446. 

(?  Karennee,  Earns.)  Younzaleen  Creek. 

Confined  to  the  northern  portions  of  the  province,  and  there 
very  rare. 

[I  only  met  with  a  party  of  these  birds  on  one  occasion  on 
the  banks  of  the  Younzaleen,  north  of  Pahpoon ;  they  were  in 
thin  jungle  largely  intermixed  with  bamboos. — W.  D.] 

No  second  specimen  of  this  species  has  been  obtained  by  us, 
as  we  have  not  been  able  to  re-visit  the  locality  in  which  it  occurs; 
but,  after  re-comparing  it  with  a  very  large  series  of  Himalayan 
birds,  I  cannot  avoid  the  conclusion  that  it  is  distinct.  No 
single  Himalayan  bird  approaches  it,  either  in  its  well-marked 
torque  or  in  the  tint  of  the  rufous  of  the  nape,  &c. ;  and,  until 
I  can  approximately  match  it  with  some  Himalayan  specimens, 
or  can  obtain  other  specimens  from  the  same  locality  which 
agree  with  Himalayan  specimens,  I  thiuk  it  ought  to  be  retain- 
ed as  distinct. 

Blyth  enters  Gampsorhynclius  rufulus  from  Tenasserim,  but 
it  is  not  likely  that  two  such  closely-affined  species  should  occur 
in  the  same  locality  ;  and  therefore,  so  long  as  I  retain  torquatus, 
I  do  not  think  it  necessary  to  enter  rufulus  separately  in  the  list. 
I  am  in  doubts  as  to  whether  the  Gampsorhynclius  obtained 
by  Ramsay,  in  Karennee,  was  rufulus  or  torquatus. 

385.— Pyctoris  sinensis,  Gm.  (3). 

(Karennee,  Rams.)    Kyouk-nyat ;  Pahpoon  ;  Beeling. 

Confined  to  the  northern  half  of  the  province,  and  rare  even 
there. 

[I  found  this  bird  rare  in  Tenasserim,  and  occurring  only  to 
the  north  of  Moulmein,  frequenting  grass  clumps  and  thick 
low  scrub,  generally  in  small  parties  or  in  pairs. — W.  D.] 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSEKIM.  259 

387.— Trichastoma  abbotti,  Blyth.  (46). 

(Tonghoo,  foot  of  Karen  Hills,  Earns.)  Thenganee  Satan  ;  Thoungya  Sakan  ; 
Thoungsheyen  Sakun  ;  Assoon  ;  Meetan  ;  Lemyne  ;  Yea  ;  Tavoy ;  Shyraotee  ; 
Usheetherrpone ;  Mergui;  Ckoulai  Creek;  Bahonee:  Pakchan;  Bankasoon; 
Malewoon. 

Nearly  confined  in  Tenasserim  proper  to  the  southern  half 
of  the  province,  but  extending  a  little  north  of  Moulmein,  and 
re-appearing  in  the  extreme  north  in  Tonghoo,  &c. 

[This  species  is  excessively  common  in  the  south,  but  much 
rarer  further  north  towards  Moulmein.  It  keeps  to  the  forest 
and  is  found  usually  in  small  parties,  sometimes  singly  or  in 
pairs  among  the  brushwood,  feeding  habitually  on  the  ground 
on  insects  of  various  sorts.  It  is  a  very  tame  bird,  but  when 
disturbed  takes  refuge  in  some  thick  bush  or  cane  break.  It 
has  a  rather  pleasant  note,  which  it  utters  from  time  to  time, 
as  it  hops  about  the  ground. — W.  I).] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males. — Length,  55  to  66;  expanse,  9*0  to  9*75;  tail  from 
vent,  1-82  to  2-25  ;  wing,  2-75  to  8*1 ;  tarsus,  1*0  to  1'05  ;  bill 
from  gape,  075  to  0*95 ;  weight,  TO  oz. 

Females.— Length,  5"62  to  6'25 ;  expanse,  8*75  to  9*5  ;  tail 
from  vent,  1'62  to  1-8  ;  wing,  263  to  2'82 ;  tarsus,  09  to  1*0; 
bill  from  gape,  0*82  to  0'95 ;  weight,  08  to  1-0  oz. 

Legs,  feet  and  claws  fleshy  white  ;  upper  mandible  pale  horny 
brown  ;  lower  mandible  bluish  white ;  irides  red  or  sienna  brown. 

387  Us.— Trichastoma  minor,  Hume.  (10).  Descr. 
S.  E.,  II.,  535. — Drymocatapkus  fulvus.  Wald 
S.  F.  III.,  403 ;  V.,  59. 

(Karennee,  at  2,500  feet,  Rams.)  Thoungya  Sakan;  Myawadee  j  Mooleyit  • 
Meetan;  Lemyne;  Yea;  Tavoy;  Pabyin;  Mergui;  Laynah. 

Confined  in  Tenasserim  proper  to  the  central  and  southern 
portions  of  the  province,  and  everywhere  rare,  but  reappearing 
in  Karennee.  .  ° 

[In  habits,  note,  &c,  this  bird  in  general  resembles  T.  abbotti, 
but  is  perhaps  more  often  found  in  pairs  and  singly  than  in 
small  parties.  It  is  also  perhaps  less  partial  to  the  evergreen 
forests,  being  found  not  uncommonly  in  bamboo  jungle,  and 
even  in  secondary  scrub  jungle. — W.  D.] 

This^  is  the  species  that  Major  Godwin-Austen  and  the 
Marquis  of  Tweeddale  now  identify  as  Pellorneum  TickellL 
After  so  long  denying  the  distinctness  of  this  latter  bird,  it  is 
unfortunate  that  when  they  did  admit  it  they  could  not  hit 
upon  the  real  bird,  a  typical  Pellorneum,  which  the  present 
species  certainly  is  not.  It  is  now  admitted,  Ibis,  1878,  115, 
that    D.  fulvus,    of  Walden,    is   merely  a   synonym   of  this 


2(J0  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

species.  I  strongly  suspect,  despite  what  Godwin-Austen  says, 
that  his  Turdinus garoensis  is  also  synonymous,  in  which  case 
that  name  would  have  precedence.  (See  further  my  remarks 
under  399  ter.)  I  wish  to  notice  here  that  Major  Godwin- 
Austen,  not  content  with  misidentifying  Tickelli,  has  (?r.  A. 
S.  B.,  June  1877)  placed  this  present  'species  as  Alcippe,  which 
it  certainly  is  not.  It  is  intermediate  between  Drymocataphus, 
in  which  Lord  Tweeddale  placed  it,  and  Trichastoma,  in  which  I 
placed  it  with  the  remark  that  it  was  aberrant. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  of  3  males  and  2 
females  recorded  in  the  flesh. — 

Males.— Length,  6-0  to  6-1  ;  expanse,  8'1  to  8*12;  tail  from 
vent,  2*1  to  2-3  ;  ving,  2'5  to2'55  ;  tarsus,  1'05  ;  bill  from  gape, 
0-75  to  0-8  ;  weight,  06  to  0-62  oz. 

Females.— Length,  5'5  to  56  ;  expanse,  7'5  ;  tail  from  vent, 
1-8  to  20  ;  wing,  2*25  to  2'38  ;  tarsus,  1-0  j  bill  from  gape,  0'75 
to  0-82  ;  weight,  0-6  to  065  oz. 

Legs,  feet,  and  claws  fleshy  white ;  upper  mandible  pale  brown ; 
lower  mandible  fleshy  white  ;  irides  pale  wood  brown. 

387  ter. — Trichastoma    rubiginosa,    Wald.     Descr., 
S.  P.,  III.,  404. 

Obtained  in  Karennee  by  Ramsay. 

388.— Alcippe  nipalensis,  Eodgs.  (9). 

Pine  forests,  Salween ;  Mooleyit. 

Confined  to  the  northern  and  central  sections  of  the  main 
Tenasserim  range. 

[Occurs  only  in  the  forests  of  the  higher  hills,  going  about 
the  brushwood  in  flocks,  and  hunting  about  amongst  the  leaves, 
and  on  the  ground  for  insects,  on  which  they  live.  They  are 
very  lively  birds,  moving  about  quickly,  and  the  whole  flock 
keeping  up  a  continual  twit,  twit,  twit. — W.  D.] 

388  bis.— Alcippe  phayrei,  Blyth.  (30).  Descr.  S.  F., 
III.,  116. 

{Karennee  Sills,  at  3,000  feet  [A.  magnirostris,  Wald.]  Earns.)  Pnhpoon  ; 
Younzaleen  Creek;  Thoungya  Snkan;  Kaukaryit,  Houngthraw  R. ;  Meetan; 
Yea;  Meeta  Myo;  Pabyin;  Mergui;  Bankasoon;  Malewoon. 

Moderately  common  in  suitable  localities  throughout  the  pro- 
vince. 

[Occurs  throughout  the  province,  but  only  in  the  low  hills  and 
at  their  bases  wherever  the  country  is  well  wooded.     It  avoids 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  261 

the  dry  deciduous  forests.  In  habits,  voice,  &c.,  it  exactly  re- 
sembles the  preceding  species. — W.  D.] 

Blyth's  original  description  of  this  species  has  been  already 
given,  S.  F.,  III.,  16.  As  was  pointed  out,  S.  F.,  V.,  60,  Lord 
Walden  re-described  this  species  under  the  name  of  magnirostris, 
and  his  description  will  be  found  vol.  ni,  p.  56. 

I  am  much  inclined  to  suspect  that  Major  Godwin-Austen's 
Alcippe  fusca,  of  which  a  description  will  be  found,  S.  F.,  V.,  54, 
is  also  the  same  species.  The  very  meagre  description  agrees 
well  with  our  bird,  and  so  do  the  dimensions,  except  the  bill  at 
front,  which  he  gives  at  0*47 ;  but  M.  Oustalet  says  that  the 
culmen  is  13  milims.,  and  in  some  specimens  of  phayrei  the 
bill  is  not  longer  than  this,  though  in  some  it  runs  up  to  16*5 
milims.  However,  without  comparison  of  specimens,  or  with- 
out a  fuller  description,  it  is  impossible  to  say  what  Alcippe  fusca 
may  be. 

Phayrei  may  be  distinguished  at  once  from  nipalensis  by  its 
larger  size,  much  larger  bill,  browner  ear-coverts,  and  by  the 
almost  entire  want  in  most  specimens,  and  the  comparatively 
feeble  trace  in  the  rest,  of  the  very  conspicuous  black  sincipital 
stripes  which  characterize  nipalensis.  We  preserved  about  30 
specimens  of  phayrei  from  all  parts  of  Tenasserim  from  north 
to  south,  from  low  or  comparatively  low  country.  Of  nipalensis 
we  only  procured  a  third  of  this  number  of  specimens,  and  these 
only  on  the  high  pine  forests  of  the  Salween,  elevation  about 
6,000  feet,  and  on  Mooleyit  at  about  the  same  elevation. 

Of  the  present  species  the  following  is  the  resume'  of  a  very 
large  series  of  measurements  in  the  flesh  : — 

Length,  6  to  6*5  ;  expanse,  8'5  to  9;  tail  from  vent,  2*6  to 
2*96  ;  wing,  275  to  2 -85  ;  tarsus,  0-8  to  0*85  ;  bill  from  gape, 
0-7  to  0-75  ;  weight,  0-6  to  0'75  oz. 

The  colors  of  the  soft  parts  vary  a  good  deal. 

The  legs,  feet,  and  claws  are  always  fleshy,  sometimes  dark 
fleshy,  sometimes  fleshy  white,  sometimes  very  pink. 

The  irides  vary  from  slaty  grey  to  slaty  yellow  ;  the  eyelids 
greenish  yellow ;  the  gape  yellow,  or  yellowish  or  fleshy  white  ; 
the  upper  mandible  is  dark  horny  brown,  its  edges  and  the 
lower  mandible  pinkish  white,  sometimes  tinged  browner. 

I  should  note  that  all  the  above  measurements  are  measure- 
ments of  males.  By  some  curious  coincidence  not  a  sino-le  female 
was  measured  in  the  flesh,  but  the  females  do  not  seem  to  be 
very  much  smaller.  The  following  are  the  dimensions  of  wino-s 
of  females  :--2-83 ;  278;  2*8;  2-6;  2"82  ;  274 ;  &c,  but  as 
regards  the  bills,  I  think  perhaps  those  of  the  females  run  a 
trifle  smaller,  though  not  to  an  extent  that  it  is  possible  to  show 
by  any  measurements  that  we  can  give. 

In  Aleippe  nipalensis  the  wing  runs  from  2-3  to  rarely  2*5. 


262  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

390  quat— Turdinus  crispifrons,  Blyth.  (82).  Descr. 
S.  F,V.S  87. 

Wimpong  ;  Thonngsha  G-yne  R.  ;  Momenzeik,  near  Moulmein. 

Confined  to  the  isolated  limestone  rocks  of  the  central  portions 
of  the  province. 

[This  Turdinus  is  entirely  confined  to  the  ranges  of  limestone 
rocks  that  occur  in  Tenasserim. 

They  are  found  singly,  or  occasionally  in  pairs,  but  more 
often  in  small  parties  about  the  rocks  from  their  bases  to  their 
summit,  and  never  wandering  away  from  the  rocks  even  for 
a  few  yards. 

They  are  excessively  lively,  sprightly  birds,  keeping  up  con- 
tinually a  twittering  chattering  note,  and  occasionally  one  will 
perch  itself  on  some  point  of  rock,  and  with  lowered  wings  and 
erected  tail  pour  forth  a  fine  and  powerful  song.  They  feed 
principally  upon  insects  and  small  land  shells,  but  I  have  found 
small  white  round  seeds,  about  the  size  of  mustard  seed,  in  their 
stomachs.  When  shot,  unless  killed  outright,  they  at  once 
scramble  into  one  of  the  numerous  holes  or  crevices  with 
which  these  rocks  are  everywhere  honey-combed,  and  are 
of  course  lost. 

They  are  not  shy  birds,  and  from  the  limited  nature  of  their 
habitats  are  not  difficult  to  procure. — W.  D.] 

390  quint— Turdinus  brevicaudatus,  Blyth.  (6). 

Mooleyit, 

Apparently  confined  to  the  higher  slopes  of  Mooleyit. 

[I  have  only  met  with  this  Turdinus  at  Mooleyit  and  its 
slopes  from  5,000  feet  and  upwards.  The  slopes  of  the  Mooleyit 
hills  are  very  generally  covered  with  masses  or  boulders  of 
rocks  of  all  sizes  lying  about  in  chaotic  confusion ;  and  in 
such  situations,  and  in  such  only,  is  this  species  found,  hopping 
about  on  and  amongst  the  rocks,  and  turning  over  tbe  leaves  in 
its  quest  for  insects.  Like  the  last  it  occurs  in  small  parties,  in 
pairs  and  occasionally  singly.  When  disturbed  it  utters  a  long 
drawn  kir-r-r,  and  keeps  on  uttering  it  till  the  cause  of  its  disturb- 
ance has  passed  or  it  has  retreated  into  safer  quarters.  Unless 
suddenly  alarmed  it  seldom  flies,  but  retreats  by  hopping  rapidly 
away.  I  have  never  heard  this  bird  sing,  as  I  have  heard 
T.  crispifrons  do. 

Of  course  these  rocky  slopes  that  the  bird  frequents  are  dense- 
ly wooded.  I  have  never  seen  the  bird  anywhere  in  the  open, 
or  in  any  place  that  was  not  rocky  as  well  as  wooded.  The 
species  may  be  said  to  be  rare  even  when  it  does  occur. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  263 

So  far  as  habits  go,  this  is  more  akin  to  Turdinulus  and  Tri- 
chastoma  ;  it  is  not  nearly  so  close  to  crispifrons,  which  is  really 
a  "  little  Thrush."— W.  £>.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males. — Length,  5'45  to  5*75  ;  expanse,  8'2  to  84;  tail  from 
vent,  1-9  to  2-0  ;  wing,  2*49  to  2-6  ;  tarsus,  0'95  to  1-0;  bill 
from  gape,  0*75  to  085  ;  weight,  085  oz. 

Females. — Length,  5  5  to  5*7  ;  expanse,  7*9  to  8*2 ;  tail  from 
vent,  1-6  to  1-85 ;  wing,  2*45  to  2-55  ;  tarsus,  0-95  to  TO;  bill 
from  gape,  0-82  to  085  ;  weight,  0*8  to  0*85  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  and  claws  pale  brown  to  pale  fleshy  brown ; 
upper  mandible  very  dark  brown ;  lower  mandible  plumbeous 
to  pale  plumbeous  ;  irides  deep  brown,  red  brown,  cinnamon 
red. 

Lores  and  a  broadish  stripe  completely  over  the  eye,  and  ex- 
tending a  short  distance  beyond  it,  grey ;  cheeks  similar  or  browner ; 
ear-coverts  greyish  or  tinged  with  olivaceous  brown,  obscurely 
centred  paler  ;  chin,  throat,  and  in  some  specimens  middle  of 
upper  part  of  breast,  white,  with  dusky  longitudinal  striations ; 
sides  of  the  neck,  sides  of  the  breast,  abdomen  and  flanks  olivace- 
ous brown  ;  the  feathers  tinged  towards  their  margins  with  dull 
ferruginous,  which  becomes  the  dominant  color  on  the  flanks  and 
lower  tail-coverts,  which  latter  are  also  often  tipped  obscurely 
paler ;  middle  line  of  the  abdomen,  in  some  specimens  greyish 
white,  the  feathers  a  little  suffused  centrally  with  rusty  olive,  in 
other  specimens  there  is  no  white  at  all  here,  which  is  more  or  less 
uniform  pale  rufesceut  buff;  the  feathers  of  the  sides  of  the  ab- 
domen not  unfrequently  show  traces  of  pale  greyish  white 
mesial  lines  ;  the  sides  of  the  body  and  posterior  part  of  the 
flanks  are  darker,  and  more  purely  olivaceous,  as  indeed  are 
sometimes  the  anterior  portion  of  the  flanks  also  ;  generally  I 
may  say  that  some  specimens  are  altogether  darker  and  more 
olivaceous  below,  and  others  are  paler  and  more  ferruginous, 
and  the  white  dusky-streaked  throat  band  in  some  barely  de- 
scends to  the  base  of  the  neck,  in  others  extends  half  way  down 
the  breast ;  the  wing-lining,  which  is  extremely  scantv,  is  grey 
brown,  one  or  two  of  the  feathers  tipped  paler,  and  the  rest 
broadly  tipped  with  rusty  fulvous ;  the  bases  of  the  external 
frontal  feathers  are  greyish,  producing  the  effect  of  an  obscure 
greyish  frontal  band ;  the  whole  of  the  rest  of  the  top  of  the 
head,  back,  and  upper  portion  of  sides  of  the  neck,  scapulars 
and  the  upper  and  middle  back  clear  light  greyish  olive,  each 
feather  with  the  shaft  greyish  white,  and  margined  all  round  with 
black,  running  into  deep  brown,  much  like  the  same  parts  in 
1\  crispifrons;  rump  and  upper  tail-coverts  nearly  uniform 
ferruginous  brown,  more  rusty  in  some  specimens,  with  more 
of    an   olivaceous   tinge  in  others ;    wings  deep   hair    brown, 


264  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

with  almost  the  whole  of  both  webs  of  the  tertiaries  and  the 
outer  webs  of  all  the  other  quills  and  coverts,  overlaid  with 
pure  olive  brown  ;  a  pure  white  spot  at  the  tip  of  each  tertiary, 
and  specks  of  the  same  at  the  tips  of  the  later  secondaries,  the 
greater  secondary  coverts  and  sometimes  the  median  secondary 
coverts  also  ;  tail  olive  brown ;  the  shafts  darker. 

390  sext.— Turdinus  guttatus,  Tick.  (7).  Descr.  S.  F., 
V.,  252. 

Meetan.  (Malewoon,  Oates.) 

Confined  to  the  lower  spurs  of  the  central  and  southern  por- 
tions of  the  main  Tenasserim  range. 

[I  have  only  met  with  this  species  in  the  low  hills  about  and 
just  to  the  north  of  Meetan,  and  even  there  they  are  not  com- 
mon. Unlike  the  two  former  species  it  does  not  affect  rocky 
grounds,  but  the  forests  in  general,  and  even  where  these  are 
comparatively  open,  or  composed  to  a  great  extent  of  bamboo, 
it  may  be  found.  It  goes  about  in  small  parties,  and  keeps 
much  to  the  undergrowth,  but  I  have  never  seen  it  on  the 
ground.  Its  food  consists,  so  far  as  I  have  observed,  of  insects. 
It  has  a  note  much  resembling  that  of  T.  brevicaudatus.  It 
does  not,  that  I  am  aware,  ascend  the  hills  to  any  height.  In 
habits  this  species  exactly  resembles  Timalia  nigricollis,  polio- 
cephala  and  maculata,  all  of  which  I  have  watched  closely  in 
the  Malay  Peninsula. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  and  colors  of  the  soft  parts, 
recorded  in  the  flesh  of  3  males  and  3  females:  — 

Males.  —  Length,  6'5  to  6'9 ;  expanse,  9'1  to  9*2;  tail  from 
vent,  2-1  to  2-3  ;  wing,  2*7  to  2'85  ;  tarsus,  1*0  to  105  ;  bill 
from  gape,  0"9  to  0'92  ;  weight,  1*12  to  1-3  oz. 

Females. — Length,  6 -3  to  6*7;  expanse,  8'9  to  9*0;  tail  from 
vent,  2-3;  wing,  2-7  to  2*8;  tarsus,  1*0;  bill  from  gape,  085 
to  0-9  ;  weight,  1/0  to  1-25  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  pale  dingy  green;  lower  mandible  and  edge 
of  upper  mandible  along  commissure  plumbeous ;  rest  of  bill 
black  ;  irides  crimson  lake. 

391.— Stachyris  nigriceps,  Hodgs.  (4). 

Younzaleen  Creek  ;  Sinzaway ;  Meetan  ;  Tenasserim  Town . 

Very  sparingly  distributed  throughout  the  forests  of  the 
province,  and  not  ascending  the  higher  hills. 

[This  is  a  very  rare  bird  in  Tenasserim,  but  apparently  occur- 
rino-  from  the  north  to  at  any  rate  as  far  south  as  Tenasserim  town. 
Those  specimens  that  I  observed  were  always  in  moderately 
thick  forest,  in  pairs  or  singly,  keeping  much  to  -the  under- 
growth, especially  when   this   was  particularly    dense.     They 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSER1M.  265 

appeared  to  be  very  shy,  and  when  disturbed  retreated  rapid- 
ly through  the  dense  underwood.  I  don't  think  I  ever  heard 
them  utter  a  note. — W.  D.] 

393. — Stachyris   rujiceps,  Bly. 

Lord  Walden  remarks,  B.  B.,  p.  116:  "A  single  Karennee 
example  (collected  by  Ramsay)  in  very  indifferent  order  appears 
to  belong  to  this  species.''' 

The  specimen,  also  an  indifferent  one,  obtained  by  us  near 
Fahpoon,  and  entered  under  this  species  in  our  first  list,  proves, 
on  careful  re-examination,  to  belong  to  the  next  species.  Rufi- 
frons  goes  right  up  tothe  Bhootan  Doars,  and  it  is  unlikely  that 
ruficeps  really  occurs  in  Karennee. 

393  bis.— Stachyris     rufifrons,  Hume.   (3).  Desor. 
S.  F.,  I.,  479. 

Younzaleen  Creek  j  Meetan  ;  Mergui ;  Bahonee. 

_  Very  sparingly  distributed  throughout  the  forests  of  the  pro- 
vince. 

[This,  too,  is  a  rare  bird  in  Tenasserim,  but  also  occurs  through- 
out the  province.  It  is  a  forest  species.  In  all  its  habits,  &c, 
it  closely  resembles  the  last. — W.  D.] 

394  Us.— Stachyris  assimilis.    Wald.    (5).  Desor. 
S.  F.,  V.,  96. 

{Karennee,  2,800  feet,  Rams.)  Mooleyit. 

Confined  apparently  to  the  higher  slopes  of  Mooleyit,  and 
the  continuation  of  the  same  range  in  Karennee. 

[I  observed  this  bird  on  several  occasions,  but  only  at 
Mooleyit  above  5,500  feet  elevation.  They  were  always  in 
small  parties,  hunting  about  the  bushwood  in  company  with  only 
Alcippe  nipalensis.  I  never  heard  them  utter  any  note  that  I 
can  remember.  They  were  not  rare,  but  owing  to  the  rapidity 
with  which  they  moved  through  the  dense  brushwood  were 
difficult  to  procure. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  of  2  males  : — 

Length,  4-3  to  4-4 ;  expanse,  6-2  to  65  ;  tail  from  vent,  1*7 
to  1-8;  wing,  1-9  to 2-0;  tarsus,  0'7  to  075  ;  till  from  gape, 
0-55  to  0-6;  weight,  0'35  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  fleshy  yellow;  upper  mandible  brown;  lower 
mandible  pale  plumbeous,  fleshy  at  base ;  irides  deep  red  brown. 

34 


266  BIRDS   OF  TENASSBRIH. 

395.— Mixornis  rubricapillus,  Tick.  (26). 

{Karennee,  Rams.)  Kyouk-nyat ;  Dargwin  ;  Pahpoon  5  Salween  R. ;  Eau- 
karyit,  Houngthraw  R.  •  Megaloon  ;  Moulmeia  ;  Tea-boo  ;  Meetan  ;  Amherst  ; 
Lemyne  ;  Meeta-Myo  j.  Tavoy  ;  Thayetchoung  ;  Shymootee. 

Very  abuudant  throughout  the  province  (though  not  ascend- 
ing the  higher  hills)  as  far  south  as  13°  N.  L. 

[From  the  north  of  the  province  to  the  south  of  the  Tavoy 
district,  its  southern  limit,  this  is  the  commonest  and  noisiest 
bird  one  meets  with,  frequenting  alike  forest,  secondary  jungle, 
and  in  fact  any  place  where  there  are  trees.  Except  at  the  breed- 
ing season,  when  it  occurs  in  pairs,  it  is  usually  found  in  small 
parties,  hunting  about  from  the  low  brushwood  to  the  tops  of  the 
highest  trees,  keeping  up  incessantly  its  monotonous  metallic 
chunck-chunck  note.  It  is  very  common,  not  at  all  shy,  and 
one  might  without  difficulty  shoot  twenty  or  more  specimens 
a  day.     Its  food  consists  of  insects. — W.  D.] 

395  &$.— -Mixornis  gularis,"*  Horsf.  (12). 

Pabyin  ;  Mergui ;  Tennasserim  Town  ;  Choulai  Creek  ;  Bopyin  ;  Palaw-ton- 
ton  ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Common  throughout  the  southern  third  of  the  province. 

[Perhaps  quite  as  common  and  quite  as  noisy  where  it  occurs 
(which  is  at  any  rate  from  Mergui  to  the  southernmost  point  of 
Singapore,)  as  its  northern  congener  M .  rubricapillus,  which  it 
exactly  resembles  in  habits  and  voice. — W.  D.] 

The  specimens  that  I  have  entered  as  gularis  are  not  as  a 
rule  quite  identical  with  gularis  from  Johore,  Malacca,  &c.  One 
or  two  of  them  are  absolutely  identical  with  Johore  specimens, 
but  the  majority  are  a  little  smaller,  a  shade  paler,  and  with  the 
stripes  of  the  throat  and  breast  slightly  less  developed  ;  in  other 
words  they  show  a  tendency  to  approach  rubricapillus. 

Rubricapillus  and  gularis  (at  any  rate  the  bird  we  call  gularis 
from  the  south  of  the  Malay  Peninsula ;  I  have  never  obtain- 
ed a  Javan  specimen)  differ — 

First  in  size,  gularis  being  a  little  larger,  the  wings  in  the 
males  (the  females  are  considerably  smaller)  averaging,  I  think, 
about  2'4s  or  2'45  against  about  2'2  in  rubricapillus. 

Second,  in  the  dark  striation  of  the  throat,  which,  in  gularis, 
is  much  more  strongly  marked  and  conspicuous,  being  regular 
shaft  stripes  extending  on  to  the  upper  breast,  while  in  rubrica- 

*  I  assume  here,  without  I  fear  sufficient  warrant,  that  Javan  specimens,  which  I 
have  not  seen,  are  identical  with  Malayan  and  Sumatran  ones.  If  this  is  not  so, 
these  latter  should  perhaps  take  the  name  sumatranus?  Sehlegal;  c.f.  Blyth,  Ibis, 
1870,  p.  170,  who  has  however  missed,  I  suspect,  the  real  point.  Blyth  seems  to 
have  fancied  that  the  Indian,  Malayan  and  Sumatran  specimens  were  alike,  and  that 
mtmatranus  was  a  mere  synonym  of  rubricapillus,  whereas  they  are  really  quite 
distinct ;  and  it  was  probably  a  perception  of  this  that  led  to  the  assignment  in  the 
Leyden  Museum  of  the  name  sumatranus  for  the  Malayan  and  Sumatran  form- 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  267 

pillns  it  is  confined  to  the  throat  or  nearly  so,  and  is   only  dark 
shafting  to  the  feathers. 

Third,  in  tho  very  conspicuous  yellow  supercilium  of  rubri- 
capillus almost  obsolete  in  gularis. 

Fourth,  in  the  much  deeper  red  of  the  crown  of  gularis,  and 
the  strong  rufescent  tinge  on  its  back  and  wings,  which  is  almost 
wanting  in  rubricapillus . 

Fifth,  in  the  deeper  olive  green  of  the  sides  of  the  head,  neck 
and  body  in  rubricapillus. 

Now,  if  you  examine  specimens  beginning  at  the  extreme 
north  of  Tenasserim  above  Kyouknyat,  you  find  these  and 
others  from  Dargwin,  Pahpoon,  Sal  ween  District,  100  miles 
north  of  Moulmein,  Kaukaryit  on  the  Houngthraw  River,  Moul- 
mein,  Yea-boo  on  the  Attaran,  Amherst,  Lemyne,  Meetan, 
Meeta  Myo,  Tavoy,  Shymootee,  south  of  Tavoy  and  Thyet- 
choung,  20  miles  south  of  Tavoy,  all  true  rubricapillus,  but  at 
Mergui,  and  every  locality  in  Tenasserim  south  of  this,  you 
meet  with  gularis,  or  rather  in  the  case  of  nine  specimens  out  of 
ten,  birds  much  nearer  to  gularis  than  to  rubricapillus. 

Some  specimens,  as  already  remarked,  are  absolutely  identical, 
but  the  majority  are  to  a  certain  extent  intermediate  ;  the  stria- 
tions  of  the  throat  extend  on  to  the  breast,  and  are  much 
stronger  than  in  rubricapillus,  but  are  yet  not  quite  so  strong  as 
in  most  gularis ;  the  size  is  larger,  but  does  not  average 
quite  that  of  gularis  ;  the  coloration  is  deeper  everywhere  than 
in  rubricapillus,  but  yet  not  so  deep  as  in  what  I  consider  typi- 
cal gularis;  but  the  yellow  supercilium  is  more  strongly  deve- 
loped as  a  rule  than  in  either  species.  Unfortunately,  owing  to 
local  administrative  difficulties,  we  have  been  unable  to  explore 
the  country  intervening  between  Thayetchoung  and  Mergui,  a 
breadth  of  about  110  miles,  and  we  are  unable  at  present  to  say 
whether,  in  this  intervening  tract,  the  two  forms  gradually 
grade  off  one  into  the  other,  or  whether,  as  is  most  probable,  they 
divide  abruptly  somewhere  between  Mergui  and  Tavoy.  I 
say  more  probably  for  this  reason  that  a  vast  number  of  the 
Malayan  forms  do  suddenly  cease  to  appear  somewhere  between 
Tavoy  and  Mergui. 

396.— Timalia  pileata,  Sorsf.  (6). 

(TongJioo,  Earns.)  Pahpoon  ;  Yea-boo. 

Sparingly  distributed,  where  high  grass  occurs,  at  any  rate 
in  the  northern  and  central  portions  of  the  province. 

[In  the  dense  kine  grass  at  Pahpoon  this  species  was  not  rare, 
but  very  difficult  to  obtain,  owing  to  the  grass  being  so  thick 
that  it  was  impossible  to  see  more  than  a  foot  or  two,  so  that 
when  one  did  see  the  bird  it  was  too  close  to  fire,  and  on  trying 


268  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

to  increase  the  distance  the  bird  was  lost  sight  of.  At-  Yea-boo, 
on  the  Attaran,  I  also  met  with  a  few  specimens  in  the  grass 
growing  on  the  river  banks.  As  far  as  I  have  observed  they 
keep  in  pairs  and  exclusively  to  dense  grass  jungle. — W.  D.] 

I  retain  all  our  specimens  under  Horsfield's  name  ;  firstly, 
because  if  there  are  two  species,  Tenasserim  birds  are,  I  appre- 
hend, nearer  to  pileata  than  to  bengalensis,  God.-Aust.  (jerdoni, 
Walden)  ;  and,  secondly,  because  I  am  by  no  means  yet  con- 
vinced that  there  are  two  distinct  species. 

Lord  Walden's  original  description  of  jerdoni  is  quoted 
S.  F.,  III.,  118.  In  that  he  distinctly  says  true  T.  pileata  is  a 
larger  bird,  and  he  gives  dimensions  showing  the  wing  in 
pileata  as  2'62,  and  in  jerdoni  2'36.  When  evidence  is  adduced 
to  show  that  the  Indian  and  Burmese  form  has  a  wing  as  long 
as  that  which  he  ascribes  to  pileata,  his  lordship  remarks,  B.  B., 
p.  114  :  "  As  the  specific  validity  of  the  species  in  no  way  depends 
on  its  dimensions,  the  information  quoted  has  no  bearing  on  the 
point/' 

Major  Godwin-Austen,  I  find  from  the  first,  laid  no  stress 
upon  difference  of  size.  His  description  of  his  bengalensis, 
(J.  A.  S.  B.,  XLL,  pt.  II.,  143,  1872)  which  I  quote  verbatim, 
as  it  is  a  little  involved,  runs  as  follows  : — 

"  The  Indian  form  differs  from  the  Javanese  in  the  white  on 
the  forehead  being  larger,  of  darker  brown  on  the  head,  the 
darker  tint  of  the  back,  and  decidedly  darker  hue  of  the  tail. 
In  size  there  is  no  perceptible  difference.'" 

A  reference  to  page  119,  S.  F.,  III.,  will  show  the  correspond- 
in  or  points  in  coloration  on  which  Lord  Walden  laid  stress. 

Now  the  Tenasserin  specimens  without  exception  have  the  back, 
wings  and  tail,  especially  the  latter,  paler  than  the  Indian  speci- 
mens ;  and  they  also  have  the  lower  parts,  I  mean  abdomen,  vent, 
and  lower  tail-coverts,  pale  tawny  or  buffy,  and  not  chiefly 
olivaceous  as  in  the  Indian  birds.  The  grey  also  of  the  sides  of 
the  neck  is  a  little  paler  than  in  Indian  specimens.  As  to  the 
color  of  the  crown  and  occiput,  however,  I  can  discover  no 
difference  ;  alike  in  Indian  and  Tenasserim  specimens  the  red  of 
these  parts  varies  much  in  depth  and  intensity  of  shade. 

Tn  these  Tenesserim  specimens,  as  in  the  darker  race  from 
Eastern  Bengal,  the  Sikim  Terai,  Bootan  Doars,  &c,  the  wings 
vary  from  2"3  in  females  to  2'6  in  males,  and  the  bills  in  the 
males  are  markedly  deeper  and  larger  than  the  females.  I  can- 
not myself  see  that  the  bills  in  Tenasserim  examples,  sex  for  sex, 
are  larger  than  the  Indian  ones.  The  difference  in  size  of  wing, 
bill,  &c,  dwelt  upon  by  the  Marquis  of  Tweeddale  in  his  origi- 
nal description  as  serving  to  distinguish  "  true  pileata"  from  the 
Indian  bird,  are  only  such  as  exist  in  examples  of  the  two  sexes 
of  Indian  birds,  but  on  my  pointing  out  that  his  Lordship  had 


BIRDS  OF  TENASSERIM.  269 

probably  been  comparing  a  Javan  male  with  an  Indian  female, 
he  assures  us  that  "the  information  has  no  bearing  on  the 
point \"  If  so,  why  did  he  dwell  on  the  size  ?  Why  did  he  not 
confine  himself  to  matters  that  did  bear  on  the  point?  The 
Javan  bird  may  be  different,  since  Godwin- Austen  also  thinks  so, 
but  a  careful  comparison  of  a  really  large  series  from  both 
localities  is  still  wanted. 

396   Us,— Cyanoderma   erythroptera,  Blyth.    (17). 

Descr.  S.  R,  III.,  322  n. 

Tenasserim  Town  ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Common  in  the  extreme  south  of  the  province. 

[This  bird  is  very  abundant  in  the  forests  in  the  extreme 
south  of  Tenasserim  and  in  the  Malayan  Peninsula.  It  is 
always  found  in  small  parties  in  the  evergreen  forest,  frequent- 
ing the  brushwood  and  tops  of  the  moderately  sized  trees,  cane- 
brakes  or  any  other  dense  cover.  It  lives  on  insects  of  vari- 
ous sorts,  which  it  obtains  about  the  foliage,  hunting  this  over 
persistently  and  systematically  like  a  Tit ;  it  does  not,  that  I 
am  aware,  ever  descend  to  the  ground.  It  has  a  very  peculiar 
note,  a  sharp  metallic  rolling  sound,  which  it  utters  chiefly  when 
alarmed,  but  also  at  other  times.  I  found  it  very  common 
further  south  in  the  Malay  Peninsula,  where  I  preserved  a  large 
series  of  specimens. — W.  D.] 

I  have  already,  S.  F.,  III.,  322  n.,  given  Blyth's  original 
description  of  this  species ;  but,  as  we  measured  a  large  series 
of  both  sexes,  it  may  be  useful  to  give  a  resume  of  the  results  : — 

Males. — Length,  5  to  5'6  ;  expanse,  7*25  to  7*75  ;  tail,  1*9 
to  2-12;  wing,  2-25  to  2'37  ;  tarsus,  0*75  to  0  82;  bill  from 
gape,  0-65  to  075  ;  weight,  0'47  to  053  oz. 

The  bill  is  dark  plumbeous  blue ;  the  upper  mandible  darkest, 
in  some  brownish  ;  visible  skin  of  cheeks  and  orbits  from  pure 
light  to  dull  dirty  smalt  blue ;  irides  madder  red  to  deep 
brown ;  legs,  feet  and  claws  very  pale,  almost  white,  tinged 
greenish,  or  yellowish  green. 

Females. — Length,  5  to  57  ;  expanse,  7  to  7*12;  tail,  1'8  to 
1-9;  wing,  2-25  to  2-37  ;  tarsus,  0-75  to  0"8 ;  bill  from  gape, 
0-62  to  0-67  ;  weight,  0-5  to  0'55  oz. 

Colors  of  soft  parts  as  in  the  male. 

The  plumage  of  the  two  sexes  is  absolutely  identical.  I  have 
already,  loc.  cit.  sup.,  expressed  my  belief  that  Count  Salvadori 
was  in  error  in  stating  that  bicolor,  of  Blyth,  was  the  male  of  the 
present  species.  I  can  now  state  this  positively,  Davison  hav- 
ing sexed  fourteen  males  and  twelve  females  of  this  species  by 
dissection,  and  having  found  the  plumage  of  the  two  sexes  invari- 
ably identical,  without  moreover  ever  yet  having  come  across  a 


270  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

single  specimen  of  bicolor  either  iu  Tenasserim  or  the  Malay 
Peninsula. 

Nor  can  bicolor  well  be  a  stage  of  plumage,  say  the  breed- 
ing plumage  of  this  species,  as  we  have  both  sexes  shot  in 
January,  February,  March,  April,  May,  August,  October, 
November,  and  December,  and  what  is  more,  Davison  found  the 
nest  just  as  he  was  leaving  Bankasoon  one  time  on  the  23rd  of 
April,  and  the  breeding  birds  were  just  like  all  the  others. 
Unfortunately  the  birds  had  not  yet  laid.  The  nest  was  a  ball, 
composed  of  dry  reed  leaves,  about  6  inches  in  diameter  exter- 
nally, with  a  circular  aperture  on  one  side,  very  like  that  of 
Mixornis  rubricapiUa,  and  of  Dumetia,  and  again  not  at  all 
unlike  that  of  Ochromela  nigrorufa,  but  placed  in  a  bush 
about  4  feet  high  and  not  on  the  ground. 

396  iter.— Malacopteron  magnum,  J3yton:(2). 

Pakchan: 

Confined  to  the  neighbourhood  of  Pakchan. 

[A  very  rare  bird  in  Tenasserim,  and  evidently  only  a  strag- 
gler just  within  our  southern  limit  from  further  south.  About 
Malacca,  where  it  is  very  common,  I  found  that  it  kept  to  the 
forests  singly,  in  pairs  or  in  small  parties,  hunting  about  in  the 
leaves  and  bushes  in  a  desultory  sort  of  way,  and  not  in  the 
svstematic  fashion  that  Cyanoderma  and  Alcippe  do,  though 
of  course  this  latter  often  or  generally  comes  down  to  the 
ground,  which  the  present  species,  I  think,  never  does.  It  has 
not  much  of  the  habits  of  the  Timaline  birds,  but  more  re- 
sembles the  Bulbuls  in  its  deportment.  So  far  as  I  am  aware  it 
is  solely  insectivorous. — W.  D.] 

The  species  that  I  have  entered  as  magnum,  of  Eyton,  is  the 
larger  of  the  two  nearly  allied  species,  to  which  the  name  of 
majus,  Blyth,  also  applies.  Count  Salvadori  and  others  have 
assigned  Eyton's  name  to  the  smaller  species,  reserving  Blyth's 
for  the  larger  of  the  two. 

Two  very  nearly  allied  species  occur  plentifully  in  the 
Malay  Peninsula,  where  we  have  shot  and  sexed  numbers  of  both, 
but  only  the  larger  of  the  two  occurs,  so  far  as  we  yet  know,  in 
Tenasserim. 

In  both  species  the  males  are  considerably  larger  than  the 
females ;  but  the  females  of  the  larger  species  are  only  a  shade 
larger  than  the  males  of  the  smaller  species.  The  two  species 
however  may,  independent  of  other  differences,  be  distinguished 
by  a  glance  at  their  crowns — the  red  feathers  of  the  crown 
being  never,  in  either  sex,  black-tipped  in  the  larger  species, 
while,  in  the  smaller  species,  they  are  always  so  tipped  in  both 
sexes. 


BIRDS  OF  TENASSEEDf.  271 

Eyton,  P.  Z.  S.,  1839403,  described  two  species  as  follows  : — 
"  Malacopteron  magnum. 

Male.—  With  the  forehead  and  tail  ferruginous  ;  nape,  black  ; 
back  and  a  transverse  band  on  the  chest  ashy;  wings  brown  ; 
bill  yellow. 

Total  length,  6  inches  ;  bill,  -V  inches  ;  tarsi,  f  inches. 

Female. — Smaller  than  the  male ;  head  and  nape  ferruginous, 
spotted  with  black. 

Malacopteron  cinereus. 

Male, — Similar  to  the  female  of  the  preceding  species,  but 
much  smaller. 

Total  length,  &£.  inches  ;  bill,  T\  inches  ;  tarsus,  ~\  inches." 

Eyton  was  clearly  describing  from  indifferently  prepared 
native  skins. 

Looking  through  the  whole  paper  it  is  clear  that  he  only  as- 
sumed the  sexes  indicated  in  this  case. 

What  he  did  is  very  apparent.  He  got  a  female  of  the  large 
species,  of  which  native  skins  are  about  six  inches  in  length, 
a  bad  skin,  with  the  throat  and  breast  jumbled  up  together,  such 
as  may  be  bought  to  this  day  at  Malacca,  thus  producing  the 
effect  of  an  ashy  band  on  the  breast,  whereas  in  the  fresh 
bird,  with  the  throat  and  breast  in  their  natural  condition,  these 
are  seen  not  to  have  one  transverse  band,  but  numerous  longi- 
tudinal ashy  stria?.  This  female  he  assumed  to  be  a  male,  anr*. 
described  as  Malacopterun  magnum.  It  had,  as  already  explain- 
ed, no  black  spots  on  the  crown.  He  took  at  the  same  time  a 
male  of  the  smaller  species,  which  is  slightly  inferior  in  size 
to  thefemales  of  the  larger  one,  and  described  this  as  the  fe- 
male, it  having  of  course,  as  both  sexes  of  the  smaller  species 
have,  a  conspicuous  intermixture  of  black,  with  the  red  of 
the  crown.     This  was  his  female   magnum. 

Then  he  got  the  female  of  the  smaller  species  exactly  similar 
to  the  male,  but  very  much  smaller,  assumed  this  to  be  the 
male  of  a  distinct  species,  and  described  it  as  Malacopteron 
cinereus. 

Notwithstanding  all  the  errors,  these  names  of  his  have  pri- 
ority, and  the  large  species  must  henceforth  stand  as  magnum, 
of  Eyton,  and  not  majus,  of  Blyth,  and  the  smaller  as  cinereum 
and  not  magnum,  Eyton. 

I  will  now  give  full  measurements,  colors  of  the  soft  parts, 
&c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  from  a  large  series  of  both  species  :  — 

M.  magnum,  Eyton  ;  M.  majus,  Blyth  ;  Male. — Length,  7*12 
to  7-5  ;  expanse,  10'25  to  10-82;  tail,  3-  to  3'12;  wing,  3-35  to 
3-7;  tarsus,  0'9  to  0'95  ;  bill  from  gape,  0'9  to  1*05  ;  weight, 
1  oz.  or  a  little  over. 


272  BIEDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

Female. — Length,  67  to  6*82  ;  expanse,  975  to  1012  ;  tail, 
2-7  to  2-8;  wing,  3'2  to  325;  tarsus,  0'8  to  0*9;  bill  from 
gape,  0*8  ;  weight,  0*75  to  08  oz. 

The  legs  and  feet  and  claws  are  blue,  varying  in  shade  from 
pale  plumbeous  to  pale  smalt  blae  ;  the  upper  mandible  is 
dark  horny  brown  ;  the  lower  mandible  and  often  edges  of  upper 
mandible  are  plumbeous  blue,  or  white,  tinged  with  blue,  fading 
to  bluish  white  at  the  tip  ;  the  irides  vary  from  carmine  to  orange 
red,  I  think  according  to  age,  as  a  younger  bird  has  them  pale 
sienna  brown. 

The  lores,  a  narrow  band  on  the  forehead,  and  the  feathers 
round  the  eye,  are  pale  bluish  grey  ;  the  latter  dotted  with  white; 
the  rest  of  the  forehead  and  crown  deep  ferruginous  ;  occiput 
and  nape  black  ;  ear-coverts  and  sides  of  the  neck,  and  upper 
back  immediately  below  the  black  nape,  slightly  olivaceous 
ashy  ;  entire  mantle  and  visible  portion  of  the  closed  wings, 
(except  primary  greater  coverts,  which  are  blackish  brown)  oli- 
vaceous brown,  rather  greyer  on  the  interscapulary  region, 
and  more  rufescent  on  the  rump  ;  inner  webs  of  quills  hair 
brown  ;  upper  tail-coverts  rather  deep  ferruginous  ;  central  tail 
feathers,  and  outer  webs  of  lateral  ones,  rufescent  brown,  mar- 
gined more  ferruginous  ;  inner  webs  of  laterals  less  rufous  ; 
the  feathers  of  the  ear-coverts  in  many  specimens  are  paler 
shafted  ;  chin,  throat,  and  entire  lower  parts  white  ;  the  chin, 
throat,  breast,  and  sides  streaked  with  pale  ashy  ;  flanks  tinged 
olivaceous  ;  tibial  plumes  with  ashy  olivaceous  brown ;  edge  of 
the  wing  just  at  the  base  of  the  primaries  white  ;  wing-lining 
and  axillaries  pale  ashy. 

M.  einereum,  Eyton  ;  M.  magnum,  Eyton,  apud  auct.  nee  Ey- 
ton.  Male. — Unfortunately  only  one  measured  in  flesh  : — Length, 
675;  expanse,  9'5;  tail,  2*75  ;  wing,  3'12  ;  tarsus,  08 ;  bill 
from  gape,  0"8  ;  weight,  0'75  oz. 

Females. — Length,  5*75  to  5*82  ;  expanse,  8"5  to  875 ;  tail, 
2-25  to  2-5  ;  wing,  27  to  2"8  ;  tarsus,  075  to  08 ;  bill  from 
gape,  07  to  075  ;  weight,  0'5  to  0-6  oz. 

The  legs,  feet,  and  claws  are  fleshy  white,  with  in  some  speci- 
mens a  bluish  tinge  ;  the  eyelids  pale  greenish  yellow  ;  the 
upper  mandible  varies  from  black  to  pale  brown,  according,  I 
think,  to  season  ;  the  lower  mandible  from  fleshy  white  to  pale 
yellowish  ;  the  gape  always  yellowish  ;  the  irides  light  red  to 
carmine,  in   a  younger  specimen  grey  brown. 

In  plumage  this  species  differs  but  little  from  the  preceding, 
but  the  feathers  of  the  crown  are  always  conspicuously  black- 
tipped  ;  the  sides  of  the  head  are  more  olivaceous ;  the  ear-coverts 
as  a  rule,  distinctly  shafted  with  pale  fulvous ;  the  chin  and  throat 
are  almost  unstreaked  ;  the  breast  is  more  feebly  blotched 
with  a  more  olivaceous  grey,  and  the  sides  are  darker ;  moreover, 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSKRIM.  273 

the  whole  of  the  white  of  the  breast  and  abdomen  is  a  little 
less  pure  than  in  the  preceding  species. 

This  smaller  species  does  not,  so  far  as  we  yet  know,  occur 
any  where  in  Tenasserim.  The  larger  species  just  enters  this 
province,  and  is  found  within  its  extreme  southern  limits,  though 
even  here  it  is  not  found  in  large  numbers. 

396  quat.— Malacopteron  ferruginosum,  Blyth.  (3). 

Pakohan  ;  Malewoon. 

Also  entirely  confined  to  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Pak- 
chan. 

[A  very  rare  bird  in  Tenasserim,  and  occurring  only  iu  the 
dense  forests  of  the  extreme  south.  In  habits  it  is  like  Trichas- 
toma,  and  keeps  habitually  on  the  ground,  only  flying  up  into 
the  bushes  and  trees  when  disturbed. 

I  never  heard  the  note  that  I  am  aware.  I  never  met  with 
this  species  in  the  Malay  Peninsula. — W.  D.l 

We  only  obtained  two  adult  females  of  this  species  and  one 
nestling ;  but,  so  far  as  I  know,  the  sexes  do  not  differ.  This  is 
the  bird  that  I  referred  to  as  bicolor  of  Lesson,  Stray  Feathers, 
II.,  536. 

Our  birds  are  identical  with  Blyth's  type  of  ferruginosum, 
with  which  I  compared  them  ;  but,  as  Salvadori  mentions,  it  is 
doubtful  whether  Lesson's  bird,  of  which  he  gives  the  dimensions 
as  only  5*5  inches,  is  identical  with  the  present  species,  and  I 
therefore  retain  our  birds  for  the  present  under  Blyth's  name, 
which  undoubtedly  pertains  to  them. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  of  the  females,  obtained 
by  Davison  at  Malewoon  and  on  the  Pakchan. 

Length,  6-25  to  6'85  ;  expanse,  9*25  to  975  ;  tail  from  vent, 
2*25  to  2-5  ;  wing,  2  85  to  3-Q  ;  tarsus,  T05  ;  bill  from  gape, 
0-82  to  0-9 ;  weight,  0*8  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  fleshy  white  ;  upper  mandible  dirty  white ;  lower 
mandible  dark  brown  ;   irides  pale  wood  brown. 

The  lores,  sordid  white;  eyelid  feathers  white  ;  entire  top  and 
back  of  the  head  ferruginous  ;  back  and  upper  portion  of  sides 
of  neck,  back,  scapulars,  rump  and  lesser  wing-coverts  along 
the  ulna,  rusty  or  ferruginous  olive;  upper  tail-coverts  and 
tail  bright  chestnut;  wings  hair  brown  ;  outer  webs  of  all  the 
feathers  and  both  webs  of  the  tertiaries  a  duller  and  browner 
chestnut,  and  the  outer  webs  of  the  earlier  primaries  paler  and 
more  fulvous ;  cheeks  and  ear-coverts  like  the  head ;  in  one 
specimen  the  occiput  is  darker,  and  has  an  olivaceous  tinge  on 
it ;  the  ear-coverts  also  have  an  olivaceous  tinge ;  entire  lower 
parts  white,  suffused  brownish  or  reddish  across  the  breast,  with 
a  trace  of  the  same  on  the  sides  of  the  abdomen ;  sides  of  the 

35 


274  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

body  mingled  with  grey  ;  wing-lining",  inner  margins  of  the 
quills,  except  towards  the  terminal  portions  of  the  primaries, 
pale  salmon  buff.  Three  or  four  very  large  and  conspicuous 
black  bristles  spring  from  the  middle  of  the  lores,  which  quite 
at  their  bases  are  whitish. 

396  #wm^— Malacopteron  magnirostris,  Moore.  (16). 

Palaw-ton-ton ;  Bankasoon;  Malewoon. 

Common  at  the  extreme  south  of  the  province. 

[This  species  is  usually  found  in  small  parties,  hunting  about 
the  brushwood  and  tops  of  the  smaller  trees  for  insects.  I 
have  never  seen  it  descend  to  the  ground.  Occasionally  I  have 
seen  them  in  pairs  or  singly,  but  always  restless,  moving  from 
one  branch  to  the  other.  I  have  also  seen  them  occasionally 
seize  insects  on  the  wing  after  the  manner  of  Flycatchers.  I 
cannot  remember  having  heard  their  note. 

I  never  found  anything  but  insects  in  the  stomachs  of  those 
I  dissected.  I  found  this  species  common  in  the  Malay  Penin- 
sula right  down  to  its  southern  extremity. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  from 
a  large  series  of  this  species,  which,  though  classed  as  an 
A  Icippe,  by  Moore,  is,  I  should  say,  clearly  a  Malacopteron  closely 
allied  to  ferruginosum  : — 

Males. — Length,  7-0  to  7'25  ;  expanse,  9'75  to  10'0;  tail 
from  vent,  2'75  to  3'25  ;  wing,  3-1  to  3-35  ;  tarsus,  0-82  to0-9; 
bill  from  gape,  082  to  0-85  ;  weight,  08  oz. 

Females. — Length,  6'4  to  662  ;  expanse,  9*25  to  9*5  ;  tail 
from  vent,  2*5  to  2'62  ;  wing,  2*82  to  2 -9;  tarsus,  0'82  to 
0-9  ;  bill  from  gape,  0'8  to  0-82  ;  weight,  075  oz. 

Legs,  feet,  and  claws  pale  bluish,  sometimes  a  little  darker 
and  more  plumbeous  ;  upper  mandible  dark  horny  brown, 
almost  black  in  some  ;  lower  mandible  bluish  white,  pale  blue  or 
plumbeous ;  gape  dull  yellow  ;  irides  red,  varying  from  cinnabar 
to  lake,  and  lake  to  crimson. 

The  lores  and  the  extreme  point  of  the  forehead  and  a  stripe 
over  the  eye  pale  grey,  or  greyish  white  ;  eyelid  feathers  white  ; 
an  ill-defined  dusky  ash  stripe  from  the  base  of  the  lower  man- 
dible down  the  sides  of  the  throat;  the  basal  portions  of  the 
exterior  frontal  feathers  greyish ;  the  feathers  of  the  rest  of 
the  forehead,  crown  and  occiput,  grey  brown,  dark  shafted, 
more  or  less  broadly  overlaid  towards  the  margins  with  an 
olivaceous  tint ;  ear-coverts  greyish  brown,  sometimes  with  an 
olivaceous  tinge,  more  or  less  obscurely  pale-shafted  towards 
their  bases. 

Back,  scapulars  and  nape  clear  light  olive  brown  ;  lower  part 
of  back  and  rump    and  shorter  upper  tail-coverts  the  same, 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  275 

with  a  ferrruginous  tinge ;  tail  a  brighter  or  duller  chestnut;  the 
margins  of  the  feathers  and  the  longer  upper  tail-coverts  a 
bright  or  deep  ferruginous  red;  wings  pale  hair  brown;  both 
webs  of  the  tertiaries  and  the  outer  webs  of  all  the  other  feathers 
more  or  less  broadly  margined  with  a  faintly  rusty  olive,  the 
outer  webs  of  the  earlier  longer  primaries  being  paler ;  the 
chin  and  throat  are  white,  but  the  base  of  the  throat 
is  generally  a  little  streaked  with  ashy  olive;  the  breast  is 
white,  more  or  less  suffused  with  pale  brown  or  ashy  olive,  or 
a  mixture  of  the  two,  producing  the  effect  of  an  ill-defined 
pectoral  band  ;  in  some  specimens  almost  entirely  wanting  in 
the  middle  of  the  breast. 

The  whole  of  the  rest  of  the  lower  parts,  even  the  tibial 
plumes,  are  white ;  the  sides  and  flanks  are  more  or  less  shaded 
with  the  color  of  the  pectoral  band ;  sometimes  the  tibial  plumes 
are  a  little  mingled  with  pale  brown  ;  the  wing-lining  is  white, 
with  a  faint  fulvous  tinge,  and  the  inner  margins  of  the  quills, 
except  of  the  terminal  portions  of  the  earlier  primaries,  creamy 
white  to  pale  fulvous  ;  the  edge  of  the  wing  at  the  carpal  joint 
is  white. 

The  appearance  of  the  head  in  this  species  varies  a  good  deal ; 
in  some  it  is  distinctly  squamated ;  in  some  it  is  a  nearly  uni- 
form olive,  scarcely  darker  than  the  back ;  in  some  there  is  a 
perceptible  rufescent  tinge  on  the  back  of  the  occiput.  The 
feathers  are  very  tender  in  this  species,  and,  specially  on  the 
nape,  have  a  good  deal  of  the  greyish  white  or  pale  grey  bases 
of  the  feathers  showing  through,  giving  a  pale  appearance  to 
that  part,  except  in  very  good  specimens. 

396  sept.—  Drymocataphus   nigricapitatus,    Eyton. 
(2). 

Bankasoon ;  Malewoon. 

A  rare  straggler  into  the  extreme  southern  portions  of  the 
province. 

[I  always  fouud  this  bird  singly,  or  in  pairs ;  most  often  singly, 
and  always  on  the  ground.  Even  when  disturbed  it  does  not 
take  refuge  in  trees  or  bushes,  but  moves  rapidly  away  along  the 
ground;  if  hard  pressed  they  fly  some  distance,  but  invariably 
alight  on  the  ground.  When  disturbed  they  often,  but  not  always, 
utter  a  long  drawn  single  note,  somewhat  after  the  manner  of 
Turdinus  brevicaudatus,  but  quite  distinct  for  all  that.  They 
are  shy  birds,  frequenting  only  the  densest  portions  of  the  forest, 
and  specially  addicted  to  dense  cane  brakes.  Their  food  con- 
sists of  insects,  such  as  auts    and  their  larvae,  &c. 

Although  so  rare  in  Tenasserim,  I  shot  numbers  further  south 
in  the   Malay  Peninsula,  and  had  abundant   opportunities   of 


276  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

observing  their  habits.  In  these  they,  to  a  limited  extent, 
resemble  Trichastoma,  but  yet  differ  in  many  ways. 

On  the  whole  their  habits  more  resemble  those  of  Turdinus 
macrodactylus  than  of  any  bird  I  know. — W.  D.] 

Count  Salvadori,  in  his  invaluable  work  on  the  Birds  of  Borneo, 
thus  defines  the  three  most  nearly-allied  species  of  this  genus : — 

1.  D.  capistratus,  Tem.,  from  Java. 

Supercilium  fulvous  chestnut;  cheek  iu  male  ashy,  in  female 
fulvous  chestnut. 

2.  D.  capistratoides,  Tern.,  from  Borneo. 
Supercilium  white ;  cheeks,  black. 

3.  D.  nigricapitatus,  Eyton  ;  from  Malacca,  Sumatra  (and 
I  may  add   Southern  Tenasserim). 

Sides  of  the  head  ashy,  lined  with  white.  N.B. — The  lineation 
is  often  not  very  distinct,  and  the  ear-coverts  are  often  strongly 
tinged  with  ferruginous. 

This  species  is  very  rare,  even  in  the  extreme  south  of  Tenas- 
serim, and  we  only  obtained  two  specinens,  one  a  male,  the  other, 
perhaps,  a  female.     The  male  measured  : — 

Length,  7*12  ;  expanse,  9'0;  tail  from  vent,  25  ;  wing,  2*75; 
tarsus,  1*25;  bill  from  gape,  095  ;  from  frontal  bone,  0'83; 
weight,   125   oz. 

The  other  bird  (?)  a  female.  Length,  6*8  ;  expanse,  2*0;  tail 
from  vent,  2*35  ;  wing,  1*7  ;  tarsus,  1'25  ;  bill  from  gape,  0'9 ; 
at  front,  0-75  ;  weight,  a  little  over  1  oz. 

The  legs  and  feet,  in  the  first,  were  fleshy  white,  slightly  ting- 
ed with  brown,  in  the  second  reddish  horny;  in  both  the  upper 
mandible  was  black  ;  the  lower  mandible  fleshy  white;  hides 
rhubarb  red. 

Lores,  cheeks  and  a  broad  stripe  over  and  behind  the  eye,  meet- 
ing or  all  but  meeting  at  the  base  of  the  occiput,  grey,  the  latter 
streaked,  the  rest  more  or  less  speckled  with  white ;  the  ear-co- 
verts more  or  less  ashy  at  the  base,  and  sometimes  over,  perhaps, 
half  their  length,  but  generally  the  greater  portion  of  them  pale 
ferruginous,  more  or  less  streaked  with  a  darker  color,  and  paler 
shafted  ;  a  black  line  from  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible  to  just 
below  the  middle  of  the  ear-coverts;  the  chin  and  throat 
between  these  lines  snow  white ;  the  rest  of  the  throat  in  front, 
mesially  white,  a  little  tinged  with  ferruginous  ;  side  of  the  throat 
and  neck,  entire  breast,  and  more  or  less  of  the  upper  abdo- 
men and  of  its  sides,  bright  ferruginous  ;  rest  of  abdomen  and 
vent  duller  and  browner  ;  lower  tail-coverts  darker  and  browner 
still ;  upper  parts,  from  the  nape,  including  all  the  visible  portions 
of  the  wing  when  closed,  and  tail,  deep  ferruginous  brown,  paler  on 
the  nape,  where  the  feathers  are  slightly  paler  shafted,  reddest 
and  most  ferruginous  on  the  upper  tail-coverts,  deepest,  becoming 
almost  a  maroon  on  the  tail  j  forehead,  except  the  extreme  point, 


BIKDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  277 

which  in  some  is  greyish,  crown,  and  occiput  inside  the  grey 
stripes,  black,  the  shafts  of  the  feathers  often  just  perceptibly 
paler;  inner  webs  of  the.  quills  hair  brown  ;  wing-lining  pale 
salmon  buff,  as  are  the  narrow  inner  mai'gins  to  the  quills  to- 
wards their  bases  and  axillaries,  and  some  of  the  coverts  near 
the  joint  of  wing  paler  or  brighter  ferruginous. 

399. — Pellorneum  ruficeps,  Swains. 

Blyth  gives  this  from  Tenasserim  ;  but  ruficeps  is  a  purely 
Southern  Indian  bird,  and  most  certainly  does  not  occur  in 
Tenasserim.  Doubtless  Blyth  referred  to  subochraceum,  Swinh., 
which  he  sent  as  ruficeps  to  that  gentleman,  and  which  he  clearly 
neither  distinguished  nor  remembered,  as  he  gives  it  (B.  of  B., 
p.  114)  as  a  synonym  of  the  extremely  different  species  P. 
tickelli. 

399  ter.— Pellorneum  tickelli,  Bly.  (l).  Descr.  S.  P., 
I.,  299rc. 

Amherst. 

Lord  Tweeddale  (B.  of  B.,  p.  114)  remarked  that  my  P. 
minus  was  a  synonym  of  tickelli.  This,  however,  it  is  now  ad- 
mitted is  not  the  case.  Pellorneum  minus  is,  as  I  myself  first 
pointed  out,  in  all  probability  a  synonym  of  P.  subochraceum. 
Anyhow  it  is  utterly  unlike  P.  tickelli,  which  occurs  both  in 
Assam  and  Burmah,  and  of  which  the  original  descriptions  by 
both  Blyth  and  Tickell,  (reproduced  loc.  cit.  sup.)  leave  me 
absolutely  nothing  to  add  on  this  head. 

As  there  had  been  a  great  deal  of  controversy  about  this 
species,  I  sent  a  specimen  of  what  I  called  P.  tickelli  home 
to  the  Editors  of  the  Ibis,  suggesting  that  they  should  examine 
the  question  and  give  the  ornithological  world  the  benefit  of 
their  opinion. 

The  Editors  made  over  the  specimen  to  Major  Godwin- 
Austen,  i.e.,  transferred  the  case  to  one  of  the  defendants,  my 
contention  being  that  he  and  Lord  Tweeddale  have  been  per- 
sistently wrong  throughout. 

Major  Austen  says,  Ibis,  1878,  115,  that  the  bird  I  call  P. 
tickelli  is  his  Turdinus  garoensis ;  he  also  says  that  my  Tri- 
chastoma  minus  is  Drymocataphus  fulvus,  of  Walden,  and  accor- 
ding to  him  it  is  also  P.  tickelli. 

The  Editors  say  that  they  believe  it  impossible  to  decide 
whether  the  original  P.  tickelli  was  the  bird  I  assert,  or  the 
bird  Austen  asserts,  though  i{  the  size  of  the  specimens  sent  by 
Mr.  Hume  seems  to  us  to  favour  his  view, "  and  they  suggest 
that  it  would  be  best  to  suppress  Blyth's  name  altogether. 

I  am  very  sorry  I  cannot  see  my  way  to  this.  I  cannot 
suppress  a  name  which,  to  my  mind,  stands  as  clearly  established 


278  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

as  any  in  the  whole  list.  We  have  two  original  descriptions  by 
two  different  persons ;  the  birds  I  put  forward  agree  in  the 
minutest  particulars  with  these  descriptions.  No  human  being 
would  ever  have  dreamt  of  questioning  the  identification  had  not 
Lord  Tweeddale  and  Major  Godwin-Austen  muddled  the  whole 
question  by  a  series  of  erroneous  assertions.  Are  we  to  sacri- 
fice Blyth's  claim  as  namer  of  the  species  because  these  two 
gentlemen  make  mistakes  ? 

I  venture  to  predict  that  25  years  hence,  when  we  are  off  the 
stage  and  independent  men,  reinvestigate  the  question,  they  will 
be  lost  in  astonishment  at  the  persistent  way  in  which  Major 
Austen  has  shut  his  eyes  to  an  undisputable  fact. 

There  is  no  doubt,  in  my  mind,  that  our  successors  will  say 
ci  P.  tickelli  is  as  clear  as  possible  ;  the  two  descriptions  and 
measurements  taken  together  preclude  any  possible  uncertainty, 
and  we  shall,  therefore,  certainly  not  suppress  the  name/'  and 
this  being  so,  I  see  no  use  in  my  attempting  in  deference  to 
the  views  of  my  friends,  the  Editors  of  the  Ibis,  to  initiate  a 
suppression  that  posterity  will  never  ratify. 

But  I  have  a  crow  to  pick  with  these  Editors.  I  wanted 
their  unbiassed  and  independent  opinion  founded  on  their  own 
personal  comparison.  I  did  not  want  Major  Godwin-Austen's 
opinion.  What  value  can  I  attach  to  this  in  this  kind  of  case, 
when  after  saying  that  his  Turdmus  garoensis  is  the  same  as  the 
bird  I  call  P.  tickelli,  he  goes  on  to  say  that  my  Trichastoma 
minus  is  "  very  close"  to  his  T.  garoensis  I  It  is  absurd  !  The  two 
birds  I  sent  are  as  far  apart  as  any  species  of  this  group  can 
be.  It  is  like  a  man  not  used  to  sheep  from  his  childhood  who 
tells  you  gravely  that  all  sheep  are  very  much  alike,  when  you 
know  that  every  single  face  is  as  distinct  as  distinct  can  be. 

For  my  part  I  cannot  avoid  a  suspicion,  that  when  some 
one  with  an  eye  for  species,  like  Brooks  or  Seebohm  for  instance, 
takes  the  question  up,  they  will  find  that  it  is  Austen's  new 
Turdinus  nagaensis  and  not  his  T.  garoensis  that  equals,  and 
is  a  synonym  of  P.  tickdli,  and  that  garoensis  really  equals 
and  takes  precedence  of  my  T.  minus,  which  equals  and  takes 
precedence  of  D.  fulvus,  Walden.  Anyhow  T.  nagaensis  cannot 
stand  as  if  not  equal  to  P.  tickelli,  then  it  must  inevitably  equal 
P.  ignotum,  nobis  (S.  E.,  V.,  334)  which  name  has  precedence. 

399    sextus. — Pellorneum    subochraceum,    Swinh. 
(37).  Descr.  S.F.,  II.,  298  ;  III.,  120;   IV.,  406. 

P.  minus,  Hume.=¥.  tickelli,  Wald.,  B.  of  B.,  114,  nee  Blyt%.      - 

(Tonghoo,  Karen  Sills,  Rams.)     Dargwin  ;  Pahpoon  ;  Wimpong  ;  Myawadee  ; 

Endingnone  ;      Kaukaryif,  Houngthraw    R.  ;     Moulmein  ;  Meetan  ;    Amherst  ; 

Lemyne  ;  Yea;   MeetaMyo;  Tavoy  ;  Mergui  ;    Pakchan  ;    Bankasoon. 

Common  throughout  the  entire  province,  but  not  ascending 
the  higher  hills. 


BIRDS   OK  TENASSERIM.  279 

[This  is  found  equally  iu  all  localities — dense  forest,  thin  tree 
or  bamboo  jungle,  and  even  iu  Avell-wooded  gardens,  not  how- 
ever in  high  grass  or  quite  open  land.  It  usually  goes  in  pairs, 
rarely  singly,  never  in  parties.  It  feeds  almost  entirely  on  the 
ground  amongst  the  dead  leaves,  which  it  hunts  through  and 
turns  over  much  like  Trichastoma  in  a  steady  business-like 
fashion.  It  is  not  at  all  shy,  but  when  disturbed  it  usually  flies 
into  some  bush  or  bamboo  clump,  never  high  Tip  into  a  tree,  and 
very  soon  descends  to  the  ground  again. 

Its  note  is  a  clear  double  whistle,  which  sounds  exactly  like 
the  words  "  Pretty  dear,  Pretty  dear,  &c." 

This  they  are  continually  uttering,  and  it  is  one  of  the 
pleasantest  calls  one  hears  in  the  jungle,  and  may  even  be  heard 
inside  the  town  of  Moulmein. 

They  live  exclusively  on  insects,  and  their  larvae  and  eggs, 
ants'  eggs  especially.  On  sunny  days  in  Burmah  many  species 
of  ants  bring  all  their  eggs  out  to  sun  them,  especially  if  there 
has  been  a  good  deal  of  rain  recently,  and  then  it  is  a  grand  find 
for  one  of  our  "  Pretty  dears,"  when  he  happens  to  hit  upon 
such  a  drying  ground  and  whips  off  all  the  eggs  before  the 
poor  ants  well  know  what  is  happening. — W.  D.j 

401  his. — Pomatorhinus  phayrei,  Bly. 

Said  by  Blyth  to  have  occurred  at  Tavoy ;  also  he  says  in 
Sikhim,  the  Khasias  and  Arracan. 

I  think  there  is  some  mistake  about  its  occurring  in  Sikhim. 
It  is  difficult  to  make  out  from  Blyth's  original  remarks  in  re- 
gard to  this  species  whether  he  did  actually  get  a  specimen  from 
Sikhim.  It  seems  to  me  rather  as  if  he  simultaneously  got 
ferruginosum  from  Sikhim,  and  phayrei  from  Arracan,  and 
assumed  the  latter  to  be  females. 

Certainly  hitherto  neither  Mr.  Mandelli  nor  Mr.  Grammie 
have  succeeded  in  obtaining  phayrei  anywhere  in  Sikhim,  and 
it  is  hardly  possible  that  any  birds  should  have  escaped  Mr. 
MandellPs  collectors  for  all  these  years. 

This  species  is  of  the  type  of  sc/iisticeps,  but  has  no  bright 
rufous  collar,  and  has  the  whole  breast  and  abdomen  uniform 
rufous  buff.  I  have  unfortunately  no  specimen  to  describe,  so  I 
am  compelled  to  transcribe  Blyth's  not  very  clear  descriptions. 

I  note  that  Godwin-Austen,  J.  A.  S.  B.,  XLIX.,  pt. 
II.,  103,  1870,  gives  the  dimensions  of  this  species  as : — 

"Length,  9  inches;  extent,  1075  ;  wing,  3*4  ;  tail,  4  5;  tarsus, 
1*45  ;  bill,  1-15  ;  irides,  pale  yellow." 

Blyth  first  noticed  this  species,  J.  A.  S.  B.,  XIV.,  597, 
as  the  female  of  P.  ferruginosus. 

_  "P.  ferruginosus,  nobis. — This  beautiful  species  measures  about 
nine  inches  long,  of  which  the  tail  is  four  and  a  quarter ;  wing 


280  BIKDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

three  and  a  quarter;  bill  to  forehead  an  inch  to  one  and  one-eighth 
and  tarsi  an  inch  and  three-eighths.  Colour  greenish  olive- 
brown  above ;  the  cap  black  in  the  male  only  ;  lores  and  ear- 
coverts  a7so  black  in  both  sexes,  extending  a  little  along  the 
sides  of  the  neck ;  a  long  white  supercilium,  tinged  with 
rufous  on  the  sides  of  the  forehead  in  the  male;  throat,  towards 
the  chin,  also  white,  but  the  rest  of  the  under-parts  bright 
ferruginous,  fading  on  the  belly ;  bill  deep  coral-red  ;  and  legs 
dusky-brown.  It  is  unusual,  if  not  previously  unexampled, 
for  the  sexes  in  this  genus  to  present  any  marked  difference  of 
colouring.  The  species  inhabits  Darjeeling,  and  the  mountains 
of  Arracan.'" 

But  he  later  returned  to  the  subject,  J.  A.  S.  B.,  XVI.,  452, 
j       as  follows.  Note  that  he  calls  the  bir d  rubiginosus  by  mistake  : — 

"  P.  rubiginosus,  nobis,  XIV.,  597. — All  the  specimens  of  this 
bird  which  I  have  hitherto  seen,  from  Darjeeling,  correspond 
with  my  description  of  the  supposed  male,  having  the  cap 
black,  and  some  erect  lengthened  plumes  above  the  lores  of  the 
same  deep  rufous  as  the  breast;  but  the  Arracan  specimens, 
three  in  number,  which  I  have  now  seen,  alike  correspond 
with  my  description  of  the  supposed  female,  having  the  crown 
of  the  same  olivaceous  hue  as  the  rest  of  the  upper-parts,  this 
being  of  a  greener  tinge  than  in  the  Darjeeling  birds ;  the 
feathers  above  the  lores  short  and  white,  like  the  rest  of  the 
supercilium,  and  the  rufous  of  the  under-parts  is  much  weaker 
and  more  fulvescent.  Hence,  I  now  suspect  that  they  are 
two  distinct  species,  and  shall  designate  that  of  Arracan,  P. 
-~    pliayrei." 

We  have  neither  seen  nor  heard  anything  of  this  species  about 
Tavoy,  and  I  cannot  but  look  upon  its  occurrence,  in  Tenasserim 
at  all,  as  doubtful. 

401  ter. — Pomatorlrinus  tnarice,  Wald.    Descr.  S.  I\, 
III.,  404. 

This  bird  was  described  from  specimens  obtained  in  the 
Tonghoo  Hills  by  Wardlaw'Ramsay  ;  but,  as  already  pointed  out, 
S.  F.,  V.,  136, 1  am  unable  to  discover  how  it  differs  from  P. 
albigularis,  Blyth.  This  latter  species  we  have  from  the  precisely 
same  locality  from  which  the  type  came,  and  it  agrees  precisely 
with  Lord  Walden's  description  of  marice ;  if,  therefore,  marice 
does  differ,  the  very  points  of  difference  have  been  most  unfor- 
tunately omitted  from  the  description. 

For  the  present,  therefore,  I  hold  the  distinctness  of  this  species 
to  be  doubtful,  the  more  so  that  Lieutenant  Wardlaw  Ramsay 
in  his  latest  Paper  seems  equally  doubtful  of  this. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  281 

401  quat.—  Pomatorhinus  ochraceiceps,*  Wald.  (5). 
Descr.  S.  F.,  III.,  282. 

{Tonghoo,  Karennee  Sills ,  at  2,500  feet,  Earns.)     Paraduba  ;  Moolejit. 

Hitherto  only  observed  in  Tenasserim  proper  on  the  higher 
slopes  of  Moolejit,  but  re-appearing  further  north  iu  the  con- 
tinuation of  the  same  range  in  Karennee,  &c. 

[I  found  this  species  from  3,000  feet  and  upwards  on  the  Mool- 
eyit  range,  and  always  in  pairs.  They  are  very  shy  indeed,  and 
retreat  rapidly  on  the  slightest  sign  of  danger.  Thev  frequent 
the  brushwood,  but  I  have  seen  them  moving  about  the  branches 
moderately  high  up  in  trees.  I  have  seen  and  shot  them  among 
rocks  and  bushes  in  comparatively  open  places. 

They  have  the  usual  note,  a  sort  of  hoot,  hoot,  hoot,  uttered 
rapidly,  of  the  Pomatorhini,  but  yet  recognizably  distinct  from 
the  others.  Like  all  the  Pomatorhini  they  descend  to  the  ground 
and  feed  on  insects. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  and  colors  of  the  soft  parts, 
recorded  in  the  flesh,  of  2  males  and  3  females  :— 

Males. — Length,  9"75  to  100;  expanse,  10'7  to  11*5  ;  tail 
from  vent,  4-2  to  45  ;  wing,  3 '4  to  3*8  ;  tarsus,  1*3  ;  bill  from 
gape,  1*5  ;  weight,  1*65  oz. 

Females. — Length,  9*3  to  9*8  ;  expanse,  10*9  to  11-05 ;  tail  from 
vent,  4-1  to  4-5  ;  wing,  3*5  to  3*55 ;  tarsus,  1*2  to  1*25;  bill 
from  gape,  1*3  to  1*32  ;  weight,  1*2  to  1*3  ozs. 

Legs,  feet  and  claws  pale  dingy  green  or  greenish  brown ; 
bill  pale  bright  vermilion  red  ;  shelf  of  nostrils  black  ;  the 
irieles  varied  much,  being  pale  greyish  brown,  very  pale  yellow- 
ish red,  light  Indian  red,  and  pinkish  yellow. 

401  quint.— Pomatorhinus  albigularis,  Blyth.  (12). 

(  ?  Tonghoo  Sills,  [P.  marice]  Rams.)  Mooleyifc. 

Observed  only  on  the  higher  slopes  of  Mooleyit,  and,  if  P 
marice  is  identical,  on  the  Tonghoo  Hills. 

[I  met  with  this  species  less  often  than  the  last,  and  found  it 
even  more  shy.  Sometimes  I  saw  it  in  pairs,  more  often  in 
small  parties,  always  among  the  undergrowth  iu  the  jungles 
and  in  dense  ringal  jungle.  Its  habits  and  voice  are  much  the 
same  as  those  of  the  last  species.  Like  all  the  Pomatorhini  the 
birds  are  continually  calling  to  and  answering  each  other.  They 
all  feed  exclusively,  so  far  as  my  observations  go,  on  beetles, 
ants,  grubs  and  the  like.  They  may  eat  small  shells,  but  I  have 
not  found  these  in  their  stomachs. — W.  D.] 

*  For  the  very  elosely  allied  (if  indeed  specifically  distinct)  P.  stenorhynchws,  God.. 
Aust.,  vide  S.  F.,  V.,  342,  343  n. 

36 


282  BIRDS   OF   TENASSEEIM. 

We  only  measured  two  specimens  of  this  species,  both  males, 
of  which  the  following  are  the  dimensions,  colors  of  the  soft 
parts,  &a,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Length,  9'6,  lO'O  ;  expanse,  11*7,  120;  tail  from  vent,  4-2; 
wing,  3-8,  39 ;  tarsus,  1*35,  1*4;  bill  from  gape,  1*12; 
weight,  2 '5  oz. 

The  legs  and  feet  are  a  pale  greenish  brown,  sometimes  a  dingy 
brownish  green  ;  bill  vermilion  *ed  ;  irides  creamy  white. 

The  lores,  the  feathers  immediately  under  and  behind  the  eye, 
ear-coverts,  and  some  of  the  feathers  behind  the  ear-coverts,  form- 
ing together  a  broad  patch  on  the  side  of  the  head  and  neck, 
black. 

A  line  from  the  nostrils,  over  the  eye,  and  over  the  black 
patch  above  referred  to,  rufescent  white  just  where  it  impiuges 
on  the  nostrils,  elsewhere  pure  white ;  a  narrow  frontal  band  con- 
tinued, further  diminished  in  breadth,  on  either  side  as  a  boundary 
to  this  white  stripe  throughout  its  entire  length,  black ;  chin, 
throat  and  feathers  on  the  sides  of  the  base  of  the  lower  man- 
dible, generally  pure  white,  occasionally  a  little  patched  here  and 
there  with  fulvous ;  front  and  sides  of  neck  behind  the  black 
patch,  breast  and  greater  portion  of  abdomen,  delicate  pale  huffy; 
the  sides  of  the  breast,  the  sides  of  the  abdomen,  sides,  flanks, 
and  lower  tail-coverts  pure  olive  brown,  the  latter  with  a  slight- 
ly more  rufescent  tinge  ;  tibial  plumes  somewhat  rufescent  brown. 

Wing-liniug  partly  brown,  partly  unicolorous  with  the  inner 
margins  of  the  quills,  which  are  a  sort  of  pale  salmon  buff; 
rest  of  lower  surface  of  quills  glossy  hair  brown ;  coverts  just 
under  the  carpal  joint  greyish  brown  ;  lower  surface  of  tail  fea- 
thers yellowish  olive  brown. 

Entire  top  of  head  and  nape,  inside  the  black  frontal  band 
and  its  lateral  continuation,  a  rich  rufescent,  or  perhaps  some- 
what ochraceous  olive  brown  ;  back,  scapulars,  rump  and  upper 
tail-coverts  very  similar,  but  not  quite  so  brightly  colored,  or 
■with  so  much  of  the  ochraceous  tint  ;  wings  hair  brown  ;  all 
the  feathers  suffused  on  their  outer  webs,  and  the  tertiaries 
on  both  webs,  with  the  same  color  as  the  head,  or  a  slightly  more 
rufescent  shade  of  the  same  ;  the  outer  w7ebs  of  the  earlier 
primaries,  below  the  emarginations,  being  decidedly  yellower 
and  more  of  a  fawny  brown  than  the  rest  of  the  wing ;  tail  a 
slightly  rufescent  brown,  tinged  olive,  and  margined  strongly 
towards  the  bases  with  the  same  color  as  the  upper  tail-coverts. 

403.— Pomatorhinus  leucogaster,  Gould.  (7). 

Pine  forests,  Salween  ;  Pahpoon ;  Head  waters  of  Thoungyen  ;  Younzaleen 
Creek  ;   Thatone. 

Confined  to  the  hills  on  the  north-eastern  portions  of  the 
province. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  283 

[I  myself  only  shot  tins  species  in  the  hills  to  the  north  of 
Pahpoon.  It  was  usually  seen  in  pairs  on  the  outskirts  of  forest 
and  in  bamboo  jungle,  but  never,  I  think,  any  distance  from  good 
cover. 

They  go  about  much  on  the  ground,  turning  over  the  leaves 
in  quest  of  insects.  When  disturbed  they  generally  make  their 
way  through  the  brushwood,  and  not  unfrequently  commence 
climbing  up  the  trees,  keeping  themselves  well  screened  however, 
till  they  reach  the  top,  when  they  fly  off  to  another  tree,  or 
else  down  into  brushwood  again.  As  they  move  about,  or 
while  feeding  at  short  intervals,  they  keep  calling  to  and  answer- 
ing each  other.  Their  note  is  the  usual  low  hoot,  hoot, 
hoot,  that  all  the  Pomatorhini  have,  but  yet  it  is  recognizably 
distinct  in  each  species,  so  that  while  from  a  distince  you  can 
say  u  that  is  some  Pomatorhimis, ,}  as  you  draw  nearer  you  can  say 
positively  which  particular  species  it  is ;  but  to  reproduce  these 
shades  of  tone  in  words  is  utterly  impossible. — W.  D.] 

It  is  possible  that  some  of  these  may  pertain  to  Lord  Tweed- 
dale's  new  species  P.  nuchalis,  (v.  infra).  Unfortunately  I  have 
not  the  specimens  at  hand  now  to  compare. 

403  Us.— Pomatorhimis  olivaceus,  Blyth.  (13).  Descr. 
S.  P.,  V.,  137. 

Thoungya  Sakan  ;  Myawadee  ;  Mooleyit ;  Meetan  ;  Yea  ;  Tenasserim  Town  ; 
Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Confined  to  the  less-elevated  ranges  and  the  neighbourhood  of 
their  bases  in  Central  and  Southern  Tenasserim. 

[This  bird  is  not  uncommon  in  thin  tree  jungle,  bamboo  jungles 
and  even  well-wooded  gardens  near  forest.  Like  the  last  it  is 
usually  found  in  pairs,  though  on  one  or  two  occasions  I  have 
found  several  together.  In  its  habits,  voice,  &c,  it  does  not  differ 
from  leucogaster.  It  ascends  the  hills  to  at  any  rate  3,000  feet, 
but  is  most  numerous  about  their  bases. — W.  I).] 

Some  time  ago  (S.  F.,  V.,  137)  I  pointed  out  that  Pomatorhimis 
olivaceus,  Blyth,  was  a  distinct  species.  It  will  be  observed  that 
all  our  specimens  from  Northern  Tenasserim  are  leucogaster, 
(unless  indeed  some  should  prove  to  be  nuchalis)  and  from 
Southern  and  Central  Tenasserim,  olivaceus. 

The  two  species  may  be  distinguished  at  a  glance ;  in  leucogas- 
ter ;  the  ferruginous  patch  behind  the  ear  is  continued  down  the 
sides  of  the  breast  and  body  ;  in  olivaceus  it  is  confined  to  a 
patch  behind  the  ear-coverts. 

This  is  the  point  I  would  insist  upon.  I  do  not  think  now, 
after  examining  very  large  series  from  different  localities,  that 


284-  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM. 

the  other  points  which  I  noted,  the  greater  intensity  of  the 
rufous  coloring  of  the  nape,  and  the  more  olivaceous  tint  of  the 
crown,  can  be  insisted  on  as  invariably  constant.  The  more  so 
that  one  race,  of  what  I  must  consider  leucogaster  for  the  present, 
from  the  pine  forests  of  the  Sal  ween,  while  exhibiting  the 
ferruginous  on  the  sides  of  the  breast  and  body,  has  a  bright 
ferruginous  nuchal  collar,  as  bright  as  in  the  brightest  olivaceus ; 
while  some  specimens  of  olivaceus  that  I  have  obtained  do  not 
exhibit  this  rufous  nuchal  collar  at  all  conspicuously.  The 
point  of  distinction  is,  that  in  one  the  ferruginous  runs  down  the 
sides  of  the  breast  and  body ;  in  the  other  it  does  not. 

403    ter. — Pomatorhinus    nuchalis,  Tweed.     A.  and 
M.  N.  H.,  December  1877,  535. 

The  following  is  Lord  Tweeddale's  original  description  of 
this  new  species  or  supposed  species.  If  valid,  it  certainly 
occurs  in  Karennee  and  the  Karen  Hills,  as  this  is  expressly 
set  forth  by  Lord  Tweeddale ;  and,  judging  from  the  remarks 
I  recorded  in  the  last  paragraph,  it  seems  not  improbable  that 
some  of  the  specimens  included  by  me  under  leucogaster  would 
be  claimed  for  nuchalis  by  its  describer.  Having  no  specimens 
with  me  here  in  the  wilds  of  Rajpootana,  I  can  say  nothing 
further  about  the  species. 

"  Pomatorhinus  nuchalis,  S.P.  nov.  ;  Pomatorhinus  leucogaster, 
Gould  apud  Walden,  B.  Burma,  No.  351. 

"  Differs  from  P.  olivaceus,  Blyth,  ex-Meetan  and  Mooleyit 
(Tenasserim)  by  the  ferruginous  of  the  sides  of  the  neck  extending 
down  the  flanks,  and  from  P.  schisticeps,  Hodgs.=P.  leucogaster, 
Gould.,  by  its  smaller  dimensions,  and  the  absence  of  pure  white 
central  streaks  on  the  lateral  ferruginous  pectoral  feathers. 

"  This  is  the  race  that  inhabits  Thayetmyo,  the  Yoma  and 
Karen  Hills,  and  Karennee.  In  examples  from  all  these  loca- 
lities the  nape  is  tinged  with  rufous ;  but  in  Karennee  indi- 
viduals the  rufous  forms  a  distinct  broad  demi-collar. 

u  This  would  appear  to  be  the  race  identified  by  Mr.  Hume 
(S.  F.,  Ill,  p.  121)  as  P.  schisticeps,  Hodgs.,  a  species  which 
cannot  be  separated  from  P.  leucogaster,  Gould.,  both  described 
from  the  Himalayas,  the  stated  dimensions  of  P.  leucogaster 
scarcely  differing  from  the  actual  dimensions  of  the  type  speci- 
mens of  P.  schisticeps  in  the  British  Museum." 

I  note  that  the  birds  I  identified  as  schisticeps  from  Thayet- 
myo were  schisticeps,  pur  et  simple,  the  larger  race,  and  abso- 
lutely identical  with  Sikhim  examples. 

I  distinctly  say,  he.  cit.,  that  specimens  received  from  further 
east  in  Northern  Tenasserim  are  (t  smaller  birds  with  shorter 
bills,   a  much  less   cenereous  tinge  upon    the    forehead    and 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  285 

crown,  and  a  marked  though  irregular  ferruginous  demi-collar  on 
the  nape/'  These  I  identified  as  leucogaster,  and  these  may  be 
the  same  as  "  nuchalis"  but,  if  so,  I  altogether  doubt  the  neces- 
sity for  the  new  name,  until  at  least  Gould's  types,  as  well  as 
Hodgson's,  have  been  examined. 

405.— Pomatorhinus  erythrogenys,  Vig.  (2). 

Pine  forests,  Salween  ;  near  Thatone: 

Apparently  confined   to    the  northern  portions  of  the  pro- 
vince. 

[I  only  met  with  this  species  on  one  single  occasion,  and  that 
was  in  some  thick  scrub  largely  intermingled   with  kine  orass 
near  the  pine  forests  north  of  Pahpoon ;  there  were  three  or  four 
birds  together. — W.  D.] 

Some  of  our  people  got  another  specimen  near  Thatone. 

405   bis. — Orthorhinus      hypoleucus,     Blyth.     Descr 
S.P#,V.,31. 

There  is  no  doubt   that  Blyth  here  referred  to  the   distinct 
bpecies  which  I  have  separated  as  0.  tickelli. 

405  quat.— Orthorhinus  tickelli,  Hume.  (8).  Descr. 
S.  1\  V.,  32. 

Paraduba  ;  Mooleyit ;   Meetan. 

Confined  apparently  to  the  slopes  of  Mooleyit  and  its  spurs. 

[This  Babbler  I  found  always  in  thick  forest,  usually  in  pairs, 
but  occasionally  in  small  parties.  It  keeps  much  more  to  the 
ground  than  any  Pomatorhinus,  hopping  about  in  a  very 
ungainly  manner.  When  feeding  and  undisturbed,  I  have  heard 
them  utter  a  short  chuckling  note.  This  is  especially  the  case 
when  several  are  together  and  have  got  somewhat  separated ; 
one  perhaps  finding  himself  alone,  and  not  being  able  to  see 
his  comrades,  utters  this  chuckling  note,  when  he  is  immediately 
answered  by  another,  and  then  another  and  another,  until 
each  has  answered,  and  then  all  are  silent  again.  When  dis- 
turbed they  utter  a  note  of  the  typical  character,  hoot,  hoot, 
hoot,  but  much  louder  and  fuller  than  that  of  any  of  the  true 
Pomatorhini  that  I  know.  Unless  very  closely  pressed  or  pur- 
sued by  dogs,  they  never  seem  to  fly  up  into  trees.  On  one 
occasion  I  came  upon  a  pair  attracted  by  their  chuckling  note. 
I  shot  one,  but  only  wounded  it.  On  my  seizing  it,  it  again 
began  to  utter  its  peculiar  chuckle  (which  I  never  heard  from 


286  BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM; 

any  of  the  Pomatorhini,)  on  which  the  second  bird  returned 
and  began  to  dance  round  me  on  the  ground,  with  its  tail  spread 
like  a  fan,  and  its  wings  lowered  to  the  ground,  almost  touching 
my  feet,  and  hooting  away  all  the  time,  making  a  tremendous 
row.  This  continued  for  fully  five  minutes,  when  having  disposed 
of  the  first,  I  got  a  small  cartridge  into  my  gun,  slipped  back 
and  shot  it  also.  It  proved  to  be  the  male ;  but  this  was  in 
February,  and  neither  bird  showed  any  signs  of  the  approach  of 
the  breeding  season.  Their  food  seems  to  be  exclusively  insects 
of  all  kinds,  ants  and  huge  wood  lice  as  long  as  your 
finger.  Compared  with  those  of  the  Pomatorhini,  their  bills 
are  really,  as  Tickell  pointed  out,  soft  and  rounded  ;  espe- 
cially towards  the  base  they  are  very  soft. — W.  D.] 

As  far  as  I  can  make  out,  Major  God. -Austen,  in  his  recent 
remarks  (Pr.,  A.  S.  B.,  June  1877,)  on  this  sub-group,  admits 
the  distinctness  of  this  species,  but  disputes  that  of  0.  inglisi. 
He  may,  however,  I  think,  for  the  present  assume  that  both  are 
equally  distinct  from  the  true  hypoleucus  of  Arakan,  though  all 
three  are  doubtless  Orthorhini,  and  merely  local  representative 
species. 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  recorded  in  the  flesh  of  three 
males  and  two  females :  — 

Males. — Length,  11*35  to  12*0;  expanse,  13*5  to  14*0;  tail 
from  vent,  4'3  to  4*35  ;  wing,  4"28  to  4'5  ;  tarsus,  1*6  to  1*62  ; 
bill  from  gape,  1*75  to  1*9  ;  weight,  4  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  10 "2 5  to  11*1 ;  expanse,  12*75  to  13*5  ; 
tail  from  vent,  3"9  to  4*0  ;  wing,  3*9  to  4*28;  tarsus,  1*6  ;  bill 
from  gape,  1*55  to  1*82 ;  weight,  2*75  to  35  ozs. 

The  legs  and  feet  and  claws  varied  a  good  deal,  pale  bluish 
green,  very  pale  brown,  and  pale  whitish  blue;  the  upper 
mandible  pale  brown ;  the  lower  mandible  pale  whitish  blue  ; 
irides  pale  to  dark  brown  and  brownish  red ;  naked  patch 
behind  eye  flesh  color,  more  or  less  strongly  tinged  blue. 

407  bis.— Garrulax    belangeri,  Less.    (54).  Descr. 
S.  F.,  III.,  122. 

(Tongfioo,  Rams.)  Pahpoon  ;  SalweenR.  ;  Theinzeik  ;  Thatone  ;  Wimpong; 
Kaukaryit,  Houngthraw  B>.  ;  Khayin  ;  Topee  ;  Moulinein  ;  Kolibaing ;  Yea-boo  ; 
Paradubaj  Meetan  ;  Amherst ;  Tavoy. 

Common,  except  in  quite  the  higher  hills,  throughout  the 
northern  and  central  portions  of  the  province. 

[This  species  always  goes  about  in  flocks  of  from  ten  to 
thirty  or  more,  and  forms  one  of  the  most  characteristic  fea- 
tures of  bird-life  in  Burma,  where  it  occurs.  This  is  at  any 
rate  as  far  south  as  Shymootee  in  the  Tavoy  district ;  neither 
this  nor   any   other  true  Babbler,  so  far  as  I  am  aware,  occurs 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  287 

either  at  Mergui,  or  southward  of  this  in  Tenasserim.  It  hunts 
about  ou  the  ground,  in  among-  the  trees,  and  almost  always  in 
company  with  G.  moniliger  and  chinensis,  Cissa  speciosa,  sundry 
Drongos,  Woodpeckers,  &c.  On  the  slightest  alarm  they  all  fly 
up  into  the  trees  and  surrounding  bushes,  and  commence  call- 
ing vociferously,  one  taking  the  lead  and  the  others  following 
in  rapid  succession.  This  continues  for  several  minutes,  then 
there  is  a  pause,  and  absolute  silence  ensues.  Then  they  start 
again,  then  pause,  and  so  on.  Once  having  disturbed  them, 
or  aroused  their  suspicions  as  to  one's  character  and  intentions, 
it  is  difficult  to  get  rid  of  them,  as  they  follow  one  about  through 
the  forest,  making  a  most  hideous  row  all  the  time,  and  of  course 
disturbing  every  living  thing.  You  may  shoot  them  one  by 
one ;  they  seem  to  care  nothing  for  the  gun  ;  when  it  is  fired 
there  is  a  dead  pause  for  a  moment,  and  then  the  uproar  is 
renewed  with  redoubled  vigour.  Dogs  especially  seem  to 
attract  their  notice,  and  they  follow  these,  vituperating  them 
from  all  the  surrounding  trees  even  more  energetically  than 
they  do  the  sportsman  or  collector. 

They  have  another  queer  habit.  Small  parties  of  them — three, 
four  or  five — ,will  get  on  to  the  path  or  other  open  space  and  begin 
to  dance,  spreading  their  tails,  lowering  their  wings,  and  thread- 
ing in  and  out  amongst  themselves,  in  the  most  complicated 
figures  (if  they  are  figures),  while  the  whole  of  the  rest  of  the 
mob  watches  the  proceedings  with  intense  interest  from  every 
branch  of  the  surrounding  trees,  and  applauds  in  the  heartiest 
and  jolliest  fashion. 

It  is  impossible  to  describe  their  note  in  words  ;  it  is  precisely 
like  that  of  G.  leucolophus,  a  loud  laughing  chuckle,  which  the 
birds  seem  to  take  the  greatest  delight  in  emitting  on  the 
smallest  possible,  or  without  any  discoverable,  provocation. 

When  feeding,  this  and  all  the  other  Garvulax  have  another 
soft  single  note,  which  they  utter  continuously,  and  by  which 
their  presence  can  often  be  detected  when  completely  hidden 
in  the  grass. 

They  feed  much  on  small  reptiles,  but  chiefly  ou  insects, 
bugs,  grubs,  caterpillars,  grasshoppers,  beetles,  pretty  well 
any  thing  they  can  get  hold  of,  though  I  have  never  found 
remains  of  either  small  mammals  or  young  birds  in  their  sto- 
machs.— W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  of  a  large  series  ;  the  sexes 
do  not  vary  in  size  : — 

Length,  11-25  to  12-0;  expanse,  15'0  to  16-75  ;  tail  from 
vent,  4-5  to  5-25  ;  wing,  4-8  to  5'25  ;  tarsus,  1*75  to  1-82;  bill 
from  gape,  1"37  to  1"5  ;  weight,  5'0  to  55  ozs. 

Legs  and  feet  dark  plumbeous  ;  bill  black  ;  gape  yellow ;  irides 
deep  wood  brown  ;  eyelids  greenish. 


288  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

408  bis.— Garrulax  strepitans,  Tick.  (20). 

2,000  feet  above  Paraduba  ;  Mooleyit. 

Confined  to  the  higher  slopes  of  Mooleyit. 

[From  about  3,500  feet  elevation,  to  the  highest  point  of 
Mooleyit  to  which  the  heavy  forest  extends,  this  speeies  is  not  by 
any  means  uncommon,  occurring  in  small  flocks  of  20  or  more, 
and  keeping  entirely,  so  far  as  I  have  observed,  to  the  forest, 
specially  to  the  ravines  where  this  is  densest.  Though  very  like 
G.  belangeri  both  in  voice  and  habits,  it  is  very  shy  of  man,  and 
so  far  from  following  one  about,  the  sight  of  anybody  is  quite 
sufficient  to  cause  it  to  beat  a  very  rapid  retreat,  which  it  does  by 
threading  its  way  to  the  top  of  the  nearest  tree,  and  thence  flying 
to  the  top  of  the  next,  and  thence  to  the  next,  and  so  on,  till  it 
has  got  some  hundreds  of  yards  away,  when  it  again  descends 
to  the  ground.  All  this  while  the  whole  flock  keeps  up  an  inces- 
sant clamour.  With  a  dog,  however,  it  is  different.  This  animal 
seems  to  excite  their  curiosity,  and  they  will  follow  a  dog  about 
from  tree  to  tree,  peering  down  and  jeering  at  him  in  the 
most  uproarious  fashion. 

The  best  plan  to  shoot  them  is,  when  one  has  discovered  a  flock, 
to  keep  perfectly  quiet  and  send  one's  dog  towards  them,  when 
they  will  be  drawn  as  the  dog  returns  within  easy  shot.  Without 
a  dog  they  are  extremely  difficult  to  get  at.  I  have  seen  a  dozen 
or  more  of  these  dancing  together,  on  a  huge  branch,  much 
as  belangeri  does  on  the  ground.  It  was  whilst  a  party  was 
thus  busy  that  one  of  my  men  killed  twelve  with  a  single  shot  ! 

The  stomachs  of  all  the  many  specimens  I  examined  contain- 
ed nothing  but  beetles  and  ants. 

I  should  notice  that  on  Mooleyit  and  its  spurs  there  seems  to 
be  a  zone,  between  2,500  and  3,500,  in  which  neither  this  nor 
belangeri  occur,  this  latter  not  ascending,  and  the  present  species 
not  descending,  into  it.  In  this  zone,  however,  chinensis  is  com- 
mon.— W.  D.] 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  and  colors  of  the  soft  parts, 
recorded  in  the  flesh,  of  this  species  : — 

Males. — Length,  11*62  to  12*1  ;  expanse,  15*5  to  16  8  ;  tail 
from  vent,  5*1  to  55  ;  wing,  515  to  5-6  ;  tarsus,  1*75  to  1*9  ; 
bill  from  gape,  1-3  to  1*45 ;  weight,  4-5  to  5  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  11*25  to  12*0;  expanse,  16  to  16*5;  tail 
from  vent,  4*8  to  5-5  ;  wing,  5*25  to  5*45;  tarsus,  1*6  to  1*8  ; 
bill  from  gape,  1*3  to  1*45  ;   weight,  4*25  to  4*75  ozs. 

The  legs  and  feet  are  very  dark  brown,  sometimes  brown 
black  ;  the  claws  paler  ;  bill  black  ;  irides  generally  lake  red,  some- 
times crimson. 

Forehead,  lores,  feathers  under  the  eye,  feathers  at  the  base 
of  the  lower    mandible,  chin  and  sides  of  the  throat,  and  bases 


BIRDS  OF  TENASSERIM.  289 

of  the  ear-coverts,  black ;  rest  of  forehead,  crown,  and  occiput, 
(the  feathers  of  the  latter  a  good  deal  lengthened)  a  rich  ochreous 
olive  ;  terminal  portions  of  the  ear-coverts  ferruginous  ;  behind 
these  commences  a  pure  white  band,  which  encircles  the  neck,  pos- 
teriorly shading  off  into  the  pure  grey  of  the  upper  back.  This 
same  white  band  starting  from  behind  the  ears  runs  down,  be- 
coming greyish  on  the  sides  of  the  neck  in  front,  and  encircles,  or. 
nearly  encircles,  the  dark  throat  and  upper  breast  patch,  which 
is  black,  the  feathers  slightly  tipped  with,  or  completely  overlaid 
with,  a  sort  of  ferruginous  chocolate,  a  rich  though  ill-defined, 
color  in  many  specimens  which  I  really  find  it  difficult  to  de- 
scribe; sides  of  the  neck  and  breast  below  this  and  middle  of 
abdomen,  to  vent,  dark  ashy  ;  sides  of  abdomen,  flanks  and  lower 
tail-coverts,  dull  olive  brown;  middle  of  back,  scapulars,  rump 
and  upper  tail-coverts,  moi'e  or  less  of  the  basal  portions  of  the 
central  tail  feathers,  and  margins  of  all  of  them,  and  the  whole 
visible  portions  of  the  closed  wings,  clear  olive  brown ;  rest  of 
tail  feathers  blackish  brown,  obsoletely  barred ;  inner  webs  of 
quills  hair  brown ;  wing-lining  greyish  brown ;  darker  on  the 
under  primary  greater  coverts. 

408  ter.— Garrulax  chinensis,  Scop.  (18). 

(Tonghoo, Rams.)  Pahpoon ;  Younzaleen  Creek;  Wauohoung  ;  Kaukarjifc, 
Houngthraw  It.  ;  Absooii  j  Mooleyit ;  Meetan. 

Genei'ally,  though  rather  sparingly,  distributed  alike  in  plains 
and  hills  throughout  the  northern  and  central  portions  of  the 
province. 

[The  note  of  this  species  is  quite  different  from  that  of  any 
other  species  of  Garrulax  with  which  I  am  acquainted,  and  is 
not  nearly  so  harsh  or  loud.  For  a  Garrulax  I  should  call  chi- 
nensis a  very  silent  bird,  its  ordinary  note  being  a  soft  low  sort 
of  mew.  It  also  has  a  chattering  note,  a  very  feeble  imitation 
of  that  of  belangeri  or  strepitans.  Usually  I  have  found  it  in 
company  with  some  of  the  other  species  of  Garrulax,  but  some- 
times quite  alone.  It  occurs  in  all  sorts  of  localities,  from 
the  thin  deciduous  leaved  jungle  of  the  dryer  plains  to  the  dense 
evergreen  forests  near  the  summit  of  Mooleyit.  It  is  always 
in  small  parties,  and  large  numbers  of  it  are  never  seen  in  or 
near  the  same  place.  It  is  not  very  shy,  nor  does  it  follow 
one  about  like  the  others,  although,  if  mingled  in  a  mob  of  these, 
it  does  not  allow  itself  to  be  left  quite  behind.  Its  food  and 
habits  generally  are  similar  to  those  of  the  species  already 
noticed.  Numbers  of  these  birds  are  brought  to  Calcutta  in 
cages  from  China,  but  in  Bnrmah  I  never  saw  any  Garrulax 
caged. — W.  D.] 

37 


290  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

The  following  are   dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  :— 

Males. — Length,  11  to  11*75  ;  expanse,  1382  ;  to  14*75  ;  tail 
from  vent,  4*75  to  5*1 ;  wings,  4*37  to  4*82  ;  tarsus,  1*62  to  1*75  ; 
bill  from  gape,  1*3;  weight,  325  to  375  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  11*25  to  11*75  ;  expanse,  13*5  to  14*82  ; 
tail  from  vent,  4*62  to  5- 25  ;  wing,  4*62  to  4*8  ;  tarsus,  1*62  to 
1*7  ;  bill  from  gape,  1*25  to  1*3  ;  weight,  3*12  to  4*0  ozs. 

The  legs,  feet  and  claws  varied  from  reddish  horn  y,  or  reddish 
brown,  to  dark  reddish  brown  ;  bill  black  ;  irides  red  brown,  deep 
brown,  dull  carmine,  and  deep  carmine. 

A  broad  frontal  band,  lores,  a  rather  narrow  band  round  the 
eye  continued  backwards  over  the  ear-coverts,  feathers  at  the 
base  of  the  lower  mandible,  chin,  throat,  and  a  very  broad  band 
down  the  centre  of  the  neck  in  front,  right  on  to  the  breast, 
velvet  black ;  a  row  of  pointed  feathers  just  above  the  frontal 
band,  white,  or  greyish  white  tipped  white ;  rest  of  crown, 
occiput  and  nape  a  blue  slaty  grey,  shading  a  little  at  the 
base  of  the  nape  into  the  olive  of  the  back  ;  back,  scapulars, 
rump  and  upper  tail-coverts  uniform  olive  brown  ;  in  some  a 
pure  olive  ;  in  others  more  or  less  rufescent  ;  wings  hair  brown, 
the  earlier  primaries  with  the  outer  webs  grey  or  greyish 
white;  the  rest  of  the  feathers,  with  their  outer  webs, 
and  the  tertiaries,  with  both  webs,  overlaid  with  the  same 
olive  as  the  back,  i.e.,  purer  or  more  or  less  rufescent,  as  the 
case  may  be,  like  the  back  ;  usually  the  winglet  and  some 
of  the  earlier  primary  greater  coverts  a  little  shaded  with 
grey  towards  their  margins;  tail  olive  brown,  concolorous 
with  the  back,  obscurely  rayed,  with  the  terminal  portions,  more 
or  less  blackish  brown,  and  with  more  or  less  of  this  color  show- 
ing through  or  superseding  the  olive  on  the  lateral  tail  feathers 
throughout,  especially  on  their  inner  webs,  and  in  some  speci- 
mens nearly  the  whole  of  the  three  outer  pairs  blackish  brown ; 
all  the  tail  feathers,  except  the  central  pair,  and  sometimes  even 
these  to  a  small  extent,  tipped  paler,  the  tippings  scarcely  visi- 
ble on  the  upper  surface,  but  much  more  distinct  on  the  lower ; 
the  greater  part  of  cheeks,  ear-coverts,  and  sides  of  throat  pure 
white,  forming  a  large  broad  oval  patch ;  below  this  the  sides 
of  the  neck  and  the  entire  breaet  grey,  often  very  pure  and  clear, 
sometimes  a  little  suffused  with  brown.  This  grey  shades  on 
the  upper  abdomen  into  the  olive  brown  of  the  lower  abdomen, 
flanks,  tibial  plumes,  and  lower  tail-coverts ;  there  are  often, 
in  fact  generally,  a  few  pale  ferruginous  feathers  about  the  vent; 
the  wing-lining  is  a  mixture  of  olive  brown  and  grey. 

The  black  throat  stripe  often  becomes,  just  when  it  joins  the 
breast,  a  deep  burnt  sienna  brown  ;  the  lower  surface  of  the  tail, 
except  the  tipping,  is  black,  often  paling  however  a  little  towards 
the  bases  ;  the  grey  of  the  cap  is  somewhat  variable  in  shade ;  in 


RIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM.  291 

some  specimens  it  is  u   dark  slaty  blue;    in  others   a  compara- 
tively light  slaty  grey. 

411. —  Garrulax  albogularis,  Gould. 

Blyth  (B.  of  B.,  p.  108)  gives  this  species  from  Tavoy.  We 
have  either  seen  nor  heard  of  it  anywhere  about  Tavoy. 

412 —Garrulax  pectoralis,  Qould.  (1).  S.  F.,  III.,  122. 

(Karennee,  Rams.)  Meetan. 

Davison  never  saw  more  than  this  single  specimen,  which  he 
recognized  the  moment  he  saw  it  by  its  greater  size,  and  shot 
out  of  a  mixed  flock  of  belangeri  and  moniliger.  Both  before 
and  after  this  he  was  always  on  the  look-out  for  it,  but  never 
saw  a  second  specimen.  This  seems  very  strano-e. 

413.— Garrulax  moniliger,  Hodgs.  (19). 

(Karen  Bills,  Rams  )  Pahpoon  ;  Salween  R.  ;  Thatone  ;  Wimpong  •  Myawa- 
dee  ;  Kaukaryit,  Houngthravr  R.  ;  Pabyouk  ;  Assoon  ;  Amherst  ;    Tea  ;  Tavoy. 

Very  common  throughout  the  northern  and  central  portions  of 
the  province,  but  not  as  a  rule  ascending  the  hills  at  all. 

[In  all  its  habits,  in  its  food  and  associations,  this  species  is 
inseparable  from  belangeri,  but  its  voice  is  less  harsh,  and  it  is 
not  nearly  so  noisy  a  bird.  I  have  never,  however  by  the  way, 
seen  this  species  dancing  as  belangeri  does,  nor  does  it  leave  the 
plains.  It  seems  to  stop  entirely,  quite  at  the  bases  of  the  hills, 
while  belangeri  ascends  these  to  at  least  2,500  feet. — W.  D.] 

It  is  be  remarked  that  this  species  varies  towards  the  Chinese 
race  (picticollis)  as  it  goes  southwards,  in  so  far  that  in  all  Am- 
herst specimens,  for  instance,  the  tips  of  the  lateral  tail-feathers 
are  ochraceous  instead  of  being  white.  I  also  note  that  this  Am- 
herst race  is  paler  and  more  fulvous  above,  and  has  the  nuchal 
rufous  collar  much  more  strongly  marked  as  a  rule. 

415  ter.— Trochalopteron  melanostigma,  Blyth.  (25). 

{Karennee,  Rams.)   Pine  forests,  Sa'ween  ;  Paraduba  ;  Mooleyit  ;    Meetan. 

Confined  to  the  hill  forests  of  the  northern  and  central  por- 
tions of  the  province. 

[This  species,  except  perhaps  in  the  nesting  season,  is  always 
found  in  small  parties  of  six  or  eight.  They  feed  chiefly  on  the 
ground,  keeping  much  in  the  brushwood,  rarely  flying  into  trees 
unless  pressed  by  dogs ;  neither  a  very  noisy  nor  very  silent 
bird,  uttering  from  time  to  time  its  fine  whistling  call,  which 
greatly  resembles  that  of  the  species  ( T.  erythrocephalum)  that 
we  get  about  Simla.  By  no  means  a  shy  bird,  and  rather  com- 
mon on  the  hills  from  3,000  feet  and  upwards   (not  seen  in  the 


292  BIEDS   OF   TENASSEMM. 

plains,)  and  especially  so  about  Mooleyit.  It  keeps  to  the  foi'ests 
or  its  outskirts  as  a  rule,  but  it  sometimes  at  Mooleyit  ventures 
into  the  detached  clumps  of  briars  and  scrub  that  stud  the 
grassy  slopes  near  the  summit.  All  the  specimens  I  examined 
had  fed  exclusively  on  insects. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 
Males.— Length,  10*4  to  10-62;  expanse,  12-0  to  13'0;  tail 
from  vent,  4*4  to  4*5;  wing,  4  to  4'2 ;  tarsus,  1*5  to  1*6  j  bill 
from  gape,  1*2  ;  weight,  2-75  to  3*25  ozs. 

Females. — Length,  9'85  to  10"7  ;  expanse,  1 1*62  ;  tail  from 
vent,  4*0  to  4*5  ;  wing,  38  to  4*5  ;  tarsus,  1#45  to  1'65  ;  bill, 
from  gape,  1'2  ;  weight,  2*75  ozs. 

Legs,  feet  and  claws  very  pale  brown  to  reddish  brown  ;  bill 
black  ;  irides  brown,  or  hazel-nut  brown. 

The  lores  and  point  of  the  forehead  black ;  the  rest  of  the  forehead, 
crown,  occiput  and  a  sort  of  tail  to  the  occiput  descending  on  to  the 
nape,  bright  ferruginous  chestnut  to  deep  ferruginous,  almost  ma- 
roon, chestnut ;  cheeks,  ear-coverts,  sides  of  the  occiput,  and  upper 
part  of  sides  of  the  nape,  delicate  silvery  grey,  regularly  striated 
longitudinally  with  dusky  ;  feathers  at  the  base  of  the  lower  man- 
dible and  chin  black,  the  former  sometimes  slightly  streaked  sil- 
very ;  the  black  of  the  chin  and  of  the  feathers  on  the  base  of  the 
lower  mandible  shading  into  an  intense  ferruginous  or  ferruginous 
red  on  the  throat,  whence  this  color  extends,  somewhat  diluted, 
over  the  rest  of  the  front  of  the  neck.     Most  generally   only  a 
trace  of  this   extends   on  to  the  breast,  but  the  birds  are  very 
variable   in  this   respect,  and  in  some  specimens  this  ferruginous, 
though  less      ruddy    and    less  intense    in   character,    spreads 
over  the  whole  of  the   upper   breast,   the    middle  part  of  the 
lower   breast,   and   upper  abdomen,  and  in  one  specimen  before 
me,   right  down   to   the   vent.     Normally,  however,  the  breast, 
abdomen,  sides,  flanks,   vent,   lower  tail-coverts,  tibial  plumes 
are   all    a   clear  olive  brown    or   olive  ;    the     sides    a    little 
shaded  with  grey,  and  the  middle  of  the   breast   and   its    sides 
a  little  suffused  with  a  paler,  duller   and   less   ferruginous  tinge 
of  the  color  of  the  lower  neck.     Of  course,  where  the  ruddy 
or  ferruginous  tinge  is  more  extended,  the  amount  of  the  olive 
is  proportionately  contracted.     The  sides  of  the  neck  below  the 
silvery  striated  face  patch,  the  back  of  the  neck  and  upper  back 
are  olive,  sometimes  greener,  sometimes  yellower,  and  sometimes 
again  browner  or  greyer ;  the  rest  of  the  back,  scapulars,  rump 
and  upper  tail-coverts  are  usually  the  same  color,  but  darker  in 
shade  and  less  pure  in  tint.  The  primary  greater  coverts  are  velvet 
black,  forming  a   conspicuous    patch   on  the   wing  ;    the  earlier 
secondary  greater  coverts  are  red,  varying  from  bright  ferruginous 
chestnut  to  an  almost  orange  ferruginous  •  the  rest  of  the  coverts 
are  olive ;  the  quills  are  hair  brown  •  their   outer  webs   and  the 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  293 

greater  part  of  the  visible  portion  of  both  webs  of  the  tertiaries 
bright  golden  olive,  in  some  however  with  a  decided  greenish  tinge, 
and  the  color  usually  brightest  and  most  intense  towards  the  bases 
of  the  primaries ;  the  tips  of  the  tertiaries  and  later  secondaries 
more  or  less  untouched  with  this  color,  giving  the  effect  of  rather 
irregular  ill-defined  black  or  blackish  tippings.  The  tail  is  dark 
brown,  margined  everywhere,  and  both  webs  of  the  central, 
and  the  outer  webs  of  the  lateral,  feathers  suffused,  with  a  some- 
what duller  shade  of  the  wing  color,  varying,  as  this  does, 
from  bright  golden  olive  to  dull  greenish  olive  yellow;  the  wing- 
lining  varies  ;  when  the  red  descends  far  on  the  breast,  it  is  chiefly 
ruddy  olive  brown,  but  in  others,  which  show  less  red  on  the 
breast  and  abdomen,  it  is  a  pure  olive  or  olive  brown,  some  few 
of  the  longest  feathers  being  like  the  lower  surface  of  the  quills, 
a  dark  glossy,  somewhat  blackish  hair  brown  ;  the  edges  of  the 
wing  are  white,  yellowish  or  ruddy  in  patches  varying  a  good 
deal  in  different  specimens. 

The  general  appearance  of  the  birds  does  not  differ  very  much ; 
but,  as  I  have  endeavoured  to  show  above,  there  is  an  extraordi- 
nary amount  of  variation  in  the  details  and  tints  of  coloration 
in  different  specimens,  perhaps  more  so  than  in  any  species  of 
this  group  with  which  I  am  acquainted. 

427  ter. — Actinodura  ramsayi,  Wald.     Descr.  S.  F., 
III.,  404 

Obtained  by  Ramsay,  "frequenting  the  jungle-covered  moun- 
tain streams  in  the  open  country  of  Karennee,  at  3,000  feet ;" 
he  gives  the  irides  light  hair  brown,  the  bill  horny  brown,  and 
the  legs  slaty  brown. 

429  quat.— Sibia  melanoleuca,  Tick.  (23). 

2,000  feet  above  Paraduba  ;    Mooleyit. 

Confined  apparently  to  the  higher  slopes  of  Mooleyit. 

[This  pretty  Sibia  was  common  about  the  higher  parts  of 
Mooleyit,  especially  where  the  jungle  was  open.  I  found  it 
very  partial  to  the  trees  about  the  "  Sakans"  or  camping 
grounds. 

Its  note  resembles  that  of  Sibia  capistrata,  and  is  a  single 
long-drawn  clear-sounding  whistle,  sounding  like  ' '  whee-e-e-e- 
oo/'  the  "  whee"  being  very  much  prolonged,  the  "  oo"  short 
and  abrupt.  When  I  was  at  Mooleyit,  the  birds  were  breeding, 
and  consequently  were  always  found  in  pairs.  Their  food 
consists  quite  as  much  of  small  berries  as  it  does  of  insects, 
which  latter  they  capture  amongst  the  smaller  branches  and 
the  foliage  of  the  tree  tops  in  which  they  are  always  moving 
about.  They  never  descend  to  the  ground  or  even  amongst 
brushwood. 


294  EIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

I  never  saw  them  sitting  sunning  themselves  on  a  bare 
branch,  or  catching  insects  on  the  wing.  They  have  a  habit  of 
rapidly  expanding  and  closing  their  tails  as  they  move  about, 
but  without  erecting  it  as  a  Leucocerca  does.  They  are  not  at 
all  shy  birds,  and  there  is  not  the  slightest  difficulty  in  approach- 
ing and  shooting  them. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions  and  colors  of  soft  parts 
recorded  in  the  flesh  from  a  large  series  : — 

Males. — Length,  8  7  to  8*9  ;  expanse,  11*0;  tail  from  vent, 
4-l ;  wing,  3*55  ;  tarsus,  1*12  to  1*15;  bill  from  gape,  0*9  to 
0-98  ;  weight,  1-2  to  1-25  oz. 

Females. — Length,  8*3  to  9'0  ;  expanse,  10*2  to  10-7  ;  tail 
from  vent,  3*9  to  4*2 ;  wing,  3*35  to  3*5  ;  tarsus,  1*05  to  1*15 ; 
bill  from  gape,  0'8  to  0*9  ;  weight,  1  to  l'37oz. 

The  legs  and  feet  varied  from  a  very  dark  reddish  brown 
to  a  dark  purplish  brown  or  brownish  black  ;  bill  black  ;  irides 
lake. 

The  lores,  forehead,  crown,  occiput,  nape,  cheeks,  ear-coverts, 
and  point  of  the  chin,  glossy  black,  with  a  faint  greenish 
reflection,  only  the  ear-coverts,  in  some  specimens,  with  a  slightly 
browner  tinge  ;  the  rest  of  the  chin,  throat,  breast,  abdomen, 
aud  entire  lower  parts,  including  wing-lining,  axillaries,  and 
lower  tail-coverts,  snowy  white,  a  little  pencilled  with  brownish 
grey  in  most  specimens  towards  the  sides  of  the  breast ;  the 
entire  back,  scapulars,  and  lesser  and  median  wing- coverts  a 
deep,  somewhat  chocolate  brown  ;  rump  and  upper  tail-coverts 
a  dull,  somewhat  greyer  brown ;  quills  and  greater  coverts  hair 
brown ;  the  tertiaries  and  some  of  the  later  secondaries,  towards 
their  tips,  with  a  more  or  less  decided  chocolate  tinge  ;  all  the 
feathers  margined  on  the  outer  webs  with  black,  which  on  the 
quills  has  distinct,  though  not  conspicuous,  greenish  reflections  ; 
tail  brown  ;  the  central  tail  feathers  paler,  and  with  a  sort  of 
pale  chocolate  tinge;  the  central  pair  narrowly,  and  each  succeed- 
ing pair  (the  tail  is  very  much  graduated)  more  and  more  broadly, 
tipped  with  pure  white,  and  all  the  feathers  fringed  darker;  in  some 
almost  blackish  on  their  outer  webs  just  towards  the  bases. 

430. — Sibia  picaoides,  Hodgs. 

Obtained  by  Wardlaw  Ramsay  at  Karennee  at  5,000  feet. 
Colonel  Tickell,  Ibis,  1876,  354,  mentions,  in  his  manuscript 
illustrations  of  Indian  Ornithology,  that  he  killed  this  species 
at  an  elevation  of  3,000  feet  in  Tenasserim,  and  that  "  it  inha- 
bits the  whole  Eastern  Cis-Himalaya  and  along  the  Malayan 
spur. " 

Davison  has  been  a  good  deal  in  these  hills  now,  but  has  seen 
no  traces  of  this  species. 

Sibia  melanoleuca  is  common. 


BIRDS  OF  TKNASSERIM.  295 

440.— Megalurus  palustris,  Eorsf.  (9). 

Khyketo ;  Kedai  Keglny ;  Pabjouk. 

Not  at  all  uncommon  in  thick  grass  in  the  plains  portions  of 
the  northern  and  central  sections  of  the  province. 

[This  species  is  not  uncommon  on  the  Thatone  plains,  frequent- 
ing those  portions  that  were  covered  with  kine  grass.  At  Paby- 
ouk,  on  the  Attaran,  I  found  them  in  ground  covered  with 
low  stunted  thorny  bushes.  I  particularly  noticed  the  quasi- 
lark-like  habit  the  males  have  of  rising  and  singing,  which  is 
described,  Nests  and  Eggs,  p.  276.  Beyond  this  I  noticed  no- 
thing particular  about  them  ;  they  are  regular  reed  birds  almost 
always  keeping  to  the  large  grass  out  of  which  it  is  extremely 
difficult  to  dislodge  them,  and  through  which  they  thread  their 
way  like  others  of  their  class.  I  could  have  got  any  number  of 
them  by  hard  fagging  through  the  grass,  but  they  were  not 
wanted.— W.   D.J 

It  has  been  suggested  that  the  Javan  bird  may  be  distinct. 
Tenasserim  specimens  are  perfectly  identical  with  Indian 
ones. 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  of  5  males  and  1  female 
recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males.— "Length,  99  to  10-62  ;  expanse,  120  to  13-0  ;  tail 
from  vent,  4*75  to  5*12  ;  wing,  3"8  to  4"15  ;  tarsus,  1*3  to  1*5  ; 
bill  from  gape,  0*95  to  TO  ;  weight,  l-75  to  2  oz. 

Female. — Length,  8-8  ;  expanse,  10" 5,  tail  from  vent,  4'37  ; 
wing,  3*62  ;  tarsus,  1*2  ;  bill  from  gape,  0-9. 

Legs  and  feet  dark  horny  pink  or  pale  brown  ;  upper  mandi- 
ble dark  brown  ;  lower  mandible  fleshy  white  ;  irides  wood 
brown. 

446  Us.— Hypsipetes  concolor,  Btyih.  (8).  (H.  sub- 
niger,  Hume.)  Desce.  S.P.,V.,  109. — H.  yunanensis, 
Anders. 

(Tonffhoo,  Karen  Eills)  at  1,500  feet,  Earns.)  Pine  forests,  Salween  ;  Thoungya 
Sakan  ;  Meetan. 

Confined  to  the  more  open  hill  forests  of  the  northern  and 
central  portions  of  the  province,  but  not  ascending  to  the  sum- 
mits of  the  highest  hills. 

[This  bird  is  most  commonly  seen  at  the  "  Sakans"  or  hill 
camping  grounds,  small  open  clearings  surrounded  by  forest  and 
with  a  few  trees  standing  about  them.  Their  habits  are 
precisely  those  of  ganeesa  and  psaroides.  They  go  about  in 
small  flocks,  from  tree-top  to  tree-top,  keeping  up  a  continual 
chirping  chatter,  living  chiefly  on  small  berries,  but  also  occa- 
sionally eating  insects,  and  being  extremely  fond  of  the  nectar  of 


296 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 


flowers.  If  there  is  a  large  tree  in  flower,  some  are  certainly 
to  be  met  with  about  it,  their  foreheads  all  smeared  with  its 
pollen.     They  are  perfectly  fearless  birds. — W.  D.j 

The  following  are  the  dimensions  and  colors  of  the  soft  parts 
recorded  in  the  flesh  of  5  males  and  1  female : — 

Males. — Length,  10*0  to  10-75  ;  expanse,  14- 75  to  15-5  ;  tail 
from  vent,  4-3  to  4"9  ;  wing,  4-82  to  5'0;  tarsus,  0'6  toO'75  ;  bill 
from  gape,  1*2  to  1*3 ;  weight,  1'5  to  2'  oz. 

Female. — Length,  9'6  ;  expanse,  14*0  ;  tail  from  vent,  4*3  ; 
wing,  4"6  ;  tarsus,  0'68  ;  bill  from  gape,  1*12,  weight,  1*75  oz. 

Legs,  feet,  and  bill  varied  from  bright  to  deep  coral  red ; 
irides  dull  crimson  lake. 

I  desire  to  withdraw  my  name  of  subniger ;  a  full  description 
"of  the  birds  thus  characterized  will  be  found  loc.  cit.  supra. 

No  doubt  the  southern  birds  I  thus  designated  are  always 
somewhat,  in  some  cases,  much  darker  than  the  Northern  Pahpoon 
birds,  which  agree  precisely  with  Blyth's  type  ;  but  after  careful 
re-examination,  I  do  not  think  that  the  difference  is  sufficient  to 
justify  the  separation,  and  I  suppress  the  name  subniger;  and 
unite  all  the  Tenasserim  Hill  birds,  alike  southern  and  north- 
ern, under  Blyth's  name. 

There  are  five  nearly  allied  species  of  this  genus,  black,  black- 
grey,  grey  and  black,  all  with  black  crested  heads  and  red 
bills  and  feet. 


f  A.  Entirely  black.         ...  1  jgr  perniger,  Swinh. 

*•  *£*  or  Chief-J  B.  Black,   with  conspicu- 
"'  i      ous   grey     margins  to 
ish  al 


Hainan  (China.) 


j      quills  and  greyish  abdo-  . 

L    men 2  S.  mgemma,   Gould.  Formosa  (China.) 

f C  Dark    grey,  intersca- 
pular region,  black  or 


3  H.  concolor,  Blyth. 


II.  Grey  or  chief- 
ly so  ...1 


blackish 

D.  Iron   grey,   intersca- 

pulary  region,    conco- 

lorous  with  back — 

a.  Darker    above 

and  below,  crest 

shorter,  feathers 

more    triangular 

and  squamate  4  S.  ganeesa,  Sykes. 
6.  Lighter  above  and 
below,  crest  long- 
er, feathers  more 
linear  and  blend- 
ing  ...  5  H.  psaroides,  Vig. 


Khasia  and  Tenas- 
Berim  Hills,  Yunan, 
(China.) 


Hills    of    Southern 
India  and  Ceylon. 


Himalayas  from 
Murree  to  8ud- 
dya  in  Assam. 


1  note  that  some  specimens  of  the  two  last  species,  not  fully 
mature,  are  practically  inseparable. 

447  bis.— Hypsipetes  tickelli,  Blyth.  (19). 

(Karennee,  2,500  to   4,000  feet,  Earns.)     Pine  forests,  Salween  ;  Eyouk-nyat  ; 
Pahpoon  ;  Paraduba  ;  Mooleyit. 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  2-97 

Confined  to  the  hill  forests  of  the  northern  and  central 
portions  of  the  province  from  2,500  feet  and  upwards. 

[This  species  is  usually  found  on  the  outskirts  of  the  forest 
along  forest  paths,  and  in  fact  wherever  the  forest  is  not  too 
dense.  Occasionally  it  is  found  in  small  parties,  most  commonly 
I  think  in  pairs,  and  it  is  not  nearly  so  noisy  as  the  black 
and  grey  Bulbuls,  H.  concolor,  &c.  Its  notes  and  habits 
are  otherwise  quite  similar,  and  like  these  it  feeds  chiefly 
on  small  berries,  with  an  occasional  insect  or  nectarine 
debauch.— W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  of  this  species  recorded 
in  the  flesh  : — 

Males. — Length,  9*0  to  9'5  ;  expanse,  12'0  to  12*62  ;  tail  from 
vent,  3-82  to  4*2;  wing,  3*75  to  4'12;  tarsus,  0' 65  to  0'7 ; 
bill  from  gape,  1*2  to  1*25 ;  weight,  1*25  to  1*5  oz. 

Females.— Length,  8'75  to  9*0;  expanse,  12-0  to  12*25  ;  tail 
from  vent,  3*9  to  4'12  ;  wing,  39  to  4*0 ;  tarsus,  0*65  to  07  ; 
bill  from  gape,  1*15  to  1'18;  weight,  1*25  oz. 

The  colors  of  the  soft  parts  varied  a  good  deal  in  different 
specimens ;  legs  and  feet  fleshy  pink,  dark  fleshy  pink,  light 
purplish  brown,  pale  pinkish  brown,  or  pale  reddish  brown ; 
bill  black,  horny  black,  or  dark  horny  brown ;  irides  wood  brown, 
deep  red  brown,  light  red  or  crimson. 

The  entire  forehead,  crown,  occiput  and  occipital  crest  are  a 
warm  slightly  rufescent  brown,  each  feather  paler  shafted  ;  the 
whole  of  the  rest  of  the  upper  parts  is  a  tolerably  bright  golden 
olive  yellow,  brightest  on  the  tail  and  wings,  duller  and 
greyer  on  the  interscapulary  region  and  upper  back;  the 
chin  and  throat  are  blue  grey ;  the  feathers  with  conspicuous 
white  shaft  stripes ;  the  lores  are  mouse  brown  ;  the  ear-coverts 
pale  rusty  brown,  generally  pale-shafted ;  the  upper  breast 
and  sides  of  the  breast  and  sides  of  the  neck  behind  the 
ear-coverts  are  streaked  white  and  greyish  brown,  more  or 
less  distinctly  tinged  very  pale  rusty ;  the  middle  of  the 
abdomen  and  vent  are  nearly  pure  white;  sides  of  the 
abdomen  striated  with  grey  or  pale  brown;  flanks 
and  lower  tail-coverts  yellow,  with,  in  some  specimens,  a 
faint  ochraceous  tinge ;  axillaries  white  at  their  bases,  but 
the  greater  portion  of  these  and  the  wing-lining  pale  yellow, 
with  a  more  or  less  appreciable  ochraceous  tinge;  inner 
margins  of  quills,  except  towards  the  tips  of  the  longer 
primaries,  pale,  somewhat  ochraceous  or  creamy  yellow ;  inner 
webs  of  the  quills  rather  dark  hair  brown  ;  lower  surface 
of  tail  olive  yellow  ;  shafts  bright  yellow. 

There  are  several  nearly  allied  species  belonging  to  this 
sub-group,  four   at  any  rate  occurring  within  our  limits,  and 

38 


298  BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM. 

the    following     empirical    table   may   assist  in   distinguishing 
these : — 

( A.  Pale  striae  not  extend-  ( Himalayas  from  Mus- 

Iing to  crest;  breast  and  j      soorie  eastward  to 

sides    of  neck    rusty  tt  m„„„i„7i„„j'  rr«»=f  J     Suddya  in  Assam, 

ferruginous                ...  H'  maccMlandt,  Horst.«      Ehasia,     Tipperah 

shafted;  wings ■{  I      and  Arracan  Hills, 

and  tail  bright    B.  Pale  striae  extending  to  V.    Southern  China, 
golden  olive  ...        crest ;  breast  and  sides 

of    neck  only    faintly  .           ,                            (Tenasserim         Hills 

tinged  rusty              ...  S.   ticlcelli,  Bly.        •••  <     at  least  as  far  south 

L    as  Tavoy. 

'0.  Head  unieolorous  with  _  . 

II.  Feathers    of       back  ...  ...  H.  malaccensis,  Bly.  Tenasserim       Hills, 

head  uniform ;  south    of  Mergui, 

wings  and  tail     D.  Head    differently  co-  Malay     Peninsula, 

brown,  margin- ■{     lored  from  back—  Sumatra,  Borneo. 

ed  or  suffused  j  o.  with      an     ashy 

with  olive  I  shade  on  crown  H.  virescens,  Tem.  Java. 

green  ...  I  6.  with  dark  brown 

C  crown  ...  H.  nicobariensis,  Moore.  Nicobars. 

There  is  another  nearly  allied  species  from  the  Phillipines, 
(non  vidi)  and,  I  dare  say,  others. 

447  ter.— Hypsipetes  malaccensis,  Blyfh.  (5). 

Tenasserim  Town;  Pakchan  ;  Bankasoon. 

Confined  to  the  forests  on  or  at  the  base  of  the  hills  south 
of  Mergui. 

[Precisely  similar  in  habits  and  notes  to  the  preceding ; 
comparatively  rare  in  Tenasserim,  but  very  common  further 
south,  where  I  have  procured  many,  quite  down  to  the  southern- 
most extremity  of  the  province. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  :— 

ilfaZe*.— Length,  8!95  to  915;  expanse,  13-1  to  132;  tail 
from  vent,  3*55  to  3'75  ;  wing,  4*3  to  4'5 ;  tarsus,  0"65  to  07 ;  bill 
from  gape,  1*1  to  1-15;  weight,  1*5  oz. 

Females. — Length,  8*75 ;  expanse,  12*5  to  12-75  ;  tail  from  vent, 
8-55  to  3-6 ;  wing,  4-05  to  4-12 ;  tarsus,  07;  bill  from  gape,  1*15  to 
1-25 ;  weight,  1-25  to  1-4  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  pinkish  brown  to  reddish  brown ;  bill  horny 
brown,  or  very  dark  horny  brown ;  in  one  the  upper  mandible 
was  black,  the  lower  reddish  horny  ;  irides  mahogany  brown  to 
litharge  red. 

Entire  upper  surface  a  dull  olive  green,  rather  greener  in  some, 
rather  browner  in  others ;  wings  and  tail  dull  hair  brown  ;  all  the 
feathers  of  the  former  margined  more  or  less  everywhere  on  their 
outer  webs  with  dull  olive  green,  and  the  latter  with  the  feathers 
similarly  margined  towards  their  bases  ;  lores  grey  brown  or  mouse 
brown  ;  cheeks  and  ear-coverts  pale  brown,  more  or  less  distinctly 
pale  shafted,  and  more  or  less  tinged  or  overlaid,  especially 
towards  the  tips  of  the  ear-coverts  with  the  color  of  the  head  ; 
chin,  throat,  feathers  at  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible,  and  breast 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  299 

greyish  white,  the  feathers  more  or  less  margined  with  grey  or 
greyish  brown,  and  generally  a  little  mingled  with  green  on  the 
breast;  middle  of  abdomen,  vent  and  lower  tail-coverts  silky  white, 
the  middle  of  the  abdomen  a  little  streaked  with  pale  yellow  ;  sides 
of  the  body  more  or  less,  it  varies  much  in  different  specimens, 
streaked  or  shaded  with  olive  or  greyish  olive ;  axillaries  and  wing- 
lining  whitish  ;  at  bases  tinted  with  very  pale  perhaps  slightly 
ochraceeous   yellow ;    inner  margins  of  quills  greyish  white. 

448. — Hemixus  flavala,  Hodgs. 

Blyth  gives  this  from  Tenasserim,  but  he  doubtless  preferred 
to  either  the  northern  or  southern  Tenasserim  allied  races  H. 
hildebrandi  and  H.  davisoni. 

448  bis. — Hemixus  hildebrandi,  Hume  (l).  Descr. 
S.  F.,  II.,  508. 

{Karen  Hills,  at  2,o00  feet,  Rams.)  Pine  forests,  Sal  ween. 

Confined  to  the  hill  forests  of  the  northern  portions  of  the 
province. 

448    ter.— Hemixus  davisoni,  Hume.    (1).    Descr. 
S.  !\,  V.,  111. 

Thoungya  Sakan. 

Confined  to  the  hill  forests  of  the  southern  portions  of  the 
province. 

449.— Alcurus  striatus,  Blyth.  (5). 

{Karen  Hills,  5,000  feet,  Rams.)  Mooleyit. 

Confined  apparently  in  Tenasserim  proper  to  the  highest  por- 
tions of  Mooleyit,  but  re-appearing  at  similar  elevations  in  the 
extreme  north  in  the  continuation  of  this  same  range. 

[  I  occasionally  met  with  this  bird  on  the  higher  slopes  of 
Mooleyit,  usually  in  small  parties,  sometimes  in  pairs,  or  singly. 
They  kept  to  the  tops  of  the  higher  trees,  flying  from  tree  to 
tree,  and  chattering  much  after  the  manner  of  Hypsipetes.  The 
only  one  whose  stomach  I  examined  had  eaten  a  number  of  small 
berries,  and  nothing  else,  though  probably  like  the  rest  of  the 
Bulbuls  they  do  eat  insects  as  well  as  fruit. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c.,  recorded  in  the  flesh  of 
1  male  and  3  females  : — 

Male. — Length,  8-6  ;  expanse,  12*25  ;  tail  from  vent,  3*7* 
wing,    4*1 *    tarsus;    0'8  •  bill  from  gape,  10-  weight,  1'75  oz. 

Females. — Length,  8*4  to  8'9  ;  expanse,  12-0  to  12*5  ;  tail 
from  vent,  36  to  37 ;  wing,  3-8  to  4-0-  tarsus,  0*7  to  0*8 ; 
bill  from  gape,  0'95  to  1*0;  weight,  1*6  to  1*8  oz. 


300  BIRDS   OF  TENASSER1M. 

Legs  and  feet  Very  dark  brown  or  deep  plumbeous ;  bill  black  ; 
irides  deep  red  brown. 

449  Ms.— Trachycomus    ochrocephalus,  Gm.   (H). 
Descr.  S.  F.,  I.,  455. 

Mergui  ;  Bopyin  ;    Pakchan. 

Confined  to  the  southernmost  district  of  the  province. 

[This  species  appears  to  avoid  thickly-wooded  country.  At 
Malewoon  and  Bankasoon,  where  the  country  is  very  thickly 
wooded,  I  did  not,  as  a  rule,  meet  with  it,  but  at  Nalansine 
especially,  and  along  the  banks  of  the  Pakchan  where  these, 
though  devoid  of  heavy  forest,  were  more  or  less  thickly  dotted 
with  bushes,  it  was  far  from  uncommon. 

It  usually  keeps  in  small  parties  of  from  five  to  eight  or  so. 
It  is  very  garrulous,  and  keeps  up  a  continuous  chatter,  but  it  also 
has  a  song  which,  though  only  consisting  of  a  few  notes,  is  par- 
ticularly rich  and  powerful.  On  Mergui  Island  I  have  observ- 
ed and  shot  it  about  the  scrub  jungles  and  gardens. 

This  species  also  feeds  chiefly  on  berries,  but  also  occasion- 
ally on  insects.  On  more  than  one  occasion  I  have  seen  this 
hopping  about  on  the  ground,  which  I  have  never  seen  any  of 
the  forest  Bulbuls  do.  It  is  not  uncommon  anywhere  through- 
out the  western  half,  at  any  rate,  of  the  Malay  Peninsula,  and 
was  common  at  Acheen. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c.,  recorded  in  the  flesh 
from  a  large  series : — 

Length,  10'82  to  11*12;  expanse,  14*62  to  15 "5  ;  tail  from 
vent,  4-62  to  5*0  •  wing,  4*55  to  4*8  ;  tarsus,  0*95  to  1*2;  bill  from 
gape,  1*1  to  1*25 ;  weight,  30  to  3'25  ozs. 

Legs  and  feet  dark  horny  brown  or  black ;  bill  black ;  irides 
pale  or  litharge  red. 

451. — Griniger  flaveolus,  Gould. 

Blyth  gives  this  species  from  Tenasserim,  but  he,  doubtless, 
referred  to  the  nearly-allied  G.  griseiceps. 

451  bis.— Crimger  griseiceps,  Hume.  (20). Descr.  S.  F., 
I.,  478. 

{TongTioo  Hills,  Karennee,  Rams.)  Pahpoon  ;  Kyouk-nyat  j  Thenganee  Sakan; 
Thoungsbeyen  Sakan ;  Assoon ;  Meetan. 

Confined  to  the  northern  and  central  portions  of  the  province, 
and  not  ascending  the  hills  to  any  great  elevation. 

[This  Bulbul  is  almost  always  found  in  small  flocks,  keeping, 
as  a  rule,  to  the  forest.  It  is  very  noisy ;  they  keep  chattering  and 
chasing  one  another  about  from  tree  to  tree,  backwards  and 


BIRDS  OF  TENASSERIM.  301 

forwards,  in  the  most  uproarious  fashion.  They  never  seem  to 
rest,  except  when  now  and  then  one  stops  and  begins  to  try  and 
sing,  gets  through  a  feeble  three  note  twee,  twee,  twee,  and  then, 
as  if  disgusted  with  his  own  imbecile  performance,  starts  off 
chattering  harder  than  before.  This  species  never  descends  to 
the  ground.  It  feeds  chiefly  on  small  berries  of  various  sorts, 
varying,  like  the  rest,  its  diet  occasionally  with  insects  and 
nectar,  but  they  are  not  nearly  so  greedy  after  this  latter  as  are 
the  Bypsipetes. — W.  D.] 

451  ter.— Criniger  ochraceus,  Moore.  (40).  ?  C.  gut- 
turalis,  MulL 

Mergui ;  Tenasserim  Town  ;  Pakchan  ;  Palaw-ton-ton  j  Bankasoon  j  Male- 
woon. 

Confined  to  the  evergreen  forests  of  the  southernmost  dis- 
trict of  the  province,  but  extremely  common  there. 

[This  is  eminently  a  forest  Bulbul,  never  that  I  am  aware 
of  coming  into  gardens  or  clearings.  In  its  habits  and  voice 
it  resembles  griseiceps,  and  is  quite  as  noisy  as  that  bird,  if  not 
more  so,  and  like  it  goes  about  in  small  parties,  though  I  have 
occasionally  seen  it  in  pairs  or  singly.  This  bird  also  never,- 1 
believe,  descends  to  the  ground. — W.  D.] 

This  species  varies  a  great  deal  in  size  according  to  sex,  and 
in  the  same  sex  even.  In  the  males  the  wings  vary  from  375  to 
4-25,  and  in  the  females  from  3'6  to  4-05,  so  that  between  the 
smallest  females  and  the  largest  males  there  is  a  very  great 
difference  in  size.  There  is  a  considerable  difference  also  in 
coloration  of  specimens,  large  and  small ;  in  some  the  lower 
surface  is  very  much  more  ochraceous,  and  the  upper  surface 
more  olivaceous,  while  in  others  the  lower  surface  is  much 
paler,  and  except  the  lower  tail-coverts  scarcely  ochraceous  at 
all.  I  cannot  say  whether  this  is  really  identical  with  qutturalis 
of  Muller. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males.— Length,  8*25  to  9"25 ;  expanse,  11  62  to  13-5  ;  tail 
from  vent,  35  to  4-25  ;  wing,  375  to  4'25  ;  tarsus,  07  to  075  ; 
bill  from  gape,  TO  to  11  ;  weight,  1*4  to  175  oz. 

Females.— Length,  875  to  9*5  ;  expanse,  1175  to  1325  ; tail 
from  vent,  375  to  4-0 ;  wing,  3'6  to  4*05 ;  tarsus,  075  ;  bill 
from  gape,  1*0  ;  weight,  1'5  oz. 

The  legs  and  feet  are  light  pinkish  brown  ;  upper  mandible 
dark  horny  brown  ;  lower  mandible  plumbeous ;  irides  wood 
brown. 

Lores,  feathers  round  and  below  the  eye,  very  pale  greyish 
brown  or  greyish  white;  ear-coverts  pale  brown,  striated  paler  ; 
chin  and  throat  pure  white ;  breast,  sides  and  flanks  a  rather  pale 


302  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM. 

fulvous  brown,  often  with  a  distinct  though  slight  olive  tinge, 
obscurely  striated  yellower  ;  middle  of  abdomen  paler,  some- 
times almost  albescent,  but  this  is  not  constant,  and  here  the 
feeble  yellow  striations  generally  appear  purer ;  vent  and  tibial 
plumes  clear  pale  creamy  buff ;  lower  tail-coverts  pale,  faintly 
rufescent  buff,  in  some  specimens  with  an  ochraceous  tinge  ; 
tail  slightly  rufous  brown  ;  upper  tail-coverts  decidedly  rufes- 
cent olive  ;  rest  of  upper  parts  dull,  slightly  rufescent,  or  perhaps 
it  might  be  called  ochraceous  olive,  more  rufescent  or  ochraceous 
on  the  cap  and  wings,  but  in  neither  quite  so  much  so  as  on  the 
upper  tail-coverts  ;  shoulder  of  the  wing,  wing-lining  and  axil- 
laries  white,  slightly  tinged  with  pure  yellow  ;  inner  margins 
of  quills  creamy  white  ;  inner  webs  generally  of  quills  hair 
brown,  not  dark,  and  paling  somewhat  towards  the  tips. 

Some  birds  are  altogether  greener  and  more  olivaceous,  others 
decidedly  more  ochraceous,  especially  on  the  lower  parts. 

451  quat—  Criniger  phaeocephalus,  Rartl.  (11). 

Palaw-ton-ton  ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Confined  to  the  forests  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Pak- 
chan. 

[I  have  almost  always  found  this  bird  in  pairs  or  singly, 
very  seldom  more  than  two  together,  in  thick  forest,  and  thin 
tree  jungle,  but  never  in  clearings  or  gardens.  Its  note  differs 
much  from  that  of  the  other  Bulbuls,  but  is  yet  quite  charac- 
teristic of  the  group.  It  is  a  very  noisy  bird.  Its  habits  and 
food  are  similar  to  those  of  the  preceding  species.  It  never 
descends  to  the  ground. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males. — Length,  8"15  to  8*45  ;  expanse,  J  1*5  to  12*0;  tail 
from  vent,  325  to  3"62  ;  wing,  3'62  to  376  ;  tarsus,  0'75  to 
0-85  ;  bill  from  gape,  0-95  to  1-05  ;  weight,  TO  to  1*3  oz. 

Females. — Length,  7*5  to  8*7  ;  expanse,  10'75  to  11/0;  tail 
from  vent,  275  to  30;  wing,  3-35  to  337  ;  tarsus,  076  to  0'8  ; 
bill  from  gape,  07  to  0*95 ;  weight,  1*0  to  T05  oz. 

The  legs,  feet  and  claws  varied  from  fleshy  white,  sometimes 
with  a  pinkish  tinge,  to  fleshy  yellow  ;  the  upper  mandible  from 
dark  plumbeous  to  dark  horny  brown ;  lower  mandible  and 
edges  of  upper  mandible  pale  plumbeous  ;  irides  snuff  brown, 
burnt  sienna  brown,  or  reddish   brown. 

The  lores  are  a  slightly  greyish  white ;  the  cheeks,  ear- 
coverts  and  sides  of  the  head  pale  clear  grey ;  chin  and 
throat  snow-white,  a  little  shaded  with  grey  at  the  base  and 
sides  of  the  throat  ;  breast,  abdomen,  vent  and  lower  tail- 
coverts  bright  pure  yellow,  shaded  with  olive  green  on  the 
sides  of  the  breast,  and  with  traces  of  the  same  on  sides  and 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSEBIM.  303 

flanks  ;  entire  cap  dark  slaty  grey,  the  darker  browner  centres 
of  the  feathers  showing  through  on  the  crown  and  occiput, 
and  producing  there^  in  fine  specimens,  a  squtimated  appear- 
ance ;  back,  scapulars  and  rump  a  rather  dull  yellowish  olive 
green,  sometimes  brightening  to  yellow  on  the  extreme  tips  of 
the  longest  rump  feathers  ;  upper  tail-coverts  and  tail  dull 
brownish  chestnut,  with  an  ochraceous  tinge  on  the  former 
and  on  the  margins  of  the  feathers  of  the  latter  towards 
their  bases  ;  both  webs  of  tertiaries  and  outer  webs  of  all  the 
feathers  of  the  wing  (the  inner  webs  are  hair  brown) ,  a  rufes- 
cent  brown,  akin  to  the  color  of  the  tail,  but  brightening  with 
a  yellower  tinge  on  the  margins  of  the  secondaries  and  to  a 
less  extent  on  those  of  the  primaries. 

451  quint.— Criniger  tristis,  JBlyth.  (9). 

Pakchan  ;  Bankasoon. 

Confined  to  open  land  and  scrub  jungle  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  the  Pakchan. 

[This  species  seems  to  avoid  the  forests,  and  affects 
small  clumps  of  trees  or  bushes,  or  patches  of  scrub  jungle 
in  open  or  cultivated  country.  It  is  only  seen  singly  or 
in  pairs,  and  is  a  very  scarce  bird,  even  where  it  does 
occur,  in  the  extreme  south  of  Tenasserim.  It  is  remark- 
able that  I  have  not  yet  met  with  this  species  anywhere 
further  south  in  the  Peninsula.  Its  note  is  more  that  of 
an  Otocompsa,  a  whistled  "  kick  pettigrew,"  and  not  a  bit  of  the 
chirping  chatter  of  C.  griseiceps  and  the  other  forest  Crinigers. 
The  situations,  too,  in  which  you  find  it  are  rather  those  to  which 
Otocompsa  would  resort.  Its  food  is  the  same  as  that  of  all  the 
preceding  species. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  of  this  species  recorded 
in  the  flesh  :— 

Males. — Length,  875  to  9'2 ;  expanse,  12*25  to  12'5 ;  tail 
from  vent,  3-62  to  3'82;  wing,  3'82  to  3*9;  tarsus,  075  ;  bill 
from  gape,  0*85  ;  weight,  1*5  oz. 

Females. — Length,  8"2  to  8*5;  expanse,  1175 ;  tail  from 
vent,  3*62  to  3*75  ;  wing,  375  ;  tarsus,  0*62  to  075  j  bill  from 
gape,  0'9  to  0'95  ;  weight,  1*5  oz. 

The  legs  and  feet  vary  from  dark  grey  brown  or  very  dark 
plumbeous  brown,  to  black  ;  the  bill  black  ;  irides  in  the  male 
crimson,  in  the  female  varying  from  wood  brown  to  litharge  red. 

I  may  premise  that  this  species  varies  a  great  deal  in  tint, 
some  are  a  great  deal  more  olivaceous,  and  some  a  great  deal 
more  rufescent. 

The  entire  lower  parts  are  white,  more  or  less  suffused  with 
grey  upon  the   breast,  and  faintly  streaked  or  tinged  on  the 


304  BIRDS   OF  TBNASSERIM. 

sides,  abdomen,  vent,  and  lower  tail-coverts  with  pale  creamy, 
becoming,  in  some  specimens,  almost  pale  yellow  ;  wing-lining 
and  axillaries  pale  creamy,  becoming  yellower  towards  the 
edge  of  the  wing  ;  the  lores,  cheeks,  and  ear-coverts  are 
usually  a  pale  grey  brown,  as  are  the  sides  of  the  neck  behind 
the  ear-coverts,  though  these  are  generally,  slightly  more  oli- 
vaceous ;  the  whole  feathers  of  the  cap  are  dark  hair  brown, 
but  all  broadly  margined  in  adults  with  a  paler  grey  brown  or 
olivaceous  grey,  giving  a  squamated  appearance  to  these  parts, 
which  however  is  wanting  in  young  birds,  and  only  very 
distinct  in  fine  specimens  ;  the  whole  back,  scapulars  and 
rump  are  a  dull  ochraceous  olive,  but  specially  on  the  back 
and  rump  this  color  is  confined  to  the  tips  of  the  feathers,  and 
here  the  bases  of  the  feathers  being  very  dark,  almost  blackish 
brown,  the  least  displacement  of  the  feathers,  even  in  the  live 
bird,  produces  the  appearance  of  dusky  mottliogs.  In  some 
birds  besides  this  the  olive  tipping  is  itself  brighter  towards 
the  margins,  producing  a  faintly  mottled  appearance,  even  where 
the  blackish  bases  of  the  feathers  do  not  show  through.  The 
upper  tail-coverts  are  similar  to  the  back,  but  more  decidedly 
rufescent  or  ferruginous ;  the  tail  feathers  are  a  dull  ferruginous 
brown  or  dingy  brownish  chestnut ;  usually  the  three  exterior 
pairs  on  either  side  with  a  larger  or  smaller  white  spot,  almost 
confined  to  the  inner  web,  and  preceded  especially  on  the  outer- 
most feather  by  an  ill-defined  dark  brown  patch,  gradually 
shading  into  the  color  of  the  rest  of  the  feather  ;  the  wings 
have  both  webs  of  the  tertiaries,  and  the  outer  webs  of  the  rest 
of  the  feathers,  overlaid  with  much  the  same  color  as  the  back, 
though  perhaps  slightly  more  rufescent  on  the  margins  of  the 
quills. 

451  sept.— Tricholestes  criniger,  Bay.  (6). 

Choungthanoung;  Palaw-ton-ton  j  Bankasoon;  Malewoon. 

Confined  to  the  southernmost  portions  of  the  province. 

[This  little  Bulbul  goes  about  in  small  parties  of  five  or  six, 
keeping  to  the  brushwood,  and  following  each  other  about  from 
bush  to  bush,  uttering  all  the  while  a  soft  twittering  note. 
In  its  habits  it  approaches  much  nearer  the  Timaline  birds  than 
the  Bulbuls,  like  them  hunting  systematically  the  foliage  and 
branches  of  the  brushwood  and  smaller  trees.  At  Johore  ''the 
southernmost  extremity  of  the  Peninsula)  where  I  also  noticed 
and  shot  this  bird,  I  found  that  its  habits  were  the  same  as  already 
described,  but  one  specimen  I  there  shot  was  quite  alone,  and 
was  perched  on  a  dead  twig,  where  it  kept  expanding  and 
closing  its  tail  spasmodically,  and  bobbing  about  exactly  like  a 
Flycatcher.    Their  food  consists  almost  exclusively  of  insects, 


BIRDS    OF   TENASSERIM.  305 

though  they  do  occasionally  eat  a  few  small  berries.  They  are 
very  tame  birds,  and  their  plumage  apparently  never  in  good 
condition,  so  that  it  is  impossible  ever  to  make  up  a  really  good 
specimen  of  them. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  of  a  large  series  of 
males,  and  of  one  female,  the  only  one  obtained  : — 

Males. — Length,  6*5  to  6-75  ;  expanse,  9*25  to  9'5  ;  tail  from 
vent,  2-75  to  30;  wing,  3-0  to3"05;  tarsus,  0'6  to  0-62 ;  bill 
from  gape,  0*75  to  0*82 ;  weight,  0*5  to  0'6  oz. 

Female. — Length,  6*35  ;  expanse,  9-12  ;  tail  from  vent,  2-76  ; 
wing,  2-76;  tarsus,  0*6;  bill  from  gape,  07. 

The  legs  and  feet  are  pale  bluish,  or  pinkish  brown,  or  salmon 
fleshy  ;  claws  pale  plumbeous  blue  ;  lower  mandible  and  edge  of 
upper  mandible  pale  plumbeous ;  ridge  of  culmen  and  tip  of 
upper  mandible  black ;  rest  of  upper  mandible  dark  plumbeous, 
sometimes  a  horny  brown ;  irides  vary  from  a  pale  umber  or 
snuffy  brown  to  dark  brown. 

This  species  has  a  number  of  fine  black  hair-like  feathers, 
fully  an  inch  and  half  in  length,  springing  from  the  base  of 
the  neck  ;  they  are  very  fine,  and  are  not  always  observable  at 
first,  but  can  generally  be  picked  out  with  a  pin  in  the  worst 
specimens,  and  to  give  this  bird  its  due,  its  plumage  is  so  exces- 
sively soft  and  fluffy  that  good  specimens  are  rare. 

The  lores  are  very  pale  yellow  above,  becoming  greyish  white 
immediately  in  front  of  the  anterior  angle  of  the  eye ;  the 
feathers  immediately  round  the  eye  are  white  or  nearly  so  ; 
the  ear-coverts  are  very  pale,  dull  yellow,  a  little  pencilled,  and 
the  longest  of  them  feebly  tipped  with  dull  greenish ;  the 
leathers  at  the  base  of  the  lower  mandible  and  under  the  ear- 
coverts  are  mingled  greyish  white  and  pale  yellow,  sometimes 
more  decidedly  mixed  with  grey  ;  the  chin  and  middle  of  the 
throat  are  nearly  white,  the  greyish  bases  of  the  feathers  show- 
ing through  faintly,  with  here  and  there  little  flecks  of  extremely 
pale  yellow  ;  the  breast  is  somewhat  similar,  but  the  yellow  stria- 
tion  is  here  somewhatmore  marked, and  there  is  a  certain  amount 
of  pencilling  and  shading  with  grey,  olive  grey,  or  olive  green  ; 
the  sides  of  the  abdomen  and  flanks  are  olive  green,  a  little  min- 
gled with  grey  and  shaded  with  yellow ;  the  middle  of  the  abdo- 
men, vent  and  lower  tail-coverts  are  a  nearly  uniform  pale  yellow, 
pale  primrose,  I  should  rather  call  it,  on  the  lower  tail-coverts  ;  the 
wing-lining  and  axillaries  pale  clear  yellow ;  the  inner  margins 
of  the  quills  pale  fulvous ;  the  entire  cap  a  dull  brown,  more 
or  less  sparsely  overlaid  with  olive  green ;  back,  scapulars, 
and  rump  very  dull  somewhat  yellowish  olive  green,  becoming 
yellower  at  the  tips  of  the  longer  rump  feathers;  upper  tail- 
coverts  more  rufescent,  but  still  with  a  yellowish  tinge ;  tail 
rather   pale  rufescent   brown,    margined  towards    the   bases  of 

39 


306  BIRDS    OF    TENASSERIM. 

the  feathers  with  much  the  same  color  as  the  upper  tail-coverts, 
and  with  the  outermost  three  pairs  of  feathers  on  either  side 
with  a  yellowish  white  spot  at  the  tips  almost  confined  to  the 
inner  webs  ;  inner  webs  of  quills  dark  hair  brown ;  outer  webs 
and  the  greater  part  of  both  webs  of  tertiaries  yellowish  olive, 
faintly  rufescent  perhaps  on  the  tertiaries,  paler  and  yellower 
at  the  extreme  margins  of  the  quills,  but  more  the  color  of  the 
upper  back  on  the  coverts. 

452  bis.— Ixus  flavescens,  Blyth.  (10). 

(Tonghoo  Hills,  Karennee,  at  2,500  to  4,000  feet,  Rams.)  Pine  forests,  Salween; 
Kollidoo;  Pahpoon  ;  Younzaleen  Creek;  Half  way  between  Mooleyit  and 
Paraduba. 

Confined  to  the  hilly  portions  of  the  northern  and  central 
sections  of  the  province,  not  ascending  above  4,500  feet  elevation. 
[This  species  avoids  the  denser  portions  of  the  forest,  keeping 
to  their  outskirts,  or  to  scrub  jungle.  They  are  almost  always 
found  singly  or  in  pairs,  occasionally  in  small  parties,  feeding 
principally  on  small  berries.  They  are  not  noisy  birds,  though 
the  note,  a  chirruping  whistle,  may  very  frequently  be  heard. 
I  have  also  heard  them  make  a  feeble  attempt  at  a  song  wdien 
perched  on  some  dry  exposed  branch  or  spray.  I  have  never 
seen  them  descend  to  the  ground,  or  even  into  any  very  low 
brushwood. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 
Males. — Length,  8'4  to   8 "75  ;  expanse,   10*75    to  11*4;   tail 
from  vent,  4-05  to  4*5 ;  wing,  3-45  to  3-5  ;  tarsus,  0*82  to  0*85  ; 
bill  from  gape,  0-8  to  0-85  ;  weight,  1'05  to  1-25  oz. 

Females. — Length,  8"25 ;  expanse,  10*5;  tail  from  vent,  3*6 
to  4*12 ;  wing,  3'37  to  34  ;  tarsus,  0'8  ;  bill  from  gape,  0*75  ; 
weight,  12  oz. 

The  legs,  feet  and  claws  vary  from  very  dark  reddish 
or  purplish  brown  to  black ;  the  bill  black ;  irides  brown  to  deep 
red  brown. 

A  dusky  brown  spot  in  front  of  the  eye ;  the  rest  of  the 
lores  pale  ochraceous  or  fulvous  white ;  an  obscure  white  line 
above  and  below  the  eye  nearly  meeting  behind,  but  not  in 
front;  chin,  throat,  cheeks,  ear-coverts,  dull  pale  somewhat 
greyish  brown,  in  some  greyer  and  darker,  and  in  some  more 
fulvous  :  in  some  specimens  the  chin  and  throat  is  markedly  more 
fulvous,  in  others  greyer  and  more  albescent ;  vent  and  lower 
tail-coverts  bright  yellow ;  breast,  abdomen,  and  sides  dull 
yellow,  and  dull  olive  green  or  olive  brown,  streakily  inter- 
mingled ;  flanks  more  distinctly  olivaceous  and  unstriated  ;  the 
strise  are  narrow  and  close  in  some  specimens,  broad  in  others, 
in  some  obscure,  in  others  strongly  marked ;  the  edge  of  the  wing 
is  generally  bright   yellow ;  the   wing-lining  is   pale,   generally 


BIRDS   OF  TENASSERIM.  307 

faintly  ochraceous,  yellow;  the  whole  cap  is  a  moderately  dark 
brown ;  all  the  feathers  margined  with  pale  grey  brown,  or 
olive  green  or  sometimes  both,  the  grey  always  predominating 
towards  the  forehead,  and  the  olive,  if  present  towards  the 
occiput. 

The  back,  scapulars,  rump  and  upper  tail-coverts  are  a 
dull  rather  pale  brown,  suffused  and  overlaid  with  dull  yellow- 
ish olive  green,  much  greener  in  some  specimens,  yellower  in 
others,  and  the  upper  tail-coverts  are  sometimes  fringed  decided- 
ly yellower  ;  the  tail  is  a  dull  color,  much  like  the  back,  but 
with  all  the  feathers  margined  on  their  outer  webs,  except  near 
the  tips,  brighter  and  yellower,  and  the  exterior  feather  on 
either  side  generally  with  a  very  distinct  though  narrow  pale 
margin  round  the  tip  ;  the  wings  are  hair  brown ;  the  tertiaries 
overlaid  more  or  less  entirely,  and  the  coverts  on  their  outer 
webs  with  much  the  same  tint  as  the  back,  and  the  primaries 
above  the  emarginations  and  secondaries  margined  on  their 
outer  webs  with  a  brighter  and  yellower  tint,  much  the  same  as 
that  on  the  margins  of  the  basal  portions  of  the  tail  feathers. 

452  ter.— Ixus  finlaysoni,  Strickl.  (57). 

(Toaghoo  Hills,  Karen  Hills,  Rams.)  Tliatone  ;  Wimpong;  Topee;  Moulmein  ; 
Pabyouk  ;  Amherst  ;  Yea  ;  Tavoy  ;  Shymotee  ;  Pabyin ;  Mergui  ;  Tenasseriin 
Town ;  Bopyin  ;  Pakcban  ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Common  in  the  plains  country  throughout  the  province.  In 
the  extreme  north  appears  to  affect  the  lower  hills. 

[Throughout  the  plains  portion  of  Tenasserim  to  the  extreme 
south  this  is  the  most  generally  diffused,  and  perhaps  the 
commonest,  Bulbul.  It  does  not  affect  forests,  but  is  found 
on  the  outskirts  of  it,  in  scrub  jungle,  in  cleared  land,  and  in 
gardens,  giving  perhaps  the  preference  to  the  latter.  They 
do  not  go  in  flocks,  but  there  are  generally  so  many  about  that 
it  is  difficult  to  say  whether  they  are  in  pairs  or  single.  Ap- 
parently each  acts  independently.  The  note  is  a  rather 
pleasant,  feeble  whistling  chirrup,  continually  uttered  whether 
the  bird  is  sitting  or  flying,  which  latter  by  the  way  it  more 
commonly  is,  for  it  is  a  very  lively  bird,  always  on  the  move. 
It  feeds  much  on  berries,  but  also  a  good  deal  on  insects,  and 
I  have  continually  seen  it  on  the  ground.  It  is  most  especially 
common  in  all  the  gardens  of  Moulmein  ;  a  dozen  may  be  seen 
at  times  in  each  you  enter. — W.  D.] 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  of  this  species  recorded  in 
the  flesh  :— 

Males.— Length,  7-2  to  7*75  ;  expanse,  10-0  to  1025;  tail 
from  vent,  3'0  to  3-5  ;  wing,  3-1  to  3-2 ;  tarsus,  0*62  to  075  ; 
bill  from  gape,  076  to  0-8  ;  weight,  0-87  to  1*25    oz. 


308  BIRDS   OF   TENASSERiar. 

Females.— Length,  7-0  to  7 -62  ;  expanse,  9*25  to  10-25;  tail 
from  vent,  ,2-82  to  3-5  ;  wing,  2*82  to  3*25  ;  tarsus,  0'7  to  0*8  ; 
bill  from  gape,  0*75  to  0'85  ;  weight,  11  to  125  ;  oz. 

Legs  and  feet  and  claws  dark  to  very  dark  plumbeous ;  bill 
black  or  horny  black  ;  iris  brown  to  very  dark  grey  brown. 

Lores  and  a  line  round  the  eye,  except  immediately  below  it, 
black  ;  forehead,  chin,  cheeks,  ear-coverts,  throat,  grey  brown, 
all  the  feathers  conspicuously  centred  with  bright  yellow ; 
crown  and  occiput  grey  brown  ;  sides  of  the  neck,  breast  and 
sides  of  abdomen  pale  grey  brown ;  the  feathers  of  the  breast 
with  greyish  white  shafts ;  middle  of  upper  abdomen,  fulvous 
white ;  vent,  lower  tail-coverts,  tibial  plumes,  fairly  clear  yellow, 
but  in  some  specimens  with  an  extremely  faint  ochraceous 
tinge ;  flanks  olive  brown,  with  a  faint  rusty  tinge  ;  edge  of 
the  wing  yellow;  wing-lining  paler  yellow  ;  inner  margins  of  the 
quills  somewhat  paler  yellow,  or  in  some  yellowish  white  ; 
back  and  scapulars  dull  greyish  yellowish  olive ;  rump  and 
upper  tail-coverts  more  rufescent,  or  perhaps  I  should  say 
ochraceous ;  tail  olive  yellow,  brighter  on  the  margins  of  the 
feathers,  except  quite  at  the  tips  ;  all  the  lateral  tail  feathers 
very  narrowly  margined  at  their  tips  with  fulvous  white. 

Wing  rather  dark  hair  brown,  suffused  on  portions  of  it, 
visible  when  closed,  with  the  same  color  as  the  back  ;  brighter 
and  yellower,  (much  the  same  color  as  the  margins  of  the  tail 
feathers  towards  their  bases)  on  the  margins  of  the  quills. 

452  quint. — Ixus   blanfordi,   Jerd.  Descr.  S.  E.  III. 
125. 

Said  by  Ramsay  to  be  extremely  common  in  the  Karen  Hills, 
but  not  as  yet  observed  in  Tenasserim  proper,  and  not,  I  believe, 
occurring  there. 

452  sext.— Otocompsa  analis,  Horsf.  (.33).  Descr. 
S.  F.,  I.,  457 

Mergui ;  Pakchan  ;  Bankasoon  ;  Malewoon. 

Confined  to  the  southernmost  district  of  the  province. 

[This  Bulbul  is  very  abundant  on  the  island  of  Mergui,  in  the 
secondary  scrub,  and  in  gardens,  and  wherever  it  occurs  it 
keeps  to  such  situations  and  entirely  avoids  the  forest.  Its 
favorite  haunt  is  open  land  with  just  a  few  bushes  scattered 
about  here  and  there.  I  have  repeatedly  seen  it  on  the  ground 
hopping  about.  It  feeds  largely  on  insects,  such  as  grass- 
hoppers, &c,  but  also  on  berries  and  fruit,  and  I  have  seen 
it  clinging  to  mangoes  and  pecking  away  at  the  fruit.  Its 
note  is  extremely  like  that  of  Otocompsa  eineria,  tl  Kick,  kick 
petti  grew,"  repeated  several  times. 


BIRDS   OF   TENASSERIM.  309 

In  life  this  bird  has  a  particularly  knowing  look,  and  is  one  of 
the  prettiest  birds  of  the  open  lands.  It  is  usually  found  singly  or 
in  pairs,  though  often  half  a  dozen  or  more  may  be  seen  seated 
about  the  bushes  near  each  other,  looking  as  if  they  all  belonged 
to  one  flock  or  party,  but  I  do  not  think  they  act  in  concert  or 
ever  go  in  flocks  ;  they  are  not  shy. —  W.  D.J 

I  re-described  this  well-known  species  as  Olocompsa  pe'rsonata 
some  years  ago  from  Acheen,  not  then  knowing  the  bird  and 
not  thinking  of  closely  scrutinizing  the  described  species  of 
the  genus  locos,  to  which,  though  usually  so  classed,  it  does  not, 
in  my  opinion,  in  the  least  belong. 

Alike  structurally,  in  its  habits,  and  in  the  localities  it  affects, 
it  is  an  Otocompsa,  and  its  note  is  barely  to  be  distinguished  from 
that  of  0.  fuscicaudata  and  emeria,  as  any  one  (for  it  is  a 
common  cage  bird)  can  easily  satisfy  themselves. 

The  following  are  dimensions,  &c,  recorded  in  the  flesh  : — 

Males. —Length,  7*75  to  8-1 ;  expanse,  11-0  to  11-45;  tail 
from  vent,  3-1  to  3'25  ;  wing,  3-37  to  3*62  ;  tarsus,  079  to 
0*82;  weight,  1*2  to  l*5oz. 

Females.— Length,  7-4.5  to  7*82;  expanse,  10-5  to  10-9;  tail 
from  vent,  3-0  to  3-45 ;  wing,  3-25  to  3"27  ;  bill  from  gape,  OS 
to  0-85;  weight,  1-0  to  l-25oz. 

Legs,  feet,  claws  and  bill,  black ;  irides  wood  brown. 

452  sept.—Ixus  plumosus,  Blyth.  (14), 

Pabyin  ;  Mergui ;  Patoe  Island  ;  Bopyin  ;  Malewoon. 

Confined  to  the  southernmost  district  of  the  province. 

[Not  a  common  bird  within  our  limits,  and  keeping  chiefly 
to  the  forests,  though  occasionally  occurring  in  more  open 
ground. ;  usually  seen  in  pairs  or  singly.  It  is  not  a  very  noisy 
bird ;  its  note  is  not  that  of  the  Otocompsas,  but  a  sort  of  chirp- 
ing chattering  more  like  that  of  the  Crimpers.  It  does  not 
descend  to  the  ground,  and  feeds  chiefly  on  berries. — W.  D.] 

Count  Salvadori  (Uccelli  di  Borneo,  199)  wrongly  unites  this 
species  with  the  next  brunneus,  Blyth,  and  remarks :  "  The 
female  is  distinguished  from  the  male  precisely  by  those  characters 
by  which  Blyth  distinguished  brunneus  from  plumosus,  and 
specially  by  wanting  the  greenish  tint  on  the  margins  of  the 
quills  and  tail  feathers ;  besides  this  she  is  somewhat  smaller,  and 
has  the  bill  light  horn  colored  " 

The  Marquis  of  Tweeddale  with  less  excuse  (for  I  had  already, 
S.  F.,  III.,  323  n.,  explained  the  difference  between  the  two 
species)  reiterates  the